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1.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 2020 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33010161

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the era of widespread prostate-specific antigen testing, it is important to focus etiologic research on the outcome of aggressive prostate cancer, but studies have defined this outcome differently. We aimed to develop an evidence-based consensus definition of aggressive prostate cancer using clinical features at diagnosis for etiologic epidemiologic research. METHODS: Among prostate cancer cases diagnosed in 2007 in the U.S. SEER-18 database with follow-up through 2017, we compared the performance of categorizations of aggressive prostate cancer in discriminating fatal prostate cancer within 10 years of diagnosis, placing the most emphasis on sensitivity and positive predictive value (PPV). RESULTS: In our case population (n = 55,900), 3,073 men died of prostate cancer within 10 years. Among 12 definitions that included TNM stage and Gleason score, sensitivities ranged from 0.64 to 0.89 and PPVs ranged from 0.09 to 0.23. We propose defining aggressive prostate cancer as diagnosis of stage T4 or N1 or M1 or Gleason score ≥8 prostate cancer, as this definition had one of the higher PPVs (0.23, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.22-0.24) and reasonable sensitivity (0.66, 95% CI 0.64-0.67) for prostate cancer death within 10 years. Results were similar across sensitivity analyses. CONCLUSIONS: We recommend that etiologic epidemiologic studies of prostate cancer report results for this definition of aggressive prostate cancer. We also recommend that studies separately report results for advanced stage (T4 or N1 or M1), high grade (Gleason score ≥8), and fatal prostate cancer. Use of this comprehensive set of endpoints will facilitate comparison of results from different studies and help elucidate prostate cancer etiology.

2.
Zhongguo Zhen Jiu ; 40(10): 1108-12, 2020 Oct 12.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33068355

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of acupuncture technique of Tiaoxin Tongdu on learning-memory ability and expressions of hippocampal vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and angiogenin-1 (Ang-1) in rats with vascular dementia (VD), and to explore the mechanism of acupuncture technique of Tiaoxin Tongdu for VD. METHODS: A total of 24 male SD rats were randomly divided into a sham operation group, a model group, a medication group and an acupuncture group after Morris water maze test, 6 rats in each group. VD model was established by permanent ligation of bilateral common carotid arteries in the model group, the medication group and the acupuncture group. Treatment was given on the next day after successful modeling. The rats in the acupuncture group were treated with acupuncture at "Baihui" (GV 20), "Shenting" (GV 24), "Shuigou" (GV 26), "Dazhui" (GV 14), "Fengfu" (GV 16), "Mingmen" (GV 4), "Neiguan" (PC 6), "Daling" (PC 7) and "Laogong" (PC 8) for 30 min; the rats in the medication group were treated with nimodipine solution (0.0625 g/kg) by gavage, once a day, for 2 weeks. Morris water maze test was used to detect the behavior of rats before modeling, 2 weeks after modeling and after intervention; after intervention, the expressions of VEGF and Ang-1 protein in hippocampus were detected by Western blot. RESULTS: Compared with the sham operation group, the average escape latency of rats in the model group was prolonged (P<0.01), and the times of crossing the original platform were reduced (P<0.01). Compared with the model group, the average escape latency of rats in the medication group and acupuncture group was significantly shortened (P<0.01), and the times of crossing the original platform were increased (P<0.01, P<0.05). Compared with the sham operation group, the expressions of VEGF and Ang-1 protein in hippocampus in the model group were increased (P<0.05, P<0.01). Compared with the model group, the expressions of VEGF and Ang-1 protein in the hippocampus in the medication group and acupuncture group were significantly increased (P<0.01, P<0.05). CONCLUSION: The acupuncture technique of Tiaoxin Tongdu can significantly improve the learning and memory ability of VD rats, and its mechanism may be related to up-regulating the expressions of VEGF and Ang-1 protein in hippocampus and inducing angiogenesis.

3.
Biomed Res Int ; 2020: 2892734, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33102576

RESUMO

Background: Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) are widely spread across the world. Asymptomatic or inconspicuous CT/NG infections are difficult to diagnose and treat. Traditional methods have the disadvantages of low detection rate, inaccurate results, and long detection time. However, Xpert CT/NG makes up for the aforementioned shortcomings and has research value and popularization significance. Methods: PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science were systematically searched, and studies were screened using Xpert CT/NG for diagnosing CT/NG. QUADAS-2 was used to evaluate the quality of the eligible studies. Then, two groups of researchers independently extracted data from these studies. Meta-analyses of sensitivity (SEN), specificity (SPE), positive likelihood ratio (PLR), negative likelihood ratio (NLR), diagnostic odds ratio (DOR), and the area under the curve (AUC) of the summary receiver operating characteristic (SROC) curve were conducted using Meta-DiSc 1.4. Finally, Deek's funnel plots were made using Stata 12.0 to evaluate publication bias. Results: 14 studies were identified, and 46 fourfold tables were extracted in this meta-analysis. The pooled SEN, SPE, PLR, NLR, DOR, and AUC in diagnosing CT were 0.94 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.93-0.95), 0.99 (95% CI: 0.99-1.00), 97.17 (95% CI: 56.76-166.32), 0.07 (95% CI: 0.04-0.12), 1857.25 (95% CI: 943.78-3654.86), and 0.9960, respectively. The pooled SEN, SPE, PLR, NLR, DOR, and AUC in diagnosing NG were 0.95 (95% CI: 0.93-0.96), 1.00 (95% CI: 1.00-1.00), 278.15 (95% CI: 152.41-507.63), 0.08 (95% CI: 0.06-0.12), 4290.70 (95% CI: 2161.78-8516.16), and 0.9980, respectively. Conclusions: Xpert CT/NG had high diagnostic sensitivity and specificity for CT and NG. However, more evidence is required to confirm that Xpert CT/NG might serve as the primary method for detecting CT and NG and even the gold standard for diagnosis in the future.

4.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0239838, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33057340

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the association between preschool playground size, formalized physical activity (PA) policies, time spent outdoors and preschool teacher's levels of PA and children's objectively assessed levels of PA and sedentary time (ST) during preschool hours. METHODS: In total, 369 children and 84 preschool teachers from 27 preschools in Södermalm municipally, Stockholm Sweden wore an Actigraph GT3X+ accelerometer during 7 consecutive days. Preschool environmental and structural characteristics were measured via the Environment and Policy Evaluation Self-Report (EPAO-SR) instrument and time in- and outdoors was recorded by preschool teachers during the PA measurements. Weight and height of children were measured via validated scales and parents filled out a questionnaire on demographical and descriptive variables. Linear mixed models, nested on preschool level, were used to assess the association between predictors and outcomes. RESULTS: The mean child age was 4.7 years (SD 0.8) and 45% were girls. We found that children were more active in preschools with a formalized PA policy, compared to preschools without such a policy, but not less sedentary. The association between policy and activity seemed to be more pronounced when accounting for other environmental factors. Similar associations were found in children spent most time outdoors (uppermost quartile) compared with children spent least time outdoors (Lowermost quartile). Preschool teachers' light PA (LPA) (ß = 0.25, P = 0.004) and steps (ß = 0.52, P<0.001) were associated with children's LPA and steps while the preschool playground size showed no association with PA in children, when accounting for other environmental factors. CONCLUSION: The current study showed that preschool structural characteristics such as formalized PA policies and more time spent outdoors were positively associated with children's PA. These findings suggest that formalized PA policies and time outdoors may be of importance for promoting children's PA during preschool hours.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33097409

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The nutritional status of the elderly is different from that of young people. Body composition changes as people age, for example, fat mass increases, muscle mass decreases, and body fat distribution is changed. We aimed to investigate the association of body mass index (BMI) with cause-specific mortality in the elderly population. METHODS AND RESULTS: The data of annual health examination for the older citizens (≥65 years old) from 2006 to 2011 in Taipei City Hospital were used. Information on baseline demographics, lifestyle behaviors, medical, and drug usage were collected by a self-administered questionnaire. Cause-specific mortality was ascertained from the National Registration of Death. Individuals were followed up until death or December 31, 2012, whichever was earlier. Univariable and multivariable Cox proportional hazard analyses were applied to investigate the association between BMI and all-cause mortality. Among 81,221 older people included in the analysis, 42,602 (52.45%) were men. The mean age was 73.85 ± 6.32 years. Among the 81,221 participants, 3398 (4.18%) were underweight, 36,476 (44.91%) were normal weight, 25,708 (31.65%) were overweight, and 15,639 (19.25%) were obese. Those in the BMI category 27 ≤ BMI<28 kg/m2 had the lowest all-cause mortality risk. The BMI of lowest cause-specific mortality was between 27 kg/m2 and 28 kg/m2 in infection mortality, between 28 kg/m2 and 29 kg/m2 in circulation mortality, between 29 kg/m2 and 30 kg/m2 in respiratory mortality, and between 31 kg/m2 and 32 kg/m2 in cancer mortality. CONCLUSIONS: The current study found a J-shaped relation between BMI and cause-specific mortality in the elderly population of Taiwan.

6.
Eur J Pharmacol ; 886: 173552, 2020 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32926919

RESUMO

Microglia can be activated to become the classic phenotype (M1) or alternative phenotype (M2), which play an important role in regulating neuroinflammatory response and tissue repair after ischemic stroke. CD21, a novel phthalide derivative, is a potential neuroprotectant against ischemic brain injury. The present study further investigated the effects of CD21 on post-ischemic microglial polarization and the underlying mechanisms. Transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO) was used as a mouse model of ischemic stroke, while BV2 cells stimulated with conditioned medium collected from oxygen-glucose deprivation-treated HT22 cells were used in in vitro ischemic studies. The current results showed that CD21 dose-dependently and significantly improved neurological outcomes in tMCAO mice. Biochemical analyses revealed that CD21 decreased the expression of M1 phenotype markers (CD86, interleukin-1ß and inducible nitric oxide synthase) and increased the expression of M2 phenotype markers (CD206, interleukin-10 and YM1/2) in both ischemic brain tissues and BV2 cells. Meanwhile, CD21 decreased the production of proinflammatory cytokines (interleukin-1ß, interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α), promoted the release of the antiinflammatory cytokine (interleukin-10), and enhanced the phosphorylation of adenosine 5'-monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in ischemic brain tissue and BV2 cells. Furthermore, the AMPK inhibitor (compound C) reversed these effects of CD21 in BV2 cells. These findings indicate that CD21 alleviates post-ischemic neuroinflammation through induction of microglial M2 polarization that is at least in part medicated by AMPK activation, suggesting that CD21 may be a promising candidate for protecting against ischemic brain injury.

7.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 2020 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32907805

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Fibromyalgia is commonly considered a stress-related chronic pain disorder, and daily stressors are known triggers. However, the relation between stress and pain development remains poorly defined by clinical approaches. Also, the aetiology remains largely unknown. METHODS: We used a newly developed mouse model and lipidomic approaches to probe the causation and explore the biological plausibility for how perceived stress translates into chronic non-inflammatory pain. Clinical and lipidomic investigations of fibromyalgia were conducted for human validation. RESULTS: Using non-painful sound stimuli as psychological stressors, we demonstrated that mice developed long-lasting non-inflammatory hyperalgesia after repeated and intermittent sound stress exposure. Elevated serum malondialdehyde level in stressed mice indicated excessive oxidative stress and lipid oxidative damage. Lipidomics revealed upregulation of lysophosphatidylcholine 16:0 (LPC16:0), a product of lipid oxidisation, in stressed mice. Intramuscular LPC16:0 injection triggered nociceptive responses and a hyperalgesic priming-like effect that caused long-lasting hypersensitivity. Pharmacological or genetic inhibition of acid-sensing ion channel 3 impeded the development of LPC16:0-induced chronic hyperalgesia. Darapladib and antioxidants could effectively alleviate the stress-induced hyperalgesia by inhibiting LPC16:0 synthesis. Clinical investigations showed that excessive oxidative stress and LPC16:0 expression also exist in patients with fibromyalgia. Moreover, LPC16:0 expression was correlated with pain symptoms in patients with high oxidative stress and disease severity. CONCLUSIONS: Our study provides experimental evidence for the causal effect of psychological stressors on chronic pain development. The findings identify a possible pathophysiological mechanism of stress-induced chronic non-inflammatory pain at molecular, behavioural and clinical levels that might indicate a new therapeutic approach for fibromyalgia.

8.
Front Med ; 2020 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32889700

RESUMO

Although genome-wide association studies have identified more than eighty genetic variants associated with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) risk, biological mechanisms of these variants remain largely unknown. By integrating a large-scale genotype data of 15 581 lung adenocarcinoma (AD) cases, 8350 squamous cell carcinoma (SqCC) cases, and 27 355 controls, as well as multiple transcriptome and epigenomic databases, we conducted histology-specific meta-analyses and functional annotations of both reported and novel susceptibility variants. We identified 3064 credible risk variants for NSCLC, which were overrepresented in enhancer-like and promoter-like histone modification peaks as well as DNase I hypersensitive sites. Transcription factor enrichment analysis revealed that USF1 was AD-specific while CREB1 was SqCC-specific. Functional annotation and gene-based analysis implicated 894 target genes, including 274 specifics for AD and 123 for SqCC, which were overrepresented in somatic driver genes (ER = 1.95, P = 0.005). Pathway enrichment analysis and Gene-Set Enrichment Analysis revealed that AD genes were primarily involved in immune-related pathways, while SqCC genes were homologous recombination deficiency related. Our results illustrate the molecular basis of both well-studied and new susceptibility loci of NSCLC, providing not only novel insights into the genetic heterogeneity between AD and SqCC but also a set of plausible gene targets for post-GWAS functional experiments.

9.
Int J Cancer ; 2020 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32914876

RESUMO

At the time of cancer diagnosis, body mass index (BMI) is inversely correlated with lung cancer risk, which may reflect reverse causality and confounding due to smoking behavior. We used two-sample univariable and multivariable Mendelian randomization (MR) to estimate causal relationships of BMI and smoking behaviors on lung cancer and histological subtypes based on an aggregated genome-wide association studies (GWASs) analysis of lung cancer in 29 266 cases and 56 450 controls. We observed a positive causal effect for high BMI on occurrence of small-cell lung cancer (odds ratio (OR) = 1.60, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.24-2.06, P = 2.70 × 10-4 ). After adjustment of smoking behaviors using multivariable Mendelian randomization (MVMR), a direct causal effect on small cell lung cancer (ORMVMR = 1.28, 95% CI = 1.06-1.55, PMVMR = .011), and an inverse effect on lung adenocarcinoma (ORMVMR = 0.86, 95% CI = 0.77-0.96, PMVMR = .008) were observed. A weak increased risk of lung squamous cell carcinoma was observed for higher BMI in univariable Mendelian randomization (UVMR) analysis (ORUVMR = 1.19, 95% CI = 1.01-1.40, PUVMR = .036), but this effect disappeared after adjustment of smoking (ORMVMR = 1.02, 95% CI = 0.90-1.16, PMVMR = .746). These results highlight the histology-specific impact of BMI on lung carcinogenesis and imply mediator role of smoking behaviors in the association between BMI and lung cancer.

10.
Genet Epidemiol ; 2020 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32924180

RESUMO

Clinical trial results have recently demonstrated that inhibiting inflammation by targeting the interleukin-1ß pathway can offer a significant reduction in lung cancer incidence and mortality, highlighting a pressing and unmet need to understand the benefits of inflammation-focused lung cancer therapies at the genetic level. While numerous genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have explored the genetic etiology of lung cancer, there remains a large gap between the type of information that may be gleaned from an association study and the depth of understanding necessary to explain and drive translational findings. Thus, in this study we jointly model and integrate extensive multiomics data sources, utilizing a total of 40 genome-wide functional annotations that augment previously published results from the International Lung Cancer Consortium (ILCCO) GWAS, to prioritize and characterize single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that increase risk of squamous cell lung cancer through the inflammatory and immune responses. Our work bridges the gap between correlative analysis and translational follow-up research, refining GWAS association measures in an interpretable and systematic manner. In particular, reanalysis of the ILCCO data highlights the impact of highly associated SNPs from nuclear factor-κB signaling pathway genes as well as major histocompatibility complex mediated variation in immune responses. One consequence of prioritizing likely functional SNPs is the pruning of variants that might be selected for follow-up work by over an order of magnitude, from potentially tens of thousands to hundreds. The strategies we introduce provide informative and interpretable approaches for incorporating extensive genome-wide annotation data in analysis of genetic association studies.

11.
BMC Cancer ; 20(1): 905, 2020 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32962699

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A low level of methylation at cg05575921 in the aryl-hydrocarbon receptor repressor (AHRR) gene is robustly associated with smoking, and some studies have observed associations between cg05575921 methylation and increased lung cancer risk and mortality. To prospectively examine whether decreased methylation at cg05575921 may identify high risk subpopulations for lung cancer screening among heavy smokers, and mortality in cases, we evaluated associations between cg05575921 methylation and lung cancer risk and mortality, by histotype, in heavy smokers. METHODS: The ß-Carotene and Retinol Efficacy Trial (CARET) included enrollees ages 45-69 with ≥ 20 pack-year smoking histories and/or occupational asbestos exposure. A subset of CARET participants had cg05575921 methylation available from HumanMethylationEPIC assays of blood collected on average 4.3 years prior to lung cancer diagnosis in cases. Cg05575921 methylation ß-values were treated continuously for a 10% methylation decrease and as quintiles, where quintile 1 (Q1, referent) represents high methylation and Q5, low methylation. We used conditional logistic regression models to examine lung cancer risk overall and by histotype in a nested case-control study including 316 lung cancer cases (diagnosed through 2005) and 316 lung cancer-free controls matched on age (±5 years), sex, race/ethnicity, enrollment year, current/former smoking, asbestos exposure, and follow-up time. Mortality analyses included 372 lung cancer cases diagnosed between 1985 and 2013 with available methylation data. We used Cox proportional hazards models to examine mortality overall and by histotype. RESULTS: Decreased cg05575921 methylation was strongly associated with smoking, even in our population of heavy smokers. We did not observe associations between decreased pre-diagnosis cg05575921 methylation and increased lung cancer risk, overall or by histotype. We observed linear increasing trends for lung cancer-specific mortality across decreasing cg05575921 methylation quintiles for adenocarcinoma and small cell carcinoma (P-trends = 0.01 and 0.04, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: In our study of heavy smokers, decreased cg05575921 methylation was strongly associated with smoking but not increased lung cancer risk. The observed association between cg05575921 methylation and increased mortality in adenocarcinoma and small cell histotypes requires further examination. Our results do not support using decreased cg05575921 methylation as a biomarker for lung cancer screening risk stratification.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32992642

RESUMO

With the development of medical equipment and techniques in labor anesthesia, it is a major issue to investigate the risks and treatment effects among techniques such as continuous epidural infusion (CEI) and intermittent epidural bolus (IEB). However, there is a controversial result regarding two techniques. This study was conducted through meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) for labor analgesia between the CEI and IEB techniques. The pooled results were presented as weighted mean differences (WMDs) together with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) and odds ratios (ORs) together with 95% CIs, respectively. Eleven RCTs were included in this meta-analysis. Four hundred sixty-five parturients accepted CEI, whereas 473 parturients accepted IEB labor analgesia. Elven identified low- risk bias studies were recruited for meta-analysis. The results presented no statistical difference in cesarean delivery rate between IEB and CEI (OR, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.67-1.37) and duration of second stage of labor (WMD, -3.82 min; 95% CI, -8.28 to 0.64). IEB had statistically significant lessened risk of instrumental delivery (OR, 0.59; 95% CI, 0.39-0.90) and for the use in local anesthetic (WMD, -1.71 mg bupivacaine equivalents per hour; 95% CI, -1.88 and -1.55). Accepted IEB had a higher score of maternal satisfaction (WMD, -6.95 mm; 95% CI, -7.77 to -6.13). Based on evidence, IEB showed a greater benefit for slightly reducing the use in local anesthetic, reduced risk of instrumental delivery, and improved maternal satisfaction for the requirement of labor epidural analgesia for healthy women. In the future, more studies need to be conducted to practice the IEB regimen and explore its influence on labor analgesia.

13.
Eur J Med Chem ; 205: 112661, 2020 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32827851

RESUMO

Based on the structural modification of molecular-targeted agent sorafenib, a series of quinazolinyl-arylurea derivatives were synthesized and evaluated for their anti-proliferative activities against six human cancer cell lines. Compared with other cell lines tested, T24 was more sensitive to most compounds. Compound 7j exhibited the best profile with lower IC50 value and favorable selectivity. In this study, we focused on 7j-induced death forms of T24 cells and tried to elucidate the reason for its potent proliferative inhibitory activity. Compound 7j treatment could trigger three different cell death forms including apoptosis, ferroptosis, and autophagy; which form would occur depended on the concentrations and incubation time of 7j: (1) Lower concentrations within the initial 8 h of 7j treatment led to apoptosis-dependent death. (2) Ferroptosis and autophagy occurred in the case of higher concentrations combining with extended incubation time through effectively regulating the Sxc-/GPx4/ROS and PI3K/Akt/mTOR/ULK1 pathways, respectively. (3) The above death forms were closely associated with intracellular ROS generation and decreased mitochondrial membrane potential induced by 7j. In molecular docking and structure-activity relationship analyses, 7j could bind well to the active site of the corresponding receptor glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPx4). Compound 7j could be a promising lead for molecular-targeted anti-bladder cancer agents' discovery.

14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32739560

RESUMO

CONTEXT: The impact of hospice care services on the utilization of life-sustaining treatments during end-of-life care in terminally ill patients has not been extensively studied. OBJECTIVES: To determine the impact of hospice care services on the utilization of life-sustaining treatments during the last three months of life among patients with cancer. METHODS: This nationwide population-based cohort study identified adults with cancer diagnosis from the Taiwan Registry for Catastrophic Illness, 2006-2016. Life-sustaining treatments included cardiopulmonary resuscitation, intubation, mechanical ventilation support, nasogastric tube feeding, and total parenteral nutrition. Hospice care services consisted of hospice inpatient care, hospice-shared care, and hospice home care. The association of hospice care services with the utilization of life-sustaining treatments was determined using multiple logistic regression. RESULTS: Of 516,409 patients with cancer, 310,722 (60.2%) patients used life-sustaining treatments during the last three months of life. After adjusting for covariates, patients with hospice care services were less likely to receive life-sustaining treatments during the last three months of life than those without the services (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 0.70; 95% CI: 0.69-0.71). While type of life-sustaining treatments were considered, hospice care services were associated with a lower likelihood of receiving cardiopulmonary resuscitation (AOR: 0.125; 95% CI: 0.118-0.131), endotracheal intubation (AOR: 0.204; 95% CI: 0.199-0.210), mechanical ventilation support (AOR: 0.265; 95% CI: 0.260-0.270), nasogastric tube feeding (AOR: 0.736; 95% CI: 0.727-0.744), and total parenteral nutrition (AOR: 0.86; 95% CI: 0.84-0.88). CONCLUSION: Hospice care services were associated with a lower likelihood of receiving life-sustaining treatments during the last three months of life in patients with cancer.

15.
Br J Cancer ; 2020 Aug 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32830199

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Alcohol is a well-established risk factor for head and neck cancer (HNC). This study aims to explore the effect of alcohol intensity and duration, as joint continuous exposures, on HNC risk. METHODS: Data from 26 case-control studies in the INHANCE Consortium were used, including never and current drinkers who drunk ≤10 drinks/day for ≤54 years (24234 controls, 4085 oral cavity, 3359 oropharyngeal, 983 hypopharyngeal and 3340 laryngeal cancers). The dose-response relationship between the risk and the joint exposure to drinking intensity and duration was investigated through bivariate regression spline models, adjusting for potential confounders, including tobacco smoking. RESULTS: For all subsites, cancer risk steeply increased with increasing drinks/day, with no appreciable threshold effect at lower intensities. For each intensity level, the risk of oral cavity, hypopharyngeal and laryngeal cancers did not vary according to years of drinking, suggesting no effect of duration. For oropharyngeal cancer, the risk increased with durations up to 28 years, flattening thereafter. The risk peaked at the higher levels of intensity and duration for all subsites (odds ratio = 7.95 for oral cavity, 12.86 for oropharynx, 24.96 for hypopharynx and 6.60 for larynx). CONCLUSIONS: Present results further encourage the reduction of alcohol intensity to mitigate HNC risk.

16.
Lipids Health Dis ; 19(1): 189, 2020 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32825832

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cardiac Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) activation plays a critical role in cardiomyocyte (CM) apoptosis and arrhythmia. Functional ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channels are essential for cardiac protection during ischemia. In cultured CMs, L5 low-density lipoprotein (LDL) induces apoptosis and QTc prolongation. L5 is a highly electronegative and atherogenic aberrant form of LDL, and its levels are significantly higher in patients with cardiovascular-related diseases. Here, the role of L5 in cardiac injury was studied by evaluating the effects of L5 on CaMKII activity and KATP channel physiology in CMs. METHODS: Cultured neonatal rat CMs (NRCMs) were treated with a moderate concentration (ie, 7.5 µg/mL) of L5 or L1 (the least electronegative LDL subfraction). NRCMs were examined for apoptosis and viability, CaMKII activity, and the expression of phosphorylated CaMKIIδ and NOX2/gp91phox. The function of KATP and action potentials (APs) was analyzed by using the patch-clamp technique. RESULTS: In NRCMs, L5 but not L1 significantly induced cell apoptosis and reduced cell viability. Furthermore, L5 decreased Kir6.2 expression by more than 50%. Patch-clamp analysis showed that L5 reduced the KATP current (IKATP) density induced by pinacidil, a KATP opener. The partial recovery of the inward potassium current during pinacidil washout was susceptible to subsequent inhibition by the IKATP blocker glibenclamide. Suppression of IKATP by L5 significantly prolonged the AP duration. L5 also significantly increased the activity of CaMKII, the phosphorylation of CaMKIIδ, and the expression of NOX2/gp91phox. L5-induced apoptosis was prevented by the addition of the CaMKII inhibitor KN93 and the reactive oxygen species scavenger Mn (III)TBAP. CONCLUSIONS: L5 but not L1 induces CM damage through the activation of the CaMKII pathway and increases arrhythmogenicity in CMs by modulating the AP duration. These results help to explain the harmful effects of L5 in cardiovascular-related disease.

17.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(16)2020 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32824307

RESUMO

L5, the most negatively charged subfraction of low-density lipoprotein (LDL), is implicated in atherogenesis, but the pathogenic association is relatively unexplored in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We examined the role of L5 LDL in macrophage foam cell formation and the association of L5 with CD11c expression in THP-1 cells and RA patients. Using quantitative real-time PCR, we determined mRNA expression levels of ITGAX, the gene for CD11c, a marker associated with vascular plaque formation and M1 macrophages in atherogenesis, in 93 RA patients. We also examined CD11c expression on THP-1 cells treated with L5 by flow cytometry analysis and the plasma levels of inflammatory mediators using a magnetic bead array. We found a dose-dependent upregulation of foam cell formation of macrophages after L5 treatment (mean ± SEM, 12.05 ± 2.35% in L5 (10 µg/mL); 50.13 ± 3.9% in L5 (25 µg/mL); 90.69 ± 1.82% in L5 (50 µg/mL), p < 0.01). Significantly higher levels of CD11c expression were observed in 30 patients with a high percentage of L5 in LDL (L5%) (0.0752 ± 0.0139-fold) compared to 63 patients with normal L5% (0.0446 ± 0.0054-fold, p < 0.05). CD11c expression levels were increased in the L5-treated group (30.00 ± 3.13% in L5 (10 µg/mL); 41.46 ± 2.77% in L5 (50 µg/mL), p < 0.05) and were positively correlated with plasma levels of interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8. L5 augmented the expression of IL-6, IL-8, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) on monocytes and macrophages. Our findings suggest that L5 may promote atherogenesis by augmenting macrophage foam cell formation, upregulating CD11c expression, and enhancing the expression levels of atherosclerosis-related mediators.

18.
Int J Cancer ; 2020 Jul 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32851660

RESUMO

Blood lipids have been associated with the development of a range of cancers, including breast, lung and colorectal cancer. For endometrial cancer, observational studies have reported inconsistent associations between blood lipids and cancer risk. To reduce biases from unmeasured confounding, we performed a bidirectional, two-sample Mendelian randomization analysis to investigate the relationship between levels of three blood lipids (low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, and triglycerides) and endometrial cancer risk. Genetic variants associated with each of these blood lipid levels (P < 5×10-8 ) were identified as instrumental variables, and assessed using genome-wide association study data from the Endometrial Cancer Association Consortium (12,906 cases and 108,979 controls) and the Global Lipids Genetic Consortium (n=188,578). Mendelian randomization analyses found genetically raised LDL cholesterol levels to be associated with lower risks of endometrial cancer of all histologies combined, and of endometrioid and non-endometrioid subtypes. Conversely, higher genetically predicted HDL cholesterol levels were associated with increased risk of non-endometrioid endometrial cancer. After accounting for the potential confounding role of obesity (as measured by genetic variants associated with body mass index), the association between genetically predicted increased LDL cholesterol levels and lower endometrial cancer risk remained significant, especially for non-endometrioid endometrial cancer. There was no evidence to support a role for triglycerides in endometrial cancer development. Our study supports a role for LDL and HDL cholesterol in the development of non-endometrioid endometrial cancer. Further studies are required to understand the mechanisms underlying these findings.

19.
Neurochem Res ; 45(10): 2302-2311, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32681444

RESUMO

Spinal cord injury (SCI) is one of the diseases with high probability of causing disability in human beings, and there is no reliable treatment at present. Neuronal apoptosis is a vital component of secondary injury and plays a critical role in the development of neurological dysfunction after spinal cord injury. In this study, we found that the expression and distribution of HAX-1 in neurons increased 1 day after SCI. PC12 cells overexpressing HAX-1 showed decreased apoptosis and PC12 cells are more likely to undergo apoptosis after down-regulating HAX-1, which was confirmed via TUNEL experiments. We found GRP94 showed the same trend as HAX-1 in expression and interacted with HAX-1 and IRE-1 in both spinal cord tissue and PC12 cells, and this interaction seems to be enhanced after SCI. When the expression of HAX-1 was up-regulated, GRP94 also increased, but IRE-1 did not change at all. Further studies showed that overexpression of HAX-1 decreased the expression of pIRE-1, rather than IRE-1, and downstream proteins of the IRE signaling pathway (Caspase12, pJNK and CHOP) were significantly reduced, and vice versa. In animals treated with HAX-1 expressing adenovirus there are more neuronal cells remaining in the damaged spinal cord tissue, and hindlimb motor function of rats was significantly improved. So, we speculate that HAX-1 might play a role in protecting neurons from apoptosis after SCI by regulating the IRE-1 signaling pathway via promoting the dissociation of GRP94 from IRE-1. This may provide a theoretical basis and a potential therapeutic target for clinical improvement of neural function recovery after SCI.

20.
Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol ; 59(4): 565-569, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32653130

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to compare the surgical outcomes between hysterectomy by transvaginal natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (vNOTES) and laparoscopic total hysterectomy (LTH). MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study is a retrospective chart analysis. From January 1, 2015, to December 31, 2017, a total of 183 patients of reproductive age with an indication for hysterectomy due to non-prolapsed and benign uterine diseases were enrolled. After exclusion, 20 patients were included in the vNOTES group, and 66 patients were included in the LTH group. Various post-operative surgical outcomes such as operative time, blood loss, uterus weight, a decrease in hemoglobin level on post-operative day one, post-operative pain scale, complications, length of hospitalization, and re-admission rate were measured. RESULTS: No difference was observed between both groups regarding operative time, blood loss, uterine weight, a decrease in hemoglobin level on post-operative day one, complications, hospital stay, and re-admission rate. Patients in the vNOTES group had significantly less post-operative pain compared with those in the LTH group (p = 0.03). CONCLUSIONS: The surgical outcomes of hysterectomy by vNOTES could be similar to those of LTH. Patients undergoing hysterectomy by vNOTES may have less post-operative pain compared with those undergoing LTH. However, the sample size was small, and the results need more evidence to confirm these findings.

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