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1.
Cancers (Basel) ; 11(11)2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31731753

RESUMO

Liver cancer is one of the dominant causes of cancer-related mortality, and the survival rate of liver cancer is among the lowest for all cancers. Immunotherapy for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has yielded some encouraging results, but the percentage of patients responding to single-agent therapies remains low. Therefore, potential directions for improved immunotherapies include identifying new immune targets and checkpoints and customizing treatment procedures for individual patients. The development of combination therapies for HCC is also crucial and urgent and, thus, further studies are required. Mice have been utilized in immunotherapy research due to several advantages, for example, being low in cost, having high success rates for inducing tumor growth, and so on. Moreover, immune-competent mice are used in immunotherapy research to clarify the role that the immune system plays in cancer growth. In this review paper, the advantages and disadvantages of mouse models for immunotherapy, the equipment that are used for monitoring HCC, and the cell strains used for inducing HCC are reviewed.

2.
Liver Cancer ; 8(3): 155-171, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31192153

RESUMO

Background: Anti-programmed cell death-1(anti-PD1) treatment has shown promising antitumor efficacy in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). This study sought to explore the functional significance of programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1) expression in tumor cells in the tumor microenvironment. Methods: The mouse liver cancer cell line BNL-MEA was transfected with PD-L1 plasmids and stable clones expressing PD-L1 were selected. An orthotopic HCC model was generated by implanting the cells into the subcapsular space of BALB/c mice. Cell growth features were measured by proliferation assay, colony formation, flow cytometry (in vitro), ultrasonography, and animal survival (in vivo). The changes in T-cell function were examined by cytokine assay, expression of T-cell related genes, and flow cytometry. The efficacy of anti-PD1 therapy was compared between the parental and PD-L1-expressing tumors. Results: PD-L1 expression did not affect growth characteristics of BNL-MEA cells but downregulated the expression of genes related to T-cell activation in the tumor microenvironment. Co-culture of PD-L1-expressing BNL-MEA cells with CD8+ T cells reduced T-cell proliferation and expression of cytokines IFNγ and TNFα. Tumors with PD-L1 expression showed better response to anti-PD1 therapy and depletion of CD8+ T cells abolished the antitumor effect. The difference in treatment response between parental and PD-L1-expressing tumors disappeared when a combination of anti-PD1 and sorafenib was given. Conclusions: PD-L1 expression in HCC cells may inhibit T-cell function in the liver tumor microenvironment. Anti-PD1 therapy appeared more effective in PD-L1-expressing than nonexpressing tumors, but the difference was diminished by the addition of sorafenib.

3.
Nanoscale ; 11(21): 10410-10419, 2019 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31112143

RESUMO

Utilization of light to boost the performance of gas sensors allows us to operate sensor devices at room temperature. Here, we, for the first time, demonstrated an indoor light-activated 3D cone-shaped MoS2 bilayer-based NO gas sensor with ppb-level detection operated at room-temperature. Large-area cone-shaped (CS)-MoS2 bilayers were grown by depositing 2 nm-thick MoO3 layers on a 2'' three-dimensional (3D) cone-patterned sapphire substrate (CPSS) followed by a sulfurization process via chemical vapor deposition. Because the exposed area of MoS2 bilayers is increased by 30%, the CS-MoS2 gas sensor (GS) demonstrated excellent performance with a response of ∼470% and a fast response time of ∼25 s after exposure to 1 ppm of NO gas illuminated by ultraviolet (UV) light with a wavelength of 365 nm. Such extraordinary performance at room temperature is attributed to the enhanced light absorption because of the light scattering effect caused by the 3D configuration and photo-desorption induced by UV illumination. For NO concentrations ranging from 2 ppm down to 0.06 ppm, the CS-MoS2 GS demonstrated a stable sensing behavior with a high response and fast response time (470% and 25 s at 2 ppm NO) because of the light absorption enhanced by the 3D structure and photo-desorption under constant UV illumination. The CS-MoS2 GS exhibits a high sensitivity (∼189.2 R% ppm-1), allowing the detection of NO gas at 0.06 ppm in 130 s. In addition, the 3D cone-shaped structure prolonged the presence of sulfur vapor around MoO3, allowing MoO3 to react with sulfur completely. Furthermore, the CS-MoS2 GS using an indoor lighting to detect NO gas at room temperature was demonstrated for the first time where the CS-MoS2 GS exhibits a stable cycling behavior with a high response (165% at 1 ppm NO) in 50 s; for concentration as low as ∼0.06 ppm, the response of ∼75% in 150 s can be achieved.

4.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res ; 38(1): 187, 2019 May 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31072371

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Current prognostic tools and targeted therapeutic approaches have limited value for metastatic triple negative breast cancer (TNBC). Building upon current knowledge, we hypothesized that epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) and related CYP450 epoxygenases may have differential roles in breast cancer signaling, and better understanding of which may uncover potential directions for molecular stratification and personalized therapy for TNBC patients. METHODS: We analyzed the oxylipin metabolome of paired tumors and adjacent normal mammary tissues from patients with pathologically confirmed breast cancer (N = 62). We used multivariate statistical analysis to identify important metabolite contributors and to determine the predictive power of tumor tissue metabolite clustering. In vitro functional assays using a panel of breast cancer cell lines were carried out to further confirm the crucial roles of endogenous and exogenous EETs in the metastasis transformation of TNBC cells. Deregulation of associated downstream signaling networks associated with EETs/CYPs was established using transcriptomics datasets from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and Molecular Taxonomy of Breast Cancer International Consortium (METABRIC). Comparative TNBC proteomics using the same tissue specimens subjected to oxylipin metabolomics analysis was used as validation set. RESULTS: Metabolite-by-metabolite comparison, tumor immunoreactivity, and gene expression analyses showed that CYP epoxygenases and arachidonic acid-epoxygenation products, EET metabolites, are strongly associated with TNBC metastasis. Notably, all the 4 EET isomers (5,6-, 8,9-, 11,12-, and 14,15-EET) was observed to profoundly drive the metastasis transformation of mesenchymal-like TNBC cells among the TNBC (basal- and mesenchymal-like), HER2-overexpressing and luminal breast cancer cell lines examined. Our pathway analysis revealed that, in hormone-positive breast cancer subtype, CYP epoxygenase overexpression is more related to immune cell-associated signaling, while EET-mediated Myc, Ras, MAPK, EGFR, HIF-1α, and NOD1/2 signaling are the molecular vulnerabilities of metastatic CYP epoxygenase-overexpressing TNBC tumors. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that categorizing breast tumors according to their EET metabolite ratio classifiers and CYP epoxygenase profiles may be useful for prognostic and therapeutic assessment. Modulation of CYP epoxygenase and EET-mediated signaling networks may offer an effective approach for personalized treatment of breast cancer, and may be an effective intervention option for metastatic TNBC patients.


Assuntos
Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/genética , Ácido Eicosapentaenoico/genética , Metaboloma/genética , Oxilipinas/metabolismo , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/genética , Ácido Araquidônico/genética , Ácido Eicosapentaenoico/análogos & derivados , Ácido Eicosapentaenoico/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Células MCF-7 , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Metástase Neoplásica , Prognóstico , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Nanomedicina Teranóstica , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/patologia
5.
Small ; 15(8): e1803529, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30663255

RESUMO

A facile approach for the synthesis of Au- and Pt-decorated CuInS2 nanocrystals (CIS NCs) as sensitizer materials on the top of MoS2 bilayers is demonstrated. A single surfactant (oleylamine) is used to prepare such heterostructured noble metal decorated CIS NCs from the pristine CIS. Such a feasible way to synthesize heterostructured noble metal decorated CIS NCs from the single surfactant can stimulate the development of the functionalized heterostructured NCs in large scale for practical applications such as solar cells and photodetectors. Photodetectors based on MoS2 bilayers with the synthesized nanocrystals display enhanced photocurrent, almost 20-40 times higher responsivity and the On/Off ratio is enlarged one order of magnitude compared with the pristine MoS2 bilayers-based photodetectors. Remarkably, by using Pt- or Au-decorated CIS NCs, the photocurrent enhancement of MoS2 photodetectors can be tuned between blue (405 nm) to green (532 nm). The strategy described here acts as a perspective to significantly improve the performance of MoS2 -based photodetectors with the controllable absorption wavelengths in the visible light range, showing the feasibility of the possible color detection.

6.
Brief Bioinform ; 20(1): 1-14, 2019 01 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28981573

RESUMO

Combining statistical significances (P-values) from a set of single-locus association tests in genome-wide association studies is a proof-of-principle method for identifying disease-associated genomic segments, functional genes and biological pathways. We review P-value combinations for genome-wide association studies and introduce an integrated analysis tool, Omnibus P-value Association Tests (OPATs), which provides popular analysis methods of P-value combinations. The software OPATs programmed in R and R graphical user interface features a user-friendly interface. In addition to analysis modules for data quality control and single-locus association tests, OPATs provides three types of set-based association test: window-, gene- and biopathway-based association tests. P-value combinations with or without threshold and rank truncation are provided. The significance of a set-based association test is evaluated by using resampling procedures. Performance of the set-based association tests in OPATs has been evaluated by simulation studies and real data analyses. These set-based association tests help boost the statistical power, alleviate the multiple-testing problem, reduce the impact of genetic heterogeneity, increase the replication efficiency of association tests and facilitate the interpretation of association signals by streamlining the testing procedures and integrating the genetic effects of multiple variants in genomic regions of biological relevance. In summary, P-value combinations facilitate the identification of marker sets associated with disease susceptibility and uncover missing heritability in association studies, thereby establishing a foundation for the genetic dissection of complex diseases and traits. OPATs provides an easy-to-use and statistically powerful analysis tool for P-value combinations. OPATs, examples, and user guide can be downloaded from http://www.stat.sinica.edu.tw/hsinchou/genetics/association/OPATs.htm.


Assuntos
Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/estatística & dados numéricos , Software , Artrite Reumatoide/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Biologia Computacional , Simulação por Computador , Marcadores Genéticos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genoma Humano , Humanos , Modelos Genéticos , Modelos Estatísticos , Herança Multifatorial , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
7.
Semin Liver Dis ; 38(4): 379-388, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30357775

RESUMO

Multikinase inhibitors with antiangiogenic properties used to be standard therapy for patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Recently, several antiangiogenic agents (lenvatinib, cabozantinib, and ramucirumab) have demonstrated antitumor activity for advanced HCC in randomized controlled trials. However, the landscape of drug development for HCC may change dramatically with the advent of immune checkpoint inhibitor therapy, particularly the anti-programmed cell death-1 (anti-PD1) agents. In addition, early-phase clinical trials of combination of anti-PD-1 and antiangiogenic agents have shown very promising anti-tumor activity in patients with advanced HCC. Therefore, the critical research questions at present are whether this combination strategy will be the next generation of standard therapy and which antiangiogenic agents will be the optimal partner for the combination. All of the 4 multikinase inhibitors for HCC (sorafenib, regorafenib, lenvatinib, and cabozantinib) have been reported to have immune modulatory effects. The authors systematically reviewed the pre-clinical evidence of their immune modulatory effects to explore whether these effects were mediated by angiogenesis inhibition or by other "off-target" effects on the tumor microenvironment. Studies of sorafenib comprised the majority (58 of the 71) of the research articles reviewed. Potentially beneficial effects on anti-tumor immunity may result from increased M1 polarization of macrophages and stimulation of CD8 T cell function. On the other hand, high dosage of the kinase inhibitors in pre-clinical models and hypoxia associated with angiogenesis may contribute to immune suppression in the tumor microenvironment. Sorafenib and other multikinase inhibitors may promote anti-tumor immunity through modulation of multiple immune cell types as well as the tumor microenvironment. The optimal immune modulatory dosage should be defined to facilitate design of future combination regimens.


Assuntos
Inibidores da Angiogênese/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/tratamento farmacológico , Imunoterapia/métodos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Terapia de Alvo Molecular/métodos , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Anilidas/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos Monoclonais/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/imunologia , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/imunologia , Compostos de Fenilureia/uso terapêutico , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/antagonistas & inibidores , Piridinas/uso terapêutico , Quinolinas/uso terapêutico
8.
BMC Proc ; 12(Suppl 9): 45, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30263048

RESUMO

Homozygosity disequilibrium (HD), indicating a nonrandom pattern of sizable runs of homozygosity that deviates from a random allocation of homozygous and heterozygous genotypes in the genome, is an important phenomenon in population genomics and medical genomics. We performed the first genome-wide study investigating the roles of HD in pharmacogenomics and pharmacoepigenomics by analyzing GAW20 data. We inferred whole-genome profiles of homozygosity intensities and performed genome-wide homozygosity association analyses to identify regions of HD associated with triglyceride (TG) response to fenofibrate by using LOHAS (Loss-of-Heterozygosity Analysis Suite) software. The analysis identified a region of HD contained in MACROD2 at 20p12 to be significantly associated with TG response to fenofibrate. We also examined the common genetic component in TG and methylation responses to fenofibrate. The methylation response to fenofibrate was regarded as a methylation quantitative trait, and our methylation quantitative trait locus analysis identified a cis-acting regulation association with marginal significance between the homozygosity intensity of MACROD2 and the methylation response to fenofibrate. These findings may help delineate the genetic basis of pharmacogenomic and pharmacoepigenomic responses to fenofibrate intervention.

9.
Emerg Med J ; 35(9): 571, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30115776

RESUMO

CLINICAL INTRODUCTION: A 59-year-old man with no medical history presented to the ED with abdominal distension, vomiting and diffuse abdominal pain after drinking seven cups of white gourd drink (an authentic Asian drink composed mainly of white gourd). A chest radiograph was performed (figure 1).emermed;35/9/571/F1F1F1Figure 1Chest radiograph. AP, anteroposterior. QUESTION: What is the most likely diagnosis?Crescent in doughnut sign, intussusceptionFalciform ligament sign, pneumoperitoneumStepladder sign, small bowel obstructionCoffee-bean sign, sigmoid colon volvulus.


Assuntos
Dor Abdominal/etiologia , Dor Abdominal/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Radiografia/métodos
10.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 10(41): 35477-35486, 2018 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30107132

RESUMO

Selenium (Se) is one of the potential candidates as photodetector because of its outstanding properties such as high photoconductivity (∼8 × 104 S cm-1), piezoelectricity, thermoelectricity, and nonlinear optical responses. Solution phase synthesis becomes an efficient way to produce Se, but a contamination issue that could deteriorate the electric characteristic of Se should be taken into account. In this work, a facile, controllable approach of synthesizing Se nanowires (NWs)/films via a plasma-assisted growth process was demonstrated at the low substrate temperature of 100 °C. The detailed formation mechanisms of nanowires arrays to thin films at different plasma powers were investigated. Moreover, indium (In) layer was used to enhance the adhesive strength with 50% improvement on a SiO2/Si substrate by mechanical interlocking and surface alloying between Se and In layers, indicating great tolerance for mechanical stress for future wearable devices applications. Furthermore, the direct growth of Se NWs/films on a poly(ethylene terephthalate) substrate was demonstrated, exhibiting a visible to broad infrared detection ranges from 405 to 1555 nm with a high on/off ratio of ∼700 as well as the fast response time less than 25 ms. In addition, the devices exhibited fascinating stability in the atmosphere over one month.

11.
Small ; 14(22): e1704052, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29707890

RESUMO

Phase-engineered type-II metal-selenide heterostructures are demonstrated by directly selenizing indium-tin oxide to form multimetal selenides in a single step. The utilization of a plasma system to assist the selenization facilitates a low-temperature process, which results in large-area films with high uniformity. Compared to single-metal-selenide-based photodetectors, the multimetal-selenide photodetectors exhibit obviously improved performance, which can be attributed to the Schottky contact at the interface for tuning the carrier transport, as well as the type-II heterostructure that is beneficial for the separation of the electron-hole pairs. The multimetal-selenide photodetectors exhibit a response to light over a broad spectrum from UV to visible light with a high responsivity of 0.8 A W-1 and an on/off current ratio of up to 102 . Interestingly, all-transparent photodetectors are successfully produced in this work. Moreover, the possibility of fabricating devices on flexible substrates is also demonstrated with sustainable performance, high strain tolerance, and high durability during bending tests.

13.
Small ; 14(19): e1800032, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29635730

RESUMO

The formation of PtSe2 -layered films is reported in a large area by the direct plasma-assisted selenization of Pt films at a low temperature, where temperatures, as low as 100 °C at the applied plasma power of 400 W can be achieved. As the thickness of the Pt film exceeds 5 nm, the PtSe2 -layered film (five monolayers) exhibits a metallic behavior. A clear p-type semiconducting behavior of the PtSe2 -layered film (≈trilayers) is observed with the average field effective mobility of 0.7 cm2 V-1 s-1 from back-gated transistor measurements as the thickness of the Pt film reaches below 2.5 nm. A full PtSe2 field effect transistor is demonstrated where the thinner PtSe2 , exhibiting a semiconducting behavior, is used as the channel material, and the thicker PtSe2 , exhibiting a metallic behavior, is used as an electrode, yielding an ohmic contact. Furthermore, photodetectors using a few PtSe2 -layered films as an adsorption layer synthesized at the low temperature on a flexible substrate exhibit a wide range of absorption and photoresponse with the highest photocurrent of 9 µA under the laser wavelength of 408 nm. In addition, the device can maintain a high photoresponse under a large bending stress and 1000 bending cycles.

14.
Chem Asian J ; 13(17): 2475-2483, 2018 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29624908

RESUMO

An iodine-mediated preparation of ortho-quinone methides (o-QMs) from ortho-hydroxybenzyl alcohols by a C-O bond scission strategy is described. The in situ generated o-QMs were then employed for C-S bond formation by thio-Michael addition of thiols to provide the ortho-hydroxybenzyl thioethers (o-HBT) in moderate to excellent yields.

15.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 10(11): 9645-9652, 2018 Mar 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29309121

RESUMO

Direct reduction of metal oxides into a few transition metal dichalcogenide (TMDCs) monolayers has been recently explored as an alternative method for large area and uniform deposition. However, not many studies have addressed the characteristics and requirement of the metal oxides into TMDCs by the selenization/sulfurization processes, yielding a wide range of outstanding properties to poor electrical characteristics with nonuniform films. The large difference implies that the process is yet not fully understood. In particular, the selenization/sulfurization at low temperature leads to poor crystallinity films with poor electrical performance, hindering its practical development. A common approach to improve the quality of the selenized/sulfurized films is by further increasing the process temperature, thus requiring additional transfer in order to explore the electrical properties. Here, we show that by finely tuning the quality of the predeposited oxide the selenization/sulfurization temperature can be largely decreased, avoiding major substrate damage and allowing direct device fabrication. The direct relationship between the role of selecting different metal oxides prepared by e-beam evaporation and reactive sputtering and their oxygen deficiency/vacancy leading to quality influence of TMDCs was investigated in detail. Because of its outstanding physical properties, the formation of tungsten diselenide (WSe2) from the reduction of tungsten oxide (WO x) was chosen as a model for proof of concept. By optimizing the process parameters and the selection of metal oxides, layered WSe2 films with controlled atomic thickness can be demonstrated. Interestingly, the domain size and electrical properties of the layered WSe2 films are highly affected by the quality of the metal oxides, for which the layered WSe2 film with small domains exhibits a metallic behavior and the layered WSe2 films with larger domains provides clear semiconducting behavior. Finally, an 8'' wafer scale-layered WSe2 film was demonstrated, giving a step forward in the development of 2D TMDC electronics in the industry.

16.
Hepatology ; 67(6): 2226-2243, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29171033

RESUMO

High invasiveness is a hallmark of human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Large tumors predict invasion and metastasis. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is crucial for cancer invasion and metastasis. However, the mechanisms whereby large tumors tend to undergo EMT remain unclear. We conducted a subgenome-wide screen and identified KLHL23 as an HCC invasion suppressor by inhibiting EMT. KLHL23 binds to actin and suppresses actin polymerization. KLHL23 silencing induced filopodium and lamellipodium formation. Moreover, EMT was suppressed by KLHL23 through its action on actin dynamics. Traditionally, actin cytoskeleton remodeling is downstream of EMT reprogramming. It is therefore intriguing to ask why and how KLHL23 inversely regulates EMT. Activation of actin cytoskeleton remodeling by either KLHL23 silencing or treatment with actin cytoskeleton modulators augmented cellular hypoxic responses in a cell-density-dependent manner, resulting in hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) and Notch signals and subsequent EMT. Environmental hypoxia did not induce EMT unless actin cytoskeleton remodeling was simultaneously activated and only when cells were at high density. The resulting EMT was reversed by either adenosine 5'-triphosphate supplementation or actin polymerization inhibitors. Down-regulation of KLHL23 was associated with invasion, metastasis, and poor prognosis of HCC and pancreatic cancer. Correlations of tumor size with EMT and inverse association of expression of KLHL23 with HIF/Notch signals were further validated in patient-derived xenograft HCCs in mice. CONCLUSION: Simultaneously activation of actin cytoskeleton remodeling by intrinsic (such as KLHL23 down-regulation) or microenvironment cues is crucial for cell-density-dependent and hypoxia-mediated EMT, providing a mechanistic link between large tumor size and invasion/metastasis. Our findings provide a means of developing the prevention and treatment strategies for tumor invasion and metastasis. (Hepatology 2018;67:2226-2243).


Assuntos
Citoesqueleto de Actina/fisiologia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/secundário , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Invasividade Neoplásica
17.
Opt Express ; 25(20): 24362-24367, 2017 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29041380

RESUMO

Recently even the low-end mobile-phones are equipped with a high-resolution complementary-metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) image sensor. This motivates using a CMOS image sensor for visible light communication (VLC). Here we propose and demonstrate an efficient demodulation scheme to synchronize and demodulate the rolling shutter pattern in image sensor based VLC. The implementation algorithm is discussed. The bit-error-rate (BER) performance and processing latency are evaluated and compared with other thresholding schemes.

18.
Chemistry ; 23(42): 10087-10091, 2017 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28510281

RESUMO

We report a general copper-catalyzed cross-coupling of thiols with aryl halides by using N-aryl-N'-alkyl oxalic diamide (L3) or N,N'-dialkyl oxalic diamide (L5) as the ligand. Both aryl and alkyl thiols can be coupled with unactivated aryl bromides and chlorides to give the desired products in good yields. Furthermore, this system features a broad substrate scope and good tolerance of functional groups. Importantly, the oxalic diamides are stable and can be prepared easily from commercially available and cheap starting materials.

19.
Adv Mater ; 28(44): 9831-9838, 2016 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27717140

RESUMO

The necessity for new sources for greener and cleaner energy production to replace the existing ones has been increasingly growing in recent years. Of those new sources, the hydrogen evolution reaction has a large potential. In this work, for the first time, MoSe2 /Mo core-shell 3D-hierarchical nanostructures are created, which are derived from the Mo 3D-hierarchical nanostructures through a low-temperature plasma-assisted selenization process with controlled shapes grown by a glancing angle deposition system.

20.
Small ; 12(38): 5251-5255, 2016 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27516126

RESUMO

The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy spectra indicate the peak of BB bonds, implying that the elemental boron structure might be formed after the process. The multilayer ß-borophene is directly observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and the lattice parameters are valid. The middle SiNx layer also can be identified in TEM image. Furthermore, the 1.61 eV bandgap of the multilayer ß-borophene is announced in this study.

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