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1.
Abdom Radiol (NY) ; 2021 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33388803

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were to determine the primary technique effectiveness (PTE), to compare the complete response and local recurrence rates between conspicuous and inconspicuous tumors using single and switching electrodes of real-time virtual sonography (RVS)-assisted radiofrequency ablation (RFA) in conspicuous and inconspicuous hepatic tumors under conventional ultrasonography (US). SUBJECTS AND METHOD: We compared the complete ablation of inconspicuous tumors with and without anatomical landmark (N = 54) with conspicuous liver tumors (N = 272). Conventional US imaging was done initially, and then these images were fused with CT or MRI arterial-venous-wash-out cross-sectional studies and synchronized with real-time US images. RESULTS: RVS-assisted RFA was technically feasible in all patients. The PTE rate after the first ablation was 94% (245/261) for conspicuous tumors, 88% (7/8) in inconspicuous tumors with landmark, and 78% (36/46) in inconspicuous tumors without landmark. The complete response (p = 0.1912 vs. p = 0.4776) and local recurrence rate (p = 0.1557 vs. p = 0.7982) were comparable in conspicuous tumors of both HCC and liver metastasis group when single or multiple switching was used. The cumulative local recurrence in the conspicuous and inconspicuous tumors of the HCC group (p = 0.9999) was almost parallel after 12 (10% vs. 4%) and 24 (13% vs. 4%) months of follow-up. In the liver metastasis group, the cumulative local recurrence for conspicuous tumors (p = 0.9564) was nearly equal after 12 and 24 months of monitoring (24% vs. 27%) while no recurrence was incurred for the inconspicuous tumors. CONCLUSION: RVS-assisted RFA is an effective tool for the treatment of conspicuous and inconspicuous HCC and hepatic metastasis.

2.
J Psychopharmacol ; : 269881120965937, 2021 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33406959

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dysfunction of the N-methyl-D-aspartate glutamate receptor is involved in the putative pathology of schizophrenia. There is growing interest in the potential of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor modulators to improve the symptoms of schizophrenia, but the evidence for the use of glutamatergic agents for augmenting schizophrenia remains inconclusive. AIMS: We conducted a meta-analysis to test the efficacy and safety of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor modulator supplements in patients with schizophrenia. METHODS: Following a systemic search in MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane and Scopus, 40 double-blinded, randomised, placebo-controlled trials involving 4937 patients with schizophrenia were included in this meta-analysis. The change in the severity of symptoms among patients with schizophrenia was defined as the primary outcome, whereas the safety profiles of the intervention, including the discontinuation rate and adverse events, were defined as secondary outcomes. RESULTS: When added to antipsychotic treatments, N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor modulators improved multiple schizophrenia symptoms, particularly negative symptoms, and had satisfactory side effects and safety profile. Among the seven glutamatergic agents analysed, glycine, D-serine and sarcosine had better treatment profiles than other agents, and NMDA receptor co-agonists, as a group, provided a reduction in schizophrenia symptoms compared to antipsychotic treatments without supplementation. Augmentation with N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor modulators was only effective among patients treated with antipsychotics other than clozapine. CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate that N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor modulators, particularly with glycine, D-serine and sarcosine, are more beneficial than the placebo in treating schizophrenia, and the effects extended to both positive and negative symptoms, when augmented with antipsychotics other than clozapine.

3.
Nanoscale ; 2021 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33404572

RESUMO

The high information content of proteins drives their hierarchical assembly and complex function, including the organization of inorganic nanomaterials. Peptoids offer an organic scaffold very similar to proteins, but with a wider solubility range and easily tunable side chains and functional groups to create a variety of self-assembling architectures with atomic precision. If we could harness this paradigm and understand the factors that govern how they direct nucleation and assembly of inorganic materials to design order within such materials, new dimensions of function and fundamental science would emerge. In this work, peptoid tubes and sheets were explored as platforms to assemble colloidal quantum dots (QDs) and clusters. We have successfully synthesized CdSe QDs with difunctionalized capping ligands containing both carboxylic acid and thiol groups and mixed them with maleimide containing peptoids, to create an assembly of the QDs on the peptoid surface via a covalent linkage. This conjugation was seen to be successful with peptoid tubes, sheets and CdSe QDs and clusters. The particles were seen to have a high preference for the peptoid surface but non-specific interactions with carboxylic acid groups on the peptoids limited control over QD density via maleimide conjugation. Replacing the carboxylic acid groups with methoxy ethers, however, allowed for control over QD density as a function of maleimide concentration. 1H NMR analysis demonstrated that binding of QDs to peptoids involved a subset of surface ligands bound through the carboxylate functional group, allowing the distal thiol to engage in a covalent linkage to the maleimide. Overall, we have shown the compatibility and control of CdSe-peptoid interactions via a covalent linkage with varying peptoid structures and CdSe particles to create complex hybrid structures.

4.
World Neurosurg ; 2021 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33412323

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Treatment for circumferential vertebral artery dissecting aneurysms (VADAs) remains challenging. Stent-assisted coil embolization is the most common treatment technique. However, this approach presents high rates of incomplete occlusion and recurrence, often requiring the addition of second or third stents for reconstruction. A flow diverter may achieve favorable clinical outcomes, but it cannot result in immediate aneurysm occlusion, and is limited by strict antiplatelets and expensive price. We report excellent results of a one-stage modified balloon-in-stent (BIS) technique for circumferential VADA. METHODS: A total of 12 patients were treated with the modified BIS technique for VADAs. A homogeneous coil was used to fill the aneurysm sac, followed by the deployment of one self-expandable stent and in-stent Scepter balloon angioplasty. Clinical presentations, outcomes, and imaging results were evaluated over at least 2 years of follow-up. RESULTS: Our 12 patients were examined during a mean follow-up period of 36.2 months (range, 2-5 years). The initial symptoms presented included subarachnoid hemorrhage (5 of 12; 41.7%), ischemia (3 of 12; 25.0%), and nonischemia (4 of 12; 33.3%). The modified BIS technique and coil embolization were successful in all patients. No technique-related complications or recanalization occurred during follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrated an innovative modified BIS technique to treat circumferential VADA by using a coiling basket followed by the deployment of a self-expandable stent and in-stent Scepter balloon angioplasty. This strategy is safe, feasible, and cost effective and was not associated with recurrence or complications over at least 2 years of follow-up.

5.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 29, 2021 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33413185

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Serum levels of procalcitonin (PCT) are considered a useful biomarker for the diagnosis of bacterial infection or inflammation. There are few reports of high PCT levels in end-stage liver disease regardless of bacterial infection. Here, we present a case of extremely high PCT levels (> 100 ng/mL) in a patient with severe cirrhosis combined with hepatic carcinoma. CASE PRESENTATION: A 65-year-old man developed end-stage cirrhosis with hepatic carcinoma. Radiographic imaging showed a massive hepatocellular carcinoma with multiple loci lack of indications of resection. Hence, transcatheter hepatic arterial chemoembolization was performed three times over a period of 4 months. Before and after interventional therapies, the biochemistry laboratory results were only slightly abnormal except for persistently high PCT concentrations (> 100 ng/mL), irrespective of the evidence for bacterial infection or sepsis. CONCLUSIONS: This case suggests that continuously high levels of PCT (> 100 ng/mL) may be present in advanced liver disease, particularly in complex situations such as decompensated cirrhosis and liver cancer, in the absence of severe infection or sepsis. This knowledge could expand the significance of PCT in liver disease.

6.
Mol Ecol Resour ; 2021 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33421343

RESUMO

Chinese mahogany (Toona sinensis) is a woody plant that is widely cultivated in China and Malaysia. T. sinensis provides important economic attributes, including as a nutritious food source, as material for traditional Chinese medicine and as a high-quality hardwood. However, the absence of a reference genome has hindered in-depth molecular and evolutionary studies of this plant. In this study, we report a high-quality T. sinensis genome assembly, with scaffolds anchored to 28 chromosomes and a total assembled length of 596 Mb (contig N50 = 1.5 Mb and scaffold N50 = 21.5 Mb). A total of 34,345 genes were predicted in the genome after homology-based and de novo annotation analyses. An evolutionary analysis showed that the genomes of T. sinensis and Populus. trichocarpa diverged approximately 99.1-103.1 million years ago, and the T. sinensis genome underwent a recent genome-wide duplication event at ~7.8 million years and one more ancient whole genome duplication event at ~71.5 million years. These results provide a high-quality chromosome-level reference genome for T. sinensis and confirm its evolutionary position at the genomic level. Such information will offer genomic resources to study the molecular mechanism of terpenoid biosynthesis and the formation of flavor compounds, which will further facilitate its molecular breeding. As the first chromosome-level genome assembled in the Meliaceae family, it will provide unique insights into the evolution of members of the Meliaceae.

7.
Curr Biol ; 2021 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33417880

RESUMO

The insect sex determination and the intimately linked dosage compensation pathways represent a challenging evolutionary puzzle that has been solved only in Drosophila melanogaster. Analyses of orthologs of the Drosophila genes identified in non-drosophilid taxa1,2 revealed that evolution of sex determination pathways is consistent with a bottom-up mode,3 where only the terminal genes within the pathway are well conserved. doublesex (dsx), occupying a bottom-most position and encoding sex-specific proteins orchestrating downstream sexual differentiation processes, is an ancient sex-determining gene present in all studied species.2,4,5 With the exception of lepidopterans, its female-specific splicing is known to be regulated by transformer (tra) and its co-factor transformer-2 (tra2).6-20 Here we show that in the African malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae, a gene, which likely arose in the Anopheles lineage and which we call femaleless (fle), controls sex determination in females by regulating splicing of dsx and fruitless (fru; another terminal gene within a branch of the sex determination pathway). Moreover, fle represents a novel molecular link between the sex determination and dosage compensation pathways. It is necessary to suppress activation of dosage compensation in females, as demonstrated by the significant upregulation of the female X chromosome genes and a correlated female-specific lethality, but no negative effect on males, in response to fle knockdown. This unexpected property, combined with a high level of conservation in sequence and function in anopheline mosquitoes, makes fle an excellent target for genetic control of all major vectors of human malaria.

8.
FEBS J ; 2021 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33400393

RESUMO

Coronaviruses (CoVs) are positive single-stranded RNA viruses that cause severe respiratory syndromes in humans, including Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS). Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by a novel Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome CoV (SARS-CoV-2) at the end of 2019 became a global pandemic. The 3C-like cysteine protease (3CLpro) process viral polyproteins to yield mature non-structural proteins, thus playing an important role in the CoV life cycle and therefore is considered a prominent target for anti-viral drugs. To date, many 3CLpro inhibitors have been reported, and their molecular mechanisms have been illustrated. Here, we briefly introduce the structural features of 3CLpro of the human-related SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2, and explore the potency and mechanism of their cognate inhibitors. This information will shed light on the development and optimization of CoV 3CLpro inhibitors, which may benefit further designation of therapeutic strategies to treat CoV diseases.

9.
Appl Opt ; 60(1): 155-161, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33362085

RESUMO

The crosstalk noise produced in the multiplexing technology of curved computer-generated holograms has caused great damage to reconstructed objects. In order to solve this problem, we propose a method to realize three-dimensional object reconstruction with low crosstalk noise impact. By multiplexing the spherical holograms in the horizontal and vertical directions, the complex amplitudes of the multiple spherical holograms with different curvatures are added to form a composed hologram. The generated hologram records many unrelated scenes of the object. According to the different angles used to generate the hologram, the original object under different viewpoints can be rebuilt, and the multiview multiplexing and reconstruction of three-dimensional objects can be realized. Simulation and optical experiments verify the feasibility of this method.

10.
J Formos Med Assoc ; 120(1 Pt 3): 697-704, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32753286

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: The neurosensory disturbance is a common complication following sagittal split ramus osteotomy (SSRO) whereas the shortest buccal bone marrow (SBM) is an important risk factor. The present study aimed to investigate the relationship between the occurrence rates of SBM among three skeletal patterns. METHODS: The cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images of 90 participants were divided into skeletal Class I, II, and III. There were six horizontal planes separated apart by a 2 mm interval; it started with plane 0 (original intact mandibular canal) to plane 5 which was 10 mm below. The data of SBM were divided into two groups (SBM ≥ 1 mm and SBM < 1 mm). With an SBM value < 1 mm, we defined a high occurrence rate of postoperative neurosensory abnormality or unfavorable split. RESULTS: The Class III patients had the smallest SBM value (1.31-1.75 mm) whereas the Class II patients had the largest SBM value (1.57-2.09 mm). For the Class III patients, the highest and lowest occurrence rates of SBM were 56.5% and 43.5% respectively. For the Class II patients, the highest and lowest occurrence rates of SBM were 37.1% and 17.7% respectively. The patients with Class III malocclusion had higher occurrence rates of SBM than the patients with Class II malocclusion. CONCLUSION: Class III had a significantly higher occurrence of probability (SBM < 1 mm) than Class II. Therefore, patients with Class III were more likely to experience postoperative neurosensory abnormalities and unfavorable split than patients with Class II.

11.
J Prosthet Dent ; 125(1): 73-81, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32057487

RESUMO

STATEMENT OF PROBLEM: Limited information is available regarding the fabrication of tooth-supported interim single crowns (SCs) with either a digital or a conventional workflow. PURPOSE: The purpose of this randomized clinical trial was to compare the time efficiency and fit of interim crowns fabricated by using either a digital or a conventional workflow. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Forty participants in need of posterior tooth-supported SCs were enrolled and randomly allocated to either the digital or conventional group. In the digital group, the interim SCs were fabricated by using digital sextant scans and computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD-CAM) technology without definitive casts. The conventional group included conventional impressions and direct fabrication of the interim restorations intraorally. Five experienced and 5 less experienced clinicians were randomly assigned to fabricate the interim SCs. The total fabrication time (laboratory and clinical) was recorded for time efficiency. The fit assessment included marginal fit, proximal contact, occlusal contact, and crown morphology. The evaluated parameters were analyzed with the Mann-Whitney U Test (α=.05). RESULTS: The digital workflow required significantly less total fabrication time (laboratory and clinical) than the conventional workflow (P<.001). The less-experienced clinicians needed longer clinical time with the conventional workflow than the experienced ones (P=.023). In contrast, the laboratory time and total fabrication time were shorter for less-experienced clinicians using the digital workflow (P=.005 and P=.015). The interim SCs fabricated with the digital workflow had significantly better fit and occlusal contacts than those fabricated with the conventional workflow (P=.005 and P<.001). With the digital workflow, the interim SCs made by less-experienced clinicians were of the same quality as those made by experienced clinicians. When using the conventional workflow, the fit of the experienced clinicians was significantly better than that of the less-experienced clinicians. CONCLUSIONS: The interim SCs fabricated with a digital workflow required a shorter fabrication time and resulted in better fit than those fabricated with a conventional workflow, especially for less-experienced clinicians.


Assuntos
Técnica de Moldagem Odontológica , Planejamento de Prótese Dentária , Cerâmica , Desenho Assistido por Computador , Coroas , Adaptação Marginal Dentária , Porcelana Dentária , Humanos , Fluxo de Trabalho
12.
J Surg Oncol ; 123(1): 322-331, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32989763

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Few studies have investigated the impact of active surveillance on pathological outcome ground-glass nodules (GGNs). We focused on GGNs that needed preoperative localization before resection and compared the pathological results between GGNs that underwent early resection or active surveillance. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed data of resected GGNs between January 2017 and December 2018. GGNs were classified by early resection (Group A) and active surveillance (Group B). Group B was subclassified as no (Group B1) and with (Group B2) growth, and intergroup comparison of pathological results was undertaken. RESULTS: In total, 509 GGNs (124, 275, and 110 in Groups A, B1, and B2, respectively) were included. Malignancy (primary lung cancer) ratios were 68% and 72% in Groups A and B (p = .312) and 65% and 92% in Groups B1 and B2, respectively (p < .001). The ratios of invasive carcinoma were 21.4%, 9.6%, and 35.6% in Groups A, B1, and B2, respectively. Predictors for invasive carcinoma included history of lung cancer, GGN size ≥ 10 mm, solid size ≥ 6 mm, and GGN growth. CONCLUSIONS: The pathological findings were similar for GGNs in the early resection and active surveillance groups. However, rates of malignancy and invasive carcinoma increased in the group that manifested growth during active surveillance.

13.
Atherosclerosis ; 316: 84-89, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33109336

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The association between implanted stent types and heart failure in patients with non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) remains unknown. The current study aimed to investigate whether the implantation of a newer-generation drug-eluting stent (NG-DES) compared with that of a bare-metal stent (BMS) in patients with NSTEMI who receive an undefined duration of dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) reduces the risk of hospitalization for heart failure (HHF). METHODS: In this nationwide, population-based retrospective cohort study, propensity score matching was used on the Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database to select 8,644 pairs of patients with NSTEMI and similar baseline characteristics receiving NG-DES or BMS implantation between January 1, 2007 and December 31, 2016. A competing risk model was constructed to evaluate the risk of HHF in the NG-DES and BMS groups. Death was considered a competing risk. RESULTS: Rates of cumulative incidence competing risk for HHF at 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5-year follow-ups were lower in the NG-DES group (4.11%, 5.63%, 6.72%, 7.65%, and 8.89%, respectively) than in the BMS group (5.89%, 7.81%, 9.25%, 10.8%, and 11.9%, respectively). After adjustment for all clinical variables, NG-DES implantation was associated with a lower risk of HHF than BMS implantation after 5 years, with an adjusted subdistribution hazard ratio of 0.71 (95% CI = 0.64-0.79, p < 0.001). These results are in agreement with those of patients who received DAPT for >6 months. CONCLUSIONS: NG-DESs may reduce HHF risk in patients with NSTEMI who receive an undefined duration of DAPT.

14.
Am Heart J ; 231: 73-81, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33098810

RESUMO

Congenitally corrected transposition of the great arteries (ccTGA) is associated with various types of arrhythmia, including supraventricular tachycardia (SVT) and complete atrioventricular block (cAVB). Our study aims to characterize the arrhythmia burden, associated risk factors, arrhythmia mechanisms, and the long-term follow-up results in patients with ccTGA in a large Asian cohort. METHODS: We enrolled 104 patients (43 women and 61 men) diagnosed with ccTGA at our institution. The mean age at last follow-up was 20.8 years. RESULTS: For 40 patients (38%) with tachyarrhythmia, paroxysmal SVT (PSVT) and atrial arrhythmia were observed in 17 (16%) and 27 (26%) patients, respectively, with 4 patients (4%) having both types of SVT. The 20-year and 30-year SVT-free survival rates were 68% and 54%, respectively. Seven patients (7%) developed cAVB: 2 (2%) developed spontaneously, and the other 5 (5%) was surgically complicated (surgical risk of cAVB: 7%, all associated with ventricular septal defect repair surgery). PSVT was mostly associated with accessory pathways (5/9) but also related to twin atrioventricular nodal reentry tachycardia (3/9) and atrioventricular nodal reentry tachycardia (1/9). Most of the accessory pathways were located at tricuspid valve (9/10). Catheter ablation successfully eliminated all PSVT substrates (10/10) and most of the atrial arrhythmia substrates (3/5), with low recurrence rate. CONCLUSIONS: The arrhythmia burden in patients with ccTGA is high and increases over time. However, cAVB incidence was relatively low and kept stationary in this Asian cohort. The mechanisms of SVT are complicated and can be controlled through catheter ablation.

15.
Immunol Cell Biol ; 99(1): 49-64, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32740978

RESUMO

B-cell migration within lymph nodes (LNs) is crucial to adaptive immune responses. Chemotactic gradients are proposed to drive migration of B cells into follicles, followed by their relocation to specific zones of the follicle during activation, and ultimately egress. However, the molecular drivers of these processes and the cells generating chemotactic signals that affect B cells in human LNs are not well understood. We used immunofluorescence microscopy, flow cytometry and functional assays to study molecular mechanisms of B-cell migration within human LNs, and found subtle but important differences to previous murine models. In human LNs we find CXCL13 is prominently expressed at the follicular edge, often associated with fibroblastic reticular cells located in these areas, whereas follicular dendritic cells show minimal contribution to CXCL13 expression. Human B cells rapidly downregulate CXCR5 on encountering CXCL13, but recover CXCR5 expression in the CXCL13-low environment. These data suggest that the CXCL13 gradient in human LNs is likely to be different from that proposed in mice. We also identify CD68+ CD11c+ PU.1+ tingible body macrophages within both primary and secondary follicles as likely drivers of the sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) gradient that mediates B-cell egress from LNs, through their expression of the S1P-degrading enzyme, S1P lyase. Based on our findings, we present a model of B-cell migration within human LNs, which has both similarities and interesting differences to that proposed for mice.

16.
J Formos Med Assoc ; 120(1 Pt 3): 609-620, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32703697

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Significant associations between suicide behaviors and inappropriate suicide reports in the media have been reported. The study aimed to examine the quality of long-term suicide reports under surveillance by the Taiwan Suicide Prevention Center (TSPC). METHODS: The TSPC conducted daily surveillance with timely feedback and interactive approaches with the media professionals. To examine the reporting trends under the surveillance, daily adherence to the 12-item World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines was analyzed for print media published between 2010 and 2018, and for online media in 2017 and 2018. The trend analysis using the Cochran-Armitage test was performed to estimate the significance of adherence changes. RESULTS: In total, 5529 print reports and 16,445 person-event items from online media were reviewed. The number of suicide reports in print newspapers markedly decreased while it increased for online media. Surveillance of print media showed statistical significance of the improvement of reporting adherence to all guideline items except one item ("Do not publish photo or suicide notes"). Adherence rates were high (∼90%) for 6 of the 12 items over the study duration. Marked improvement was observed in three items: reporting details, giving simplistic reasons, and providing helpline resources. However, both "Highlight the alternatives to suicide" and "Work closely with health authorities to present the facts" items had the lowest adherence. Online media had similar findings and adherence profile as the print media. CONCLUSION: The quality of suicide reports significantly improved in most WHO guideline items. Development of psychiatric-media liaisons may be beneficial for further improvement.

17.
J Dermatol ; 48(1): 92-95, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33180345

RESUMO

Drug-induced hypersensitivity syndrome (DIHS) is a type of severe drug adverse reaction with high morbidity and mortality. DIHS patients have been reported to subsequently develop autoimmune disease, which may be followed by end-organ decompensation. We report a 47-year-old woman who presented with fever, generalized maculopapular eruption, facial edema and eosinophilia with liver function impairment after taking celecoxib and sulfasalazine for 1 month. The patient was diagnosed with definite DIHS. The patient was treated with immunosuppressants including systemic corticosteroid for approximately 1.5 years due to recurrent episodes. Reactivation of human herpesvirus 6 and possible reactivation of cytomegalovirus were detected. Generalized hypopigmentation of the skin and leukotrichia were noted 4 months after the onset of DIHS. Histopathological examination confirmed the diagnosis of vitiligo. Some spontaneous repigmentation was noted 4 years after DIHS without specific treatment. Further immunoserology study showed elevated plasma C-X-C motif chemokine 10 level, which is related to vitiligo activity, in our patient. The occurrence of widespread vitiligo after DIHS is an extremely rare condition. This case provides an important reminder for physicians to monitor such severe complications after DIHS.

18.
Acc Chem Res ; 54(1): 81-91, 2021 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33136361

RESUMO

ConspectusNatural organisms make a wide variety of exquisitely complex, nano-, micro-, and macroscale structured materials in an energy-efficient and highly reproducible manner. During these processes, the information-carrying biomolecules (e.g., proteins, peptides, and carbohydrates) enable (1) hierarchical organization to assemble scaffold materials and execute high-level functions and (2) exquisite control over inorganic materials synthesis, generating biominerals whose properties are optimized for their functions. Inspired by nature, significant efforts have been devoted to developing functional materials that can rival those natural molecules by mimicking in vivo functions using engineered proteins, peptides, DNAs, sequence-defined synthetic molecules (e.g., peptoids), and other biomimetic polymers. Among them, peptoids, a new type of synthetic mimetics of peptides and proteins, have received particular attention because they combine the merits of both synthetic polymers (e.g., high chemical stability and efficient synthesis) and biomolecules (e.g., sequence programmability and biocompatibility). The lack of both chirality and hydrogen bonds in their backbone results in a highly designable peptoid-based system with reduced structural complexity and side chain-chemistry-dominated properties.In this Account, we present our recent efforts in this field by programming amphiphilic peptoid sequences for (1) the controlled self-assembly into different hierarchically structured nanomaterials with favorable properties and (2) manipulating inorganic (nano)crystal nucleation, growth, and assembly into superstructures. First, we designed a series of amphiphilic peptoids with controlled side chain chemistries that self-assembled into 1D highly stiff and dynamic nanotubes, 2D membrane-mimetic nanosheets, hexagonally patterned nanoribbons, and 3D nanoflowers. These crystalline nanostructures exhibited sequence-dependent properties and showed promise for different applications. The corresponding peptoid self-assembly pathways and mechanisms were also investigated by leveraging in situ atomic force microscopy studies and molecular dynamics simulations, which showed precise sequence dependency. Second, inspired by peptide- and protein-controlled formation of hierarchical inorganic nanostructures in nature, we developed peptoid-based biomimetic approaches for controlled synthesis of inorganic materials (e.g., noble metals and calcite), in which we took advantage of the substantial side chain chemistry of peptoids and investigated the relationship between the peptoid sequences and the morphology and growth kinetics of inorganic materials. For example, to overcome the challenges (e.g., complexity of protein- and peptide-folding, poor thermal and chemical stabilities) facing the area of protein- and peptide-controlled synthesis of inorganic materials, we recently reported the design of sequence-defined peptoids for controlled synthesis of highly branched plasmonic gold particles. Moreover, we developed a rule of thumb for designing peptoids that predictively enabled the morphological evolution from spherical to coral-shaped gold nanoparticles (NPs). With this Account, we hope to stimulate the research interest of chemists and materials scientists and promote the predictive synthesis of functional and robust materials through the design of sequence-defined synthetic molecules.

19.
Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys ; 109(2): 474-484, 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32898609

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The objective of this study was to determine whether pretreatment neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) could predict survival outcomes and liver toxicity in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients treated with stereotactic ablative radiation therapy (SABR). METHODS AND MATERIALS: In this retrospective study we collected pretreatment NLR of HCC patients treated with SABR between December 2007 and August 2018 and determined its association with overall survival (OS), progression-free survival, and radiation-related liver toxicity defined as an increase in the Child-Turcotte-Pugh score by ≥2 within 3 months after SABR in the absence of disease progression. RESULTS: A total of 153 patients with a median follow-up of 13.3 months were included. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis found that an NLR ≥2.4 was optimum (area under the curve, 0.762; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.682-0.841, P < .001) for predicting poor 1-year OS (38.2% vs 83.6%, P < .001). Multivariable analysis demonstrated that NLR was significantly associated with OS, both as a continuous (P = .006) and a binary variable (NLR set at 2.4; P = .003). Multiple tumors (P = .003), macrovascular invasion (P = .024), extrahepatic spread (P = .002), and albumin-bilirubin score (P = .020) were also significant predictors of OS. Elevated NLR independently prognosticated poor progression-free survival (P = .016). Liver toxicity was seen in 22 evaluable patients (15.4%). Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis found NLR ≥4.0 was optimum at predicting liver toxicity (31.4% vs 10.2%, P = .005). A higher NLR (P = .049) and albumin-bilirubin score (P = .002) were independent risk factors for liver toxicity. CONCLUSIONS: NLR is an objective and ubiquitous inflammatory marker that can predict OS and liver toxicity in HCC patients undergoing SABR. NLR could be a useful biomarker for patient risk stratification and therapeutic decision-making.

20.
Environ Pollut ; 268(Pt B): 115952, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33168376

RESUMO

Severe haze episodes in cold season in Beijing have been mitigated greatly during the last decade. However, the changes in aerosol chemistry as responses to the large reductions in gaseous precursors during the two phases of clean air action, i.e., phase Ⅰ (2013-2017) and phase Ⅱ (2018-2020), are less understood. Here we characterized such changes in cold season (January-March) by using five-year real-time aerosol particle composition measurements. Our results showed consistently large reductions for all chemical species from 2013 to 2020 with the largest decreases being chloride (95%) and organics (74%) followed by sulfate (69%), while the decreases in nitrate were comparatively small (44%). However, the contributions of sulfate were fairly stable despite the increased nitrate contributions from 18% in 2013 to 30% in 2020. Organic aerosol (OA) composition also changed significantly since 2018 with large increases in the contributions of secondary OA and corresponding decreases in primary OA from fossil fuel combustion and cooking emissions. The changes in aerosol chemistry were closely related to the different reductions in gaseous precursors, e.g., SO2 vs. NO2, and the enhanced secondary processes, e.g., the increases in O3, sulfur and nitrogen oxidation efficiency. Further, we found that the changes in aerosol chemistry in cold season during the phase Ⅱ of clean air action (2018-2020) started to slow down with relatively small changes in PM2.5 and secondary inorganic species. Our results point towards a future challenge in mitigating air pollution in cold season, and the need of more stringent and scientific strategies to control secondary aerosol pollution in an environment with enhanced oxidation capacity and high precursors.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Aerossóis/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Pequim , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Material Particulado/análise , Estações do Ano
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