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1.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 184, 2021 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33420236

RESUMO

Vitamin D has been associated with a variety of human complex traits and diseases in observational studies, but a causal relationship remains unclear. To examine a putative causal effect of vitamin D across phenotypic domains and disease categories, we conducted Mendelian randomization (MR) analyses using genetic instruments associated with circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations. We leveraged genome-wide significant 25(OH)D-associated SNPs (N = 138) from a meta-analysis combining a vitamin D GWAS conducted in 401,460 white British UK Biobank (UKBB) participants and an independent vitamin D GWAS including 42,274 samples of European ancestry, and examined 190 large-scale health-related GWAS spanning a broad spectrum of complex traits, diseases and biomarkers. We applied multiple MR methods to estimate the causal effect of vitamin D while testing and controlling for potential biases from horizontal pleiotropy. Consistent with previous findings, genetically predicted increased 25(OH)D levels significantly decreased the risk of multiple sclerosis (OR = 0.824; 95% CI 0.689-0.986). The protective effect estimate was consistent across different MR methods and four different multiple sclerosis GWAS with varying sample sizes and genotyping platforms. On the contrary, we found limited evidence in support of a causal effect of 25(OH)D on anthropometric traits, obesity, cognitive function, sleep behavior, breast and prostate cancer, and autoimmune, cardiovascular, metabolic, neurological and psychiatric traits and diseases, and blood biomarkers. Our results may inform ongoing and future randomized clinical trials of vitamin D supplementation.

2.
PLoS Genet ; 17(1): e1009224, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33417599

RESUMO

Discovering drugs that efficiently treat brain diseases has been challenging. Genetic variants that modulate the expression of potential drug targets can be utilized to assess the efficacy of therapeutic interventions. We therefore employed Mendelian Randomization (MR) on gene expression measured in brain tissue to identify drug targets involved in neurological and psychiatric diseases. We conducted a two-sample MR using cis-acting brain-derived expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs) from the Accelerating Medicines Partnership for Alzheimer's Disease consortium (AMP-AD) and the CommonMind Consortium (CMC) meta-analysis study (n = 1,286) as genetic instruments to predict the effects of 7,137 genes on 12 neurological and psychiatric disorders. We conducted Bayesian colocalization analysis on the top MR findings (using P<6x10-7 as evidence threshold, Bonferroni-corrected for 80,557 MR tests) to confirm sharing of the same causal variants between gene expression and trait in each genomic region. We then intersected the colocalized genes with known monogenic disease genes recorded in Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) and with genes annotated as drug targets in the Open Targets platform to identify promising drug targets. 80 eQTLs showed MR evidence of a causal effect, from which we prioritised 47 genes based on colocalization with the trait. We causally linked the expression of 23 genes with schizophrenia and a single gene each with anorexia, bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder within the psychiatric diseases and 9 genes with Alzheimer's disease, 6 genes with Parkinson's disease, 4 genes with multiple sclerosis and two genes with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis within the neurological diseases we tested. From these we identified five genes (ACE, GPNMB, KCNQ5, RERE and SUOX) as attractive drug targets that may warrant follow-up in functional studies and clinical trials, demonstrating the value of this study design for discovering drug targets in neuropsychiatric diseases.

3.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5980, 2020 11 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33239672

RESUMO

Miscarriage is a common, complex trait affecting ~15% of clinically confirmed pregnancies. Here we present the results of large-scale genetic association analyses with 69,054 cases from five different ancestries for sporadic miscarriage, 750 cases of European ancestry for multiple (≥3) consecutive miscarriage, and up to 359,469 female controls. We identify one genome-wide significant association (rs146350366, minor allele frequency (MAF) 1.2%, P = 3.2 × 10-8, odds ratio (OR) = 1.4) for sporadic miscarriage in our European ancestry meta-analysis and three genome-wide significant associations for multiple consecutive miscarriage (rs7859844, MAF = 6.4%, P = 1.3 × 10-8, OR = 1.7; rs143445068, MAF = 0.8%, P = 5.2 × 10-9, OR = 3.4; rs183453668, MAF = 0.5%, P = 2.8 × 10-8, OR = 3.8). We further investigate the genetic architecture of miscarriage with biobank-scale Mendelian randomization, heritability, and genetic correlation analyses. Our results show that miscarriage etiopathogenesis is partly driven by genetic variation potentially related to placental biology, and illustrate the utility of large-scale biobank data for understanding this pregnancy complication.

4.
Drug Alcohol Depend ; 217: 108276, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32961455

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Opioid use disorder (OUD) represents a large and pervasive global public health challenge. Previous genetic studies have demonstrated the significant heritability of OUD and identified several single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with its prevalence. METHODS: In this paper, we conducted a genome-wide association analysis on opioid use disorder that leveraged genetic and clinical data contained in a biobank of 21,310 patients of European ancestry. We identified 1039 cases of opioid use disorder based on diagnostic codes from nearly 16 million encounters in electronic health records (EHRs). RESULTS: We discovered one novel OUD-associated locus on chromosome 4 that was significant at a genome-wide threshold (p = 2.40 × 10-8). Heritability analysis suggested that common SNPs explained 0.06 (se 0.02, p = 0.0065) of the phenotypic variation in OUD. When we restricted controls to those with previous opioid prescriptions, we were able to further strengthen the original signal and discovered another significant locus on chromosome 16. Pair-wise genetic correlation analysis yielded strong positive correlations between OUD and two other major substance use disorders, alcohol and nicotine, with the strongest correlation between nicotine and opioid use disorder (genetic correlation 0.65, se = 0.19, p = 0.00048), suggesting a significant shared genetic component across different substance disorders. CONCLUSIONS: This pragmatic, clinically-focused approach may supplement more traditional methods to facilitate identification of new genetic underpinnings of OUD and related disorders.

5.
Am J Psychiatry ; 177(10): 944-954, 2020 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32791893

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Efforts to prevent depression, the leading cause of disability worldwide, have focused on a limited number of candidate factors. Using phenotypic and genomic data from over 100,000 UK Biobank participants, the authors sought to systematically screen and validate a wide range of potential modifiable factors for depression. METHODS: Baseline data were extracted for 106 modifiable factors, including lifestyle (e.g., exercise, sleep, media, diet), social (e.g., support, engagement), and environmental (e.g., green space, pollution) variables. Incident depression was defined as minimal depressive symptoms at baseline and clinically significant depression at follow-up. At-risk individuals for incident depression were identified by polygenic risk scores or by reported traumatic life events. An exposure-wide association scan was conducted to identify factors associated with incident depression in the full sample and among at-risk individuals. Two-sample Mendelian randomization was then used to validate potentially causal relationships between identified factors and depression. RESULTS: Numerous factors across social, sleep, media, dietary, and exercise-related domains were prospectively associated with depression, even among at-risk individuals. However, only a subset of factors was supported by Mendelian randomization evidence, including confiding in others (odds ratio=0.76, 95% CI=0.67, 0.86), television watching time (odds ratio=1.09, 95% CI=1.05, 1.13), and daytime napping (odds ratio=1.34, 95% CI=1.17, 1.53). CONCLUSIONS: Using a two-stage approach, this study validates several actionable targets for preventing depression. It also demonstrates that not all factors associated with depression in observational research may translate into robust targets for prevention. A large-scale exposure-wide approach combined with genetically informed methods for causal inference may help prioritize strategies for multimodal prevention in psychiatry.


Assuntos
Depressão/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Bases de Dados como Assunto , Depressão/etiologia , Depressão/genética , Dieta , Exercício Físico/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Herança Multifatorial/genética , Fatores de Risco , Tempo de Tela , Higiene do Sono
6.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 13162, 2020 08 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32753748

RESUMO

A common missense variant in SLC39A8 is convincingly associated with schizophrenia and several additional phenotypes. Homozygous loss-of-function mutations in SLC39A8 result in undetectable serum manganese (Mn) and a Congenital Disorder of Glycosylation (CDG) due to the exquisite sensitivity of glycosyltransferases to Mn concentration. Here, we identified several Mn-related changes in human carriers of the common SLC39A8 missense allele. Analysis of structural brain MRI scans showed a dose-dependent change in the ratio of T2w to T1w signal in several regions. Comprehensive trace element analysis confirmed a specific reduction of only serum Mn, and plasma protein N-glycome profiling revealed reduced complexity and branching. N-glycome profiling from two individuals with SLC39A8-CDG showed similar but more severe alterations in branching that improved with Mn supplementation, suggesting that the common variant exists on a spectrum of hypofunction with potential for reversibility. Characterizing the functional impact of this variant will enhance our understanding of schizophrenia pathogenesis and identify novel therapeutic targets and biomarkers.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32674484

RESUMO

Obesity affects both medical and surgical outcomes in renal transplant recipients (RTRs). Dietary diversity, an important component of a healthy diet, might be a useful nutritional strategy for monitoring patients with obesity. In this cross-sectional study, the data of 85 eligible RTRs were analyzed. Demographic data, routine laboratory data, and 3-day dietary data were collected. Participants were grouped into nonobesity and obesity groups based on body mass index (BMI) (for Asian adults, the cutoff point is 27 kg/m2). Dietary diversity score (DDS) was computed by estimating scores for the six food groups emphasized in the Food Guide. The mean age and BMI of participants were 49.7 ± 12.6 years and 24.0 ± 3.8 kg/m2, respectively. In the study population, 20.0% (n = 17) were obese. DDS was significantly lower in obese participants than in those who were not obese (1.53 ± 0.87 vs. 2.13 ± 0.98; p = 0.029). In addition, DDS was correlated with nutrition adequacy of the diet. Multivariate analysis showed that the odds of obesity decreased with each unit increase in DDS (odds ratio, 0.278; 95% confidence interval, 0.101-0.766; p = 0.013). We conclude that patients with higher dietary diversity have a lower prevalence of obesity.


Assuntos
Dieta , Transplante de Rim , Obesidade , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nutrientes , Estado Nutricional , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/epidemiologia
8.
Sci Transl Med ; 12(549)2020 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32581134

RESUMO

Inhibition of sclerostin is a therapeutic approach to lowering fracture risk in patients with osteoporosis. However, data from phase 3 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of romosozumab, a first-in-class monoclonal antibody that inhibits sclerostin, suggest an imbalance of serious cardiovascular events, and regulatory agencies have issued marketing authorizations with warnings of cardiovascular disease. Here, we meta-analyze published and unpublished cardiovascular outcome trial data of romosozumab and investigate whether genetic variants that mimic therapeutic inhibition of sclerostin are associated with higher risk of cardiovascular disease. Meta-analysis of up to three RCTs indicated a probable higher risk of cardiovascular events with romosozumab. Scaled to the equivalent dose of romosozumab (210 milligrams per month; 0.09 grams per square centimeter of higher bone mineral density), the SOST genetic variants were associated with lower risk of fracture and osteoporosis (commensurate with the therapeutic effect of romosozumab) and with a higher risk of myocardial infarction and/or coronary revascularization and major adverse cardiovascular events. The same variants were also associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus and higher systolic blood pressure and central adiposity. Together, our findings indicate that inhibition of sclerostin may elevate cardiovascular risk, warranting a rigorous evaluation of the cardiovascular safety of romosozumab and other sclerostin inhibitors.

9.
Cell Rep ; 31(9): 107716, 2020 06 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32492425

RESUMO

To reveal post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) genetic risk influences on tissue-specific gene expression, we use brain and non-brain transcriptomic imputation. We impute genetically regulated gene expression (GReX) in 29,539 PTSD cases and 166,145 controls from 70 ancestry-specific cohorts and identify 18 significant GReX-PTSD associations corresponding to specific tissue-gene pairs. The results suggest substantial genetic heterogeneity based on ancestry, cohort type (military versus civilian), and sex. Two study-wide significant PTSD associations are identified in European and military European cohorts; ZNF140 is predicted to be upregulated in whole blood, and SNRNP35 is predicted to be downregulated in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, respectively. In peripheral leukocytes from 175 marines, the observed PTSD differential gene expression correlates with the predicted differences for these individuals, and deployment stress produces glucocorticoid-regulated expression changes that include downregulation of both ZNF140 and SNRNP35. SNRNP35 knockdown in cells validates its functional role in U12-intron splicing. Finally, exogenous glucocorticoids in mice downregulate prefrontal Snrnp35 expression.

10.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 6928, 2020 04 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32332799

RESUMO

Insomnia is one of the most prevalent and burdensome mental disorders worldwide, affecting between 10-20% of adults and up to 48% of the geriatric population. It is further associated with substance usage and dependence, as well other psychiatric disorders. In this study, we combined electronic health record (EHR) derived phenotypes and genotype information to conduct a genome wide analysis of insomnia in a 18,055 patient cohort. Diagnostic codes were used to identify 3,135 patients with insomnia. Our genome-wide association study (GWAS) identified one novel genomic risk locus on chromosome 8 (lead SNP rs17052966, p = 4.53 × 10-9, odds ratio = 1.28, se = 0.04). The heritability analysis indicated that common SNPs accounts for 7% (se = 0.02, p = 0.015) of phenotypic variation. We further conducted a large-scale meta-analysis of our results and summary statistics of two recent insomnia GWAS and 13 significant loci were identified. The genetic correlation analysis yielded a strong positive genetic correlation between insomnia and alcohol use (rG = 0.56, se = 0.14, p < 0.001), nicotine use (rG = 0.50, se = 0.12, p < 0.001) and opioid use (rG = 0.43, se = 0.18, p = 0.02) disorders, suggesting a significant common genetic risk factors between insomnia and substance use.


Assuntos
Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 8/genética , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo
11.
Acta Neuropsychiatr ; 32(4): 218-225, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32213216

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptors (GLP-1Rs) are widely expressed in the brain. Evidence suggests that they may play a role in reward responses and neuroprotection. However, the association of GLP-1R with anhedonia and depression diagnosis has not been studied. Here, we examined the association of GLP-1R polymorphisms with objective and subjective measures of anhedonia, as well as depression diagnosis. METHODS: Objective [response bias assessed by the probabilistic reward task (PRT)] and subjective [Snaith-Hamilton Pleasure Scale (SHAPS)] measures of anhedonia, clinical variables and DNA samples were collected from 100 controls and 164 patients at McLean Hospital. An independent sample genotyped as part of the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (PGC) was used to study the effect of putative GLP-1R polymorphisms linked to response bias in PRT on depression diagnosis. RESULTS: The C allele in rs1042044 was significantly associated with increased PRT response bias, when controlling for age, sex, case-control status and PRT discriminability. AA genotype of rs1042044 showed higher anhedonia phenotype based on SHAPS scores. However, analysis of PGC major depressive disorder data showed no association between rs1042044 and depression diagnosis. CONCLUSION: Findings suggest a possible association of rs1042044 with anhedonia but no association with depression diagnosis.

12.
Transl Psychiatry ; 10(1): 38, 2020 01 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32066696

RESUMO

Childhood maltreatment is highly prevalent and serves as a risk factor for mental and physical disorders. Self-reported childhood maltreatment appears heritable, but the specific genetic influences on this phenotype are largely unknown. The aims of this study were to (1) identify genetic variation associated with self-reported childhood maltreatment, (2) estimate SNP-based heritability (h2snp), (3) assess predictive value of polygenic risk scores (PRS) for childhood maltreatment, and (4) quantify genetic overlap of childhood maltreatment with mental and physical health-related phenotypes, and condition the top hits from our analyses when such overlap is present. Genome-wide association analysis for childhood maltreatment was undertaken, using a discovery sample from the UK Biobank (UKBB) (n = 124,000) and a replication sample from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium-posttraumatic stress disorder group (PGC-PTSD) (n = 26,290). h2snp for childhood maltreatment and genetic correlations with mental/physical health traits were calculated using linkage disequilibrium score regression. PRS was calculated using PRSice and mtCOJO was used to perform conditional analysis. Two genome-wide significant loci associated with childhood maltreatment (rs142346759, p = 4.35 × 10-8, FOXP1; rs10262462, p = 3.24 × 10-8, FOXP2) were identified in the discovery dataset but were not replicated in PGC-PTSD. h2snp for childhood maltreatment was ~6% and the PRS derived from the UKBB was significantly predictive of childhood maltreatment in PGC-PTSD (r2 = 0.0025; p = 1.8 × 10-15). The most significant genetic correlation of childhood maltreatment was with depressive symptoms (rg = 0.70, p = 4.65 × 10-40), although we show evidence that our top hits may be specific to childhood maltreatment. This is the first large-scale genetic study to identify specific variants associated with self-reported childhood maltreatment. Speculatively, FOXP genes might influence externalizing traits and so be relevant to childhood maltreatment. Alternatively, these variants may be associated with a greater likelihood of reporting maltreatment. A clearer understanding of the genetic relationships of childhood maltreatment, including particular abuse subtypes, with a range of phenotypes, may ultimately be useful in in developing targeted treatment and prevention strategies.

13.
Genes Brain Behav ; 19(5): e12639, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31925923

RESUMO

Schizophrenia and substance involvement frequently co-occur in individuals, and a bidirectional relationship between the two has been proposed; shared underlying genetic factors could be an alternative explanation. This study investigated the genetic overlap between schizophrenia and substance involvement, including tobacco, alcohol and betel nut use. The study subjects were recruited from the Taiwan Biobank, and genome-wide genotyping data was available for 18 327 participants without schizophrenia. We calculated the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium-derived polygenic risk score (PRS) for schizophrenia in each participant. The significance of the schizophrenia PRS associated with substance involvement was evaluated using a regression model with adjustments for gender, age and population stratification components. The modified effect of gender or birth decade was also explored. The schizophrenia PRS was positively associated with lifetime tobacco smoking in women (OR in per SD increase in PRS = 1.12 with 95% CI 1.04-1.20, P = .002), but not in men (OR = 0.99 with 95% CI 0.95-1.04, P = .74), and the gender-PRS interaction reached significance (P = .006). The OR between PRS and lifetime tobacco smoking increased with the birth decade (P of birth decade-PRS interaction = .0002). In women, OR increased from 0.97 (P = .85) for subjects with a birth decade before 1950 to 1.21 (P = .04) for subjects with a birth decade after 1980; in men, the corresponding OR increased from 0.88 (P = .04) to 1.13 (P = .11). There was no association between schizophrenia PRS and alcohol/betel nut use phenotypes. This study provides evidence for the genetic overlap between schizophrenia and tobacco use in women, and this overlap was stronger in the younger population.

14.
Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet ; 183(4): 197-207, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31886626

RESUMO

Anxiety disorders (ANX), namely generalized anxiety, panic disorder, and phobias, are common, etiologically complex syndromes that show increasing prevalence and comorbidity throughout adolescence and beyond. Few genome-wide association studies (GWAS) examining ANX risk have been published and almost exclusively in individuals of European ancestry. In this study, we phenotyped participants from the Army Study To Assess Risk and Resilience in Servicemembers (STARRS) to approximate DSM-based ANX diagnoses. We factor-analyzed those to create a single dimensional anxiety score for each subject. GWAS were conducted using that score within each of three ancestral groups (EUR, AFR, LAT) and then meta-analyzed across ancestries (NTotal = 16,510). We sought to (a) replicate prior ANX GWAS findings in ANGST; (b) determine whether results extended to other ancestry groups; and (c) meta-analyze with ANGST for increased power to identify novel susceptibility loci. No reliable genome-wide significant SNP associations were detected in STARRS. However, SNPs within the CAMKMT gene located in region 2p21 associated with shared ANX risk in ANGST were replicated in EUR soldiers but not other ancestry groups. Combining EUR STARRS and ANGST (N = 28,950) yielded a more robust 2p21 association signal (p = 9.08x10-11 ). Gene-based analyses supported three genes within 2p21 and LBX1 on chromosome 10. More powerful ANX genetic studies will be required to identify further loci.

15.
Psychol Med ; 50(5): 737-745, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30982473

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Whereas genetic susceptibility increases the risk for major depressive disorder (MDD), non-genetic protective factors may mitigate this risk. In a large-scale prospective study of US Army soldiers, we examined whether trait resilience and/or unit cohesion could protect against the onset of MDD following combat deployment, even in soldiers at high polygenic risk. METHODS: Data were analyzed from 3079 soldiers of European ancestry assessed before and after their deployment to Afghanistan. Incident MDD was defined as no MDD episode at pre-deployment, followed by a MDD episode following deployment. Polygenic risk scores were constructed from a large-scale genome-wide association study of major depression. We first examined the main effects of the MDD PRS and each protective factor on incident MDD. We then tested the effects of each protective factor on incident MDD across strata of polygenic risk. RESULTS: Polygenic risk showed a dose-response relationship to depression, such that soldiers at high polygenic risk had greatest odds for incident MDD. Both unit cohesion and trait resilience were prospectively associated with reduced risk for incident MDD. Notably, the protective effect of unit cohesion persisted even in soldiers at highest polygenic risk. CONCLUSIONS: Polygenic risk was associated with new-onset MDD in deployed soldiers. However, unit cohesion - an index of perceived support and morale - was protective against incident MDD even among those at highest genetic risk, and may represent a potent target for promoting resilience in vulnerable soldiers. Findings illustrate the value of combining genomic and environmental data in a prospective design to identify robust protective factors for mental health.

16.
Nat Genet ; 51(12): 1670-1678, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31740837

RESUMO

Schizophrenia is a debilitating psychiatric disorder with approximately 1% lifetime risk globally. Large-scale schizophrenia genetic studies have reported primarily on European ancestry samples, potentially missing important biological insights. Here, we report the largest study to date of East Asian participants (22,778 schizophrenia cases and 35,362 controls), identifying 21 genome-wide-significant associations in 19 genetic loci. Common genetic variants that confer risk for schizophrenia have highly similar effects between East Asian and European ancestries (genetic correlation = 0.98 ± 0.03), indicating that the genetic basis of schizophrenia and its biology are broadly shared across populations. A fixed-effect meta-analysis including individuals from East Asian and European ancestries identified 208 significant associations in 176 genetic loci (53 novel). Trans-ancestry fine-mapping reduced the sets of candidate causal variants in 44 loci. Polygenic risk scores had reduced performance when transferred across ancestries, highlighting the importance of including sufficient samples of major ancestral groups to ensure their generalizability across populations.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Esquizofrenia/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Extremo Oriente , Genética Populacional , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos
17.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 4558, 2019 10 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31594949

RESUMO

The risk of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) following trauma is heritable, but robust common variants have yet to be identified. In a multi-ethnic cohort including over 30,000 PTSD cases and 170,000 controls we conduct a genome-wide association study of PTSD. We demonstrate SNP-based heritability estimates of 5-20%, varying by sex. Three genome-wide significant loci are identified, 2 in European and 1 in African-ancestry analyses. Analyses stratified by sex implicate 3 additional loci in men. Along with other novel genes and non-coding RNAs, a Parkinson's disease gene involved in dopamine regulation, PARK2, is associated with PTSD. Finally, we demonstrate that polygenic risk for PTSD is significantly predictive of re-experiencing symptoms in the Million Veteran Program dataset, although specific loci did not replicate. These results demonstrate the role of genetic variation in the biology of risk for PTSD and highlight the necessity of conducting sex-stratified analyses and expanding GWAS beyond European ancestry populations.


Assuntos
Loci Gênicos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/genética , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/genética , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores Sexuais , Veteranos/estatística & dados numéricos
18.
Cell ; 179(3): 589-603, 2019 10 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31607513

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have focused primarily on populations of European descent, but it is essential that diverse populations become better represented. Increasing diversity among study participants will advance our understanding of genetic architecture in all populations and ensure that genetic research is broadly applicable. To facilitate and promote research in multi-ancestry and admixed cohorts, we outline key methodological considerations and highlight opportunities, challenges, solutions, and areas in need of development. Despite the perception that analyzing genetic data from diverse populations is difficult, it is scientifically and ethically imperative, and there is an expanding analytical toolbox to do it well.


Assuntos
Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Técnicas de Genotipagem/métodos , Genética Humana/métodos , Confiabilidade dos Dados , Variação Genética , Genética Populacional/métodos , Genética Populacional/normas , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/normas , Técnicas de Genotipagem/normas , Genética Humana/normas , Humanos , Linhagem
19.
Am J Psychiatry ; 176(10): 846-855, 2019 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31416338

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Individuals at high risk for schizophrenia may benefit from early intervention, but few validated risk predictors are available. Genetic profiling is one approach to risk stratification that has been extensively validated in research cohorts. The authors sought to test the utility of this approach in clinical settings and to evaluate the broader health consequences of high genetic risk for schizophrenia. METHODS: The authors used electronic health records for 106,160 patients from four health care systems to evaluate the penetrance and pleiotropy of genetic risk for schizophrenia. Polygenic risk scores (PRSs) for schizophrenia were calculated from summary statistics and tested for association with 1,359 disease categories, including schizophrenia and psychosis, in phenome-wide association studies. Effects were combined through meta-analysis across sites. RESULTS: PRSs were robustly associated with schizophrenia (odds ratio per standard deviation increase in PRS, 1.55; 95% CI=1.4, 1.7), and patients in the highest risk decile of the PRS distribution had up to 4.6-fold higher odds of schizophrenia compared with those in the bottom decile (95% CI=2.9, 7.3). PRSs were also positively associated with other phenotypes, including anxiety, mood, substance use, neurological, and personality disorders, as well as suicidal behavior, memory loss, and urinary syndromes; they were inversely related to obesity. CONCLUSIONS: The study demonstrates that an available measure of genetic risk for schizophrenia is robustly associated with schizophrenia in health care settings and has pleiotropic effects on related psychiatric disorders as well as other medical syndromes. The results provide an initial indication of the opportunities and limitations that may arise with the future application of PRS testing in health care systems.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Herança Multifatorial/genética , Esquizofrenia/genética , Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Pleiotropia Genética/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Penetrância , Fatores de Risco
20.
Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet ; 180(5): 310-319, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31081985

RESUMO

Though a growing body of preclinical and translational research is illuminating a biological basis for resilience to stress, little is known about the genetic basis of psychological resilience in humans. We conducted genome-wide association studies (GWASs) of self-assessed (by questionnaire) and outcome-based (incident mental disorders from predeployment to postdeployment) resilience among European (EUR) ancestry soldiers in the Army study to assess risk and resilience in servicemembers. Self-assessed resilience (N = 11,492) was found to have significant common-variant heritability (h2 = 0.162, se = 0.050, p = 5.37 × 10-4 ), and to be significantly negatively genetically correlated with neuroticism (rg = -0.388, p = .0092). GWAS results from the EUR soldiers revealed a genome-wide significant locus on an intergenic region on Chr 4 upstream from doublecortin-like kinase 2 (DCLK2) (four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in LD; top SNP: rs4260523 [p = 5.65 × 10-9 ] is an eQTL in frontal cortex), a member of the doublecortin family of kinases that promote survival and regeneration of injured neurons. A second gene, kelch-like family member 36 (KLHL36) was detected at gene-wise genome-wide significance [p = 1.89 × 10-6 ]. A polygenic risk score derived from the self-assessed resilience GWAS was not significantly associated with outcome-based resilience. In very preliminary results, genome-wide significant association with outcome-based resilience was found for one locus (top SNP: rs12580015 [p = 2.37 × 10-8 ]) on Chr 12 downstream from solute carrier family 15 member 5 (SLC15A5) in subjects (N = 581) exposed to the highest level of deployment stress. The further study of genetic determinants of resilience has the potential to illuminate the molecular bases of stress-related psychopathology and point to new avenues for therapeutic intervention.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica/fisiologia , Militares/psicologia , Resiliência Psicológica , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/genética , Adulto , Transtornos de Ansiedade/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Herança Multifatorial/genética , Estados Unidos
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