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1.
Acc Chem Res ; 2022 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35025201

RESUMO

ConspectusBecause of the deterioration of global water quality, the occurrence of chemical and microbial contaminants in water raises serious concerns for the health of the population. Identifying and developing effective and environmentally friendly water treatment technologies are critical to obtain clean water. Among the various technologies for the purification of water, ultraviolet photolysis of chlorine (UV/chlorine), an emerging advanced oxidation process (AOP), has multiple functions for the control of contaminants via the production of hydroxyl radicals (HO·) and reactive chlorine species (RCS), such as Cl·, ClO·, and Cl2·-.This Account centers around the radical chemistry of RCS and HO· in different water matrices and their roles and mechanisms in the abatement of contaminants. The concentrations of Cl·, ClO·, and Cl2·- are comparable to or higher than those of HO· (10-14 to 10-13 M). The reactivities of RCS are more selective than HO· with a broader range of second-order rate constants (k). The k values of Cl· toward most aromatics are higher or similar as compared to those of HO·, while those of Cl2·- and ClO· are less reactive but more selective toward aromatics containing electron-donating functional groups. Their major reaction mechanisms with Cl· are electron transfer and addition, while those with ClO· and Cl2·- primarily involve electron transfer. As for aliphatics, their reactivities with both HO· and RCS are much lower than those of aromatics. The reaction mechanisms for most of them with Cl· and Cl2·- are hydrogen abstraction, except for olefins, which are addition. In addition, RCS greatly contribute to the inactivation of microbial contaminants.Toward future application, the UV/chlorine process has both pros and cons. Compared with the traditional HO·-based AOP of UV/H2O2, UV/chlorine is more efficient and energy-saving for oxidation and disinfection, and its efficiency is less affected by water matrix components. However, the formation of toxic byproducts in UV/chlorine limits its application scenarios. In dissolved organic matter (DOM)-rich water, the formation of halogenated byproducts is enhanced in UV/chlorine. In the presence of ammonia, reactive nitrogen species (RNS) (e.g., ·NO and ·NO2) are involved, and highly toxic nitro(so) products such as nitro(so)-phenolics and N-nitrosodimethylamine are generated. For a niche application, the UV/chlorine process is recommended to be utilized in water with low levels of DOM and ammonia.Strategies should be developed to make full use of highly reactive species (RCS and HO·) for the abatement of target contaminants and to reduce the formation of toxic byproducts. For example, the UV/chlorine process can be used in tandem with other treatments to create multiple barriers for the production of safe water. In addition, halogen radicals are very important in ecosystems as well as other areas such as medical therapy and organic synthesis. UV/chlorine is the most efficient homogeneous system to generate halogen radicals, and thus it provides a perfect system to investigate the fates of halogen radicals for interdisciplinary research.

2.
Sci Total Environ ; 804: 150140, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34509841

RESUMO

With the rapid development of society, the soil and water environments in many countries are suffering from severe pollution. Pollutants in different phases will eventually gather into the soil and water environments, and a series of migrations and transformations will take place at ecohydrological interfaces with water flow. However, it is still not clear how ecohydrological interfaces affect the migration and the transformation of pollutants. Therefore, this paper summarizes the physical, ecological, and biogeochemical characteristics of ecohydrological interfaces on the basis of introducing the development history of ecohydrology and the concept of ecohydrological interfaces. The effects of ecohydrological interfaces on the migration and transformation of heavy metals, organic pollutants, and carbon­nitrogen­phosphorus (C-N-P) pollutants are emphasized. Lastly, the prospects of applying ecohydrological interfaces for the removal of pollutants from the soil and water environment are put forward, including strengthening the ability to monitor and simulate ecohydrological systems at micro and macro scales, enhancing interdisciplinary research, and identifying main influencing factors that can provide theoretical basis and technical support.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Metais Pesados , Poluentes do Solo , Metais Pesados/análise , Nitrogênio , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise
3.
J Sep Sci ; 2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34856057

RESUMO

A series of low-cost hyper-crosslinked polymers were prepared by an easy one-step Friedel-Crafts reaction. The synthesized hyper-crosslinked polymers exhibited remarkably porous structure, large surface area, and hydroxyl groups, which can be employed as an ideal adsorbent material for novel sorbent-phase extraction techniques. Based on this, using hyper-crosslinked polymers as sorbent and coating, three novel extraction methods, including micro-solid-phase extraction, dispersive solid phase extraction, and solid-phase microextraction, were explored and evaluated for simultaneous measurement of five endocrine-disrupting compounds (triclosan and bisphenol A, tetrabromobisphenol A, tetrabromobisphenol A bisallylether, and tetrabromobisphenol A bis(2,3-dibromopropyl ether)) in environment water prior to HPLC-UV. The influence of experimental parameters on three extraction techniques such as extraction time, the amount of hyper-crosslinked polymers, extraction temperature, ionic strength, and desorption conditions were optimized. Three previously mentioned methods provided limits of detection ranged from 0.01 to 0.05 µg L-1 , high recoveries (85-99%) with relative standard deviations of 1.7%-5.6%. This study presented the merits and disadvantages of three proposed extraction methods and their potential for effective monitoring of hazardous pollutants in real water samples. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

4.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 32(11): 4029-4038, 2021 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34898119

RESUMO

Understanding the spatiotemporal evolution characteristics of the risk of late frost damage has scientific guiding significance for optimizing the regional agricultural production layout and varie-ty tuning. Based on the daily meteorological data of 65 weather stations in the southwest China tea region from 1971 to 2020, we analyzed variation characteristics of the last frost date (LFD), tea bud open date (BOD), and their relationships, constructed frost damage probability index and frost damage severity index of spring shoots of shrubby tea trees, and analyzed the spatiotemporal evolution chara-cteristics of the late frost damage risk of shrub tea trees in the southwest tea region. The results showed that both the BOD and LFD had a significant ahead of trend from 1971 to 2020 and the early rate of the LFD was relatively faster than that of the BOD in the southwest tea region. The number of days that the tea buds were exposed to late frost damage after germination showed an non-significant declining trend. The risk of late frost damage of shrubby tea trees in most parts of the southwest tea region showed a declining trend, but Guizhou tea planting region showed an insignificant increasing trend. The risk of late frost damage to shrubby tea trees was high in the western marginal mountai-nous areas of Sichuan tea region, and the junction of Guizhou and Yunnan tea region. The risk of late frost damage was at low level in Sichuan Basin, southern Yunnan tea region, and southern Guizhou tea region. The risk of late frost damage to shrubby tea trees in the northern and central-eastern parts of Yunnan tea region showed an obvious decreasing trend, but increased significantly in the central and eastern parts of Guizhou tea region.


Assuntos
Agricultura , Camellia sinensis , China , Estações do Ano , Chá
5.
Plants (Basel) ; 10(12)2021 Dec 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34961151

RESUMO

Understanding carbon allocation in plants is essential for explaining their growth strategies during environmental adaptation. However, the role of mobile carbon in plant growth and its response to habitat conditions is still disputed. In degraded meadow (alpine sandy grassland) and non-degraded meadow (typical alpine meadow and swamp meadow) on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, we measured the monthly averages of above-ground biomass (AGB) and below-ground biomass (BGB) of the investigated species in each meadow and the average concentration of non-structural carbohydrates (NSCs), an indicator of carbon storage. Below-ground organs had higher concentrations and showed more seasonal variation in NSCs than above-ground organs. BGB had a positive correlation with below-ground NSCs levels. However, AGB had no clear relationship with above-ground NSCs levels. Plants in sandy grasslands had higher total NSC, soluble sugars, fructose, and sucrose concentrations and lower starch concentrations in below-ground organs than plants in alpine or swamp meadows. Overall, NSCs storage, particularly soluble sugars, is a major process underlying the pattern of below-ground growth, but not above-ground growth, in the meadow ecosystem of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, and degraded meadow strengthens this process. These results suggest that the extent of carbon storage in non-photosynthetic organs of alpine herbs impacts their growth and habitat adaptation.

6.
Nat Ecol Evol ; 2021 Dec 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34969986

RESUMO

Despite polymorphic duplicate genes' importance for the early stages of duplicate gene evolution, they are less studied than old gene duplicates. Two essential questions thus remain poorly addressed: how does dosage sensitivity, imposed by stoichiometry in protein complexes or by X chromosome dosage compensation, affect the emergence of complete duplicate genes? Do introns facilitate intergenic and intragenic chimaerism as predicted by the theory of exon shuffling? Here, we analysed new data for Drosophila and public data for humans, to characterize polymorphic duplicate genes with respect to dosage, exon-intron structures and allele frequencies. We found that complete duplicate genes are under dosage constraint induced by protein stoichiometry but potentially tolerated by X chromosome dosage compensation. We also found that in the intron-rich human genome, gene fusions and intragenic duplications extensively use intronic breakpoints generating in-frame proteins, in accordance with the theory of exon shuffling. Finally, we found that only a small proportion of complete or partial duplicates are at high frequencies, indicating the deleterious nature of dosage or gene structural changes. Altogether, we demonstrate how mechanistic factors including dosage sensitivity and exon-intron structure shape the short-term functional consequences of gene duplication.

7.
Water Res ; 209: 117944, 2021 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34923438

RESUMO

The radical chemistry of SO4·- is strongly affected by its interaction with chloride in natural waters, during which SO4·- can be converted to HO· and reactive chlorine species (RCS). This study investigated the effects of chloride on gemfibrozil (GFRZ) transformation via the UV/peroxydisulfate (PDS) process, elucidating the kinetics, degradation pathways and solution toxicity. The pseudo-first-order rate constants (k') of GFRZ by UV/PDS changed slightly from 1.0 × 10-3 s-1 to 9.3 × 10-4 s-1 as the chloride content increased from 0 to 10 mM because the increase in HO· and RCS levels compensated for the decrease in SO4·- concentration. However, the transformation pathways in the presence of chloride changed significantly. From the transient absorption spectra, we inferred that RCS and SO4·- attacked GFRZ mainly through hydrogen abstraction and/or electron transfer, while HO· interacted with the GFRZ aromatic ring by addition. Hydroxylation, carboxylation and cleavage products were enhanced in UV/PDS/Cl- compared to UV/PDS through the addition of HO· and the cleavage of CO bonds by RCS, and total organic chlorine (TOCl) was undetectable. Interestingly, the acute toxicity was lowest in UV/PDS/Cl-, with an inhibition percentage of 1% at 30 min. The higher inhibition percentages in UV/PDS (13%) and UV alone (53%) at 30 min likely resulted from the stronger capacity of HO· and RCS to oxidize aldehydes to carboxylic groups and cleave CO bonds, respectively, than that of SO4·-. This study provides a better understanding of contaminant transformation mechanisms under UV/PDS treatment at chloride levels present in natural waters.

8.
Genes (Basel) ; 12(11)2021 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34828425

RESUMO

Origination of new genes are of inherent interest of evolutionary geneticists for decades, but few studies have addressed the general pattern in a fish lineage. Using our recent released whole genome data of flatfishes, which evolved one of the most specialized body plans in vertebrates, we identified 1541 (6.9% of the starry flounder genes) flatfish-lineage-specific genes. The origination pattern of these flatfish new genes is largely similar to those observed in other vertebrates, as shown by the proportion of DNA-mediated duplication (1317; 85.5%), RNA-mediated duplication (retrogenes; 96; 6.2%), and de novo-origination (128; 8.3%). The emergence rate of species-specific genes is 32.1 per Mya and the whole average level rate for the flatfish-lineage-specific genes is 20.9 per Mya. A large proportion (31.4%) of these new genes have been subjected to selection, in contrast to the 4.0% in primates, while the old genes remain quite similar (66.4% vs. 65.0%). In addition, most of these new genes (70.8%) are found to be expressed, indicating their functionality. This study not only presents one example of systematic new gene identification in a teleost taxon based on comprehensive phylogenomic data, but also shows that new genes may play roles in body planning.

9.
Environ Sci Technol ; 55(23): 15961-15968, 2021 12 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34793136

RESUMO

Dermal absorption of gaseous chemicals is an important contributor to increased health risk and has yet to be adequately addressed due to the lack of available sampling techniques. In the present study, a novel personal passive sampler consisting of a housing (embracing a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) disk as the sorbent phase, a membrane filter, and a stainless-steel mesh) and a watchband (traditional wristband) was constructed and used to characterize gaseous phthalates (PAEs) near the air-skin interface. In a real-life setting, the utility of the passive sampler was validated by comparing the composition profiles of PAEs in the PDMS disks and in active samples and watchbands. The compositions of PAEs were consistent in disks and gaseous constituents from ambient air, with low-molecular-weight (<306 g mol-1) PAEs accounting for 87-100% and approximately 100%, respectively. Appreciable amounts of diisononyl phthalate, diisodecyl phthalate, dinonyl phthalate, and skin lipid (e.g., squalene) were detected in watchbands but not in disks. Apparently, the passive sampler can prevent particles and skin-related chemicals from adhering to the disk and collect gaseous PAEs only. The vast majority of PAEs in watchbands was associated with nongaseous constituents. The present study demonstrated that the sampling strategy is a key factor in exposure assessment.

10.
ACS Sens ; 6(10): 3715-3723, 2021 10 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34641672

RESUMO

The specific identification and detection of a virus are the critical factors to identify and control an epidemic situation. In this study, a novel photonic-magnetic responsive virus-molecularly imprinted photochemical sensor was constructed for recognition of enterovirus 71. As designed, the double-bond-modified magnetic metal organic framework and 4-(4'-acryloyloxyazo) benzoic acid were used as a magnetic carrier and light-responsive functional monomer, respectively. The structure of the recognition site of the virus-molecularly imprinted nanospheres can be photo-switched between two different structures to achieve rapid release and specific binding to the target virus. Additionally, the introduction of a magnetic core enables a rapid separation and recycling of imprinted particles. The device achieves a performance with high-specificity recognition (imprinting factor = 5.1) and an ultrahigh sensitivity with a detection limit of 9.5 × 10-3 U/mL (3.9 fM). Moreover, it has good reproducibility and can be stored for as long as 6 months. Thus, the approach used in this work opens a new avenue for the construction of multiresponsive virus sensors.


Assuntos
Enterovirus Humano A , Enterovirus , Impressão Molecular , Fenômenos Magnéticos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
11.
BMC Med Genomics ; 14(1): 242, 2021 10 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34627237

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Joubert syndrome (JS) is a group of rare congenital disorders characterized by cerebellar vermis dysplasia, developmental delay, and retina dysfunctions. Herein, we reported a Chinese patient carrying a new variant in the AHI1 gene with mild JS, and the 3D structure of the affected Jouberin protein was also predicted. CASE PRESENTATION: The patient was a 31-year-old male, who presented difficulty at finding toys at the age of 2 years, night blindness from age of 5 years, intention tremor and walking imbalance from 29 years of age. Tubular visual field and retina pigmentation were observed on ophthalmology examinations, as well as molar tooth sign on brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Whole exome sequence revealed two compound heterozygous variants at c.2105C>T (p.T702M) and c.1330A>T (p.I444F) in AHI1 gene. The latter one was a novel mutation. The 3D protein structure was predicted using I-TASSER and PyMOL, showing structural changes from functional ß-sheet and α-helix to non-functional D-loop, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Mild JS due to novel variants at T702M and I444F in the AHI1 gene was reported. The 3D-structural changes in Jouberin protein might underlie the pathogenesis of JS.

12.
J Genet Genomics ; 2021 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34538772

RESUMO

The origination of new genes contributes to the biological diversity of life. New genes may quickly build their network, exert important functions, and generate novel phenotypes. Dating gene age and inferring the origination mechanisms of new genes, like primate-specific genes, is the basis for the functional study of the genes. However, no comprehensive resource of gene age estimates across species is available. Here, we systematically date the age of 9,102,113 protein-coding genes from 565 species in the Ensembl and Ensembl Genomes databases, including 82 bacteria, 57 protists, 134 fungi, 58 plants, 56 metazoa, and 178 vertebrates, using a protein-family-based pipeline with Wagner parsimony algorithm. We also collect gene age estimate data from other studies and uniformly distribute the gene age estimates to time ranges in a million years for comparison across studies. All the data are cataloged into GenOrigin (http://genorigin.chenzxlab.cn/), a user-friendly new database of gene age estimates, where users can browse gene age estimates by species, age, and gene ontology. In GenOrigin, the information such as gene age estimates, annotation, gene ontology, ortholog, and paralog, as well as detailed gene presence/absence views for gene age inference based on the species tree with evolutionary timescale, is provided to researchers for exploring gene functions.

13.
Anal Cell Pathol (Amst) ; 2021: 5555452, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34350095

RESUMO

Objective: Increased expression of KDM1A and decreased expression of DACT1 in cervical cancer cells were noticed in a previous study. This study is aimed at exploring the mechanism behind the KDM1A regulation on DACT1 in cervical cancer cells. Methods: The expression profile of KDM1A and DACT1 in cervical cancer tissues was searched in TCGA database. In vitro experiments verified the effect of KDM1A and DACT1 on proliferation and migration ability of cervical cancer cell lines after cell transfection. The interaction of KDM1A with HDAC1 was identified by coimmunoprecipitation (Co-IP). The expression levels of KDM1A and DACT1 in cervical cancer cell lines were determined by qRT-PCR and western blot. Results: TCGA database showed that cervical cancer tissues had elevated expression of KDM1A and decreased expression of DACT1, which was consistent with the observation in cervical cancer cell lines. KDM1A was found to negatively regulate DACT1 through histone deacetylation. Meanwhile, the downregulation of KDM1A or overexpression of DACT1 could suppress the cell proliferation and migration ability in HeLa and SiHa cells. Cotransfection of KDM1A and DACT1 overexpression could reverse the increased cell proliferation and migration ability induced by KDM1A overexpression. Conclusion: KDM1A can downregulate DACT1 expression through histone deacetylation and therefore suppress the proliferation and migration of cervical cancer cells.

14.
Anat Rec (Hoboken) ; 2021 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34358403

RESUMO

Bilirubin encephalopathy (BE) is a neurological syndrome in newborns, mainly caused by neuronal injury due to excessive oxidative stress produced by unconjugated bilirubin (UCB). Neuroglobin (NGB) can protect the brain by removing oxidative stress species, but its expression and significance in BE are not clear. To address this question, the neonatal BE model was established by injecting UCB into the cerebellomedullary cistern of 7-day-old SD rats. Rats were divided into a sham and BE 6 hr group, BE 12 hr group, BE 24 hr group, and BE 7 d group according to UCB action times. Hematoxylin/eosin and Nissl staining, and electron microscopy were employed to observe the pathological and ultrastructural changes of nerve cells in each group. Immunofluorescence staining was used to detect NGB expression sites and cell types. Western blotting and quantitative PCR served to detect NGB expression and test the mitochondrial apoptosis signal pathway. The results confirm that UCB can lead to pathological damage and ultrastructural changes in rats' temporal cortex, increasing the expression of apoptosis-related proteins Bax, Bcl-2, Cyt c, Caspase-3, and neuronal NGB. UCB promotes NGB expression with an increase in action time and reach a peak at 12 hr. In summary, brain damage induced by UCB will cause an increase in NGB expression, the increasing NGB can inhibit neuron apoptosis in early BE phases. Therefore, promoting the expression of endogenous NGB, to act as a neuroprotective agent may be a potential treatment strategy for BE.

15.
Water Res ; 204: 117569, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34461497

RESUMO

The UV/monochloramine (UV/NH2Cl) process has attracted increasing attention in water treatment, in which hydroxyl radicals (HO•), reactive chlorine species (RCS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) are produced. This study investigated the effects of water matrices including halides, natural organic matter (NOM), alkalinity and pH, on the degradation kinetic of a variety of micropollutants and radical chemistry in the UV/NH2Cl process. The presence of chloride blunted HO• and Cl• impacts, but enhanced Cl2•- effect on micropollutants reactive toward Cl2•-. The presence of 30 µM bromide led to an 82% decrease in the specific pseudo-first-order rate constants (k') by HO• (kHO•'), and significantly diminished RCS efficacy. Reactive bromine species (RBS) were formed in the presence of bromide, while the contribution could not compensate for the decrease of HO• and RCS due to their lower reactivity toward micropollutants. Iodide rapidly transformed to HOI via reacting with NH2Cl, which resulted in a 59% decrease of kHO•' and 12% ∼ 100% decreases of k' by reactive halogen species (RHS) and RNS (kRHS + RNS') for most micropollutants. Nevertheless, k' of phenolic compounds, such as paracetamol, bisphenol A and salbutamol, increased in the presence of iodide by 78%, 360% and 130%, respectively, due to the roles of HOI and reactive iodine species (RIS). Bicarbonate decreased the contributions of HO• and RCS, but enhanced that of CO3•- for micropollutants reactive toward CO3•-. The presence of 1 mg/L NOM scavenged over half the amount of HO•, and also consumed RCS and RNS, resulting in significantly decreased removal of micropollutants. High pH value witnessed enhanced degradation for those micropollutants reactive toward RCS and RNS through deprotonation. The degradation of most micropollutants was inhibited in real drinking water and in the coexistence of halides. This study provides a better understanding of radical chemistry in the UV/NH2Cl process under a practical water treatment condition.


Assuntos
Água Potável , Osteosclerose , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Purificação da Água , Brometos , Cloretos , Cloro , Humanos , Cinética , Oxirredução , Raios Ultravioleta
16.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 17359, 2021 08 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34462508

RESUMO

Zhoushan cattle are an endangered cattle breed in the Zhoushan islands in China. Since Zhoushan cattle have been bred in isolation, they show unique characteristics, such as dark black coat colour. However, no studies have been conducted on the genome of Zhoushan cattle. Here, we performed whole-genome sequencing of seven individuals of Zhoushan cattle and nine cattle in Wenling, geographically close to the Zhoushan islands. By integrating our data and publicly-available data, we found that Zhoushan cattle are genetically highly similar to Bos indicus cattle in south-eastern China. Furthermore, by identifying the genomic regions shared between Zhoushan cattle and Angus cattle, a Bos taurus breed, we found that the p.F195L mutation in melanocyte-stimulating hormone receptor (MC1R) could be associated with their dark black coat colour. Taken together, our results provide a valuable resource for characterising the uniqueness of Zhoushan cattle.

17.
Cancer Med ; 10(20): 7404-7417, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34432380

RESUMO

Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a malignancy that is endemic to China and Southeast Asia. Radiotherapy is the usual treatment, however, radioresistance remains a major reason for failure. This study aimed to find key radioresistance regulation models and marker genes of NPC and clarify the mechanism of NPC radioresistance by RNA sequencing and bioinformatics analysis of the differences in gene expression profiles between radioresistant and radiosensitive NPC tissues. A total of 21 NPC biopsy specimens with different radiosensitivity were analyzed by RNA sequencing. Differentially expressed genes in RNA sequencing data were identified using R software. The differentially expressed gene data derived from RNA sequencing as well as prior knowledge in the form of pathway databases were integrated to find sub-networks of related genes. The data of RNA sequencing with the GSE48501 data from the GEO database were combined to further search for more reliable genes associated with radioresistance of NPC. Survival analyses using the Kaplan-Meier method based on the expression of the genes were conducted to facilitate the understanding of the clinical significance of the differentially expressed genes. RT-qPCR was performed to validate the expression levels of the differentially expressed genes. We identified 1182 differentially expressed genes between radioresistant and radiosensitive NPC tissue samples. Compared to the radiosensitive group, 22 genes were significantly upregulated and 1160 genes were downregulated in the radioresistant group. In addition, 10 major NPC radiation resistance network models were identified through integration analysis with known NPC radiation resistance-associated genes and mechanisms. Furthermore, we identified three core genes, DOCK4, MCM9, and POPDC3 among 12 common downregulated genes in the two datasets, which were validated by RT-qPCR. The findings of this study provide new clues for clarifying the mechanism of NPC radioresistance, and further experimental studies of these core genes are warranted.

18.
PLoS Genet ; 17(7): e1009654, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34242211

RESUMO

It is a conventionally held dogma that the genetic basis underlying development is conserved in a long evolutionary time scale. Ample experiments based on mutational, biochemical, functional, and complementary knockdown/knockout approaches have revealed the unexpectedly important role of recently evolved new genes in the development of Drosophila. The recent progress in the genome-wide experimental testing of gene effects and improvements in the computational identification of new genes (< 40 million years ago, Mya) open the door to investigate the evolution of gene essentiality with a phylogenetically high resolution. These advancements also raised interesting issues in techniques and concepts related to phenotypic effect analyses of genes, particularly of those that recently originated. Here we reported our analyses of these issues, including reproducibility and efficiency of knockdown experiment and difference between RNAi libraries in the knockdown efficiency and testing of phenotypic effects. We further analyzed a large data from knockdowns of 11,354 genes (~75% of the Drosophila melanogaster total genes), including 702 new genes (~66% of the species total new genes that aged < 40 Mya), revealing a similarly high proportion (~32.2%) of essential genes that originated in various Sophophora subgenus lineages and distant ancestors beyond the Drosophila genus. The transcriptional compensation effect from CRISPR knockout were detected for highly similar duplicate copies. Knockout of a few young genes detected analogous essentiality in various functions in development. Taken together, our experimental and computational analyses provide valuable data for detection of phenotypic effects of genes in general and further strong evidence for the concept that new genes in Drosophila quickly evolved essential functions in viability during development.


Assuntos
Evolução Molecular , Duplicação Gênica/genética , Genes Essenciais/genética , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Proteínas de Drosophila/genética , Drosophila melanogaster/genética , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes/métodos , Genômica , Genótipo , Modelos Genéticos , Mutação , Fenótipo , Filogenia , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
19.
Environ Sci Technol ; 55(13): 9221-9230, 2021 07 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34138551

RESUMO

UV irradiation and chlorination have been widely used for water disinfection. However, there are some limitations, such as the risk of generating viable but nonculturable bacteria and bacteria reactivation when using UV irradiation or chlorination alone. This study comprehensively evaluated the feasibility of the UV/chlorine process in drinking water disinfection, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa was selected as the target microorganism. The number of culturable cells was effectively reduced by more than 5 orders of magnitude (5-log10) after UV, chlorine, and UV/chlorine treatments. However, intact and VBNC cells were detected at 103 to 104 cells/mL after UV and chlorine treatments, whereas they were undetectable after UV/chlorine treatment due to the primary contribution of reactive chlorine species (Cl•, Cl2•-, and ClO•). After UV/chlorine treatment, the metabolic activity determined using single cell Raman spectroscopy was much lower than that after UV. The level of toxic opr gene in P. aeruginosa decreased by more than 99% after UV/chlorine treatment. Importantly, bacterial dark reactivation was completely suppressed by UV/chlorine treatment but not UV or chlorination. This study suggests that the UV/chlorine treatment can completely damage bacteria and is promising for pathogen inactivation to overcome the limitations of UV and chlorine treatments alone.


Assuntos
Cloro , Purificação da Água , Desinfecção , Halogenação , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Raios Ultravioleta
20.
Leuk Lymphoma ; 62(11): 2703-2715, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34098836

RESUMO

We explored variables associated with patient-reported outcomes (PROs) including symptom burden, impact on daily life and work, obstacles during therapy, satisfaction level with therapy, and health-related quality of life in 1500 respondents with myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) including essential thrombocythemia (ET), polycythemia vera (PV) and myelofibrosis (MF) in a multicenter, cross-sectional study across China, a representative of the developing countries. In multivariate analyses, urban household registration and higher education level were significantly-associated with no symptoms at diagnosis in respondents with ET or MF. CALR mutation was significantly-associated with lower MPN-10 scores in respondents with MF. Higher MPN-10 scores were significantly-associated with negative impact on daily life and work as well as lower satisfaction level in respondents with ET, PV and MF. Receiving ruxolitinib was significantly-associated with high satisfaction and satisfaction in respondents with MF. In addition, other demographics and clinical variables were also impacting PROs.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mieloproliferativos , Policitemia Vera , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Transtornos Mieloproliferativos/diagnóstico , Transtornos Mieloproliferativos/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos Mieloproliferativos/epidemiologia , Medidas de Resultados Relatados pelo Paciente , Policitemia Vera/diagnóstico , Policitemia Vera/tratamento farmacológico , Policitemia Vera/epidemiologia , Qualidade de Vida
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