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1.
Dalton Trans ; 48(40): 15059-15067, 2019 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31549706

RESUMO

Transition-metal-catalyzed carbonylation provides a useful approach to synthesize carbonyl-containing compounds and their derivatives. Controlling the regio-, chemo-, and stereoselectivity remains a significant challenge and is the key to the success of transformation. In the present study, we explored the mechanism and origins of the ligand-controlled regiodivergent carbonylation of alkynes with competitive nucleophilic amino and hydroxy groups by density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The proposed mechanism involves O(N)-cyclization, CO insertion, N-H(O-H) cleavage, C-N(C-O) reductive elimination and regeneration of the catalyst. The chemoselectivity is determined by cyclization. Instead of the originally proposed switch of competitive coordination sites, a new type of concerted deprotonation/cyclization model was proposed to rationalize the ligand-tuned chemoselectivity. The electron-deficient nitrogen-containing ligand promotes the flow of electrons during cyclization, and so it favors the O-cyclization/N-carbonylation pathway. However, sterically bulky and electron-rich phosphine controls the selectivity by a combination of electronic and steric effects. The improved mechanistic understanding will enable further design of selective transition-metal-catalyzed carbonylation.

2.
J Org Chem ; 84(17): 10690-10700, 2019 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31419383

RESUMO

A computational mechanistic study has been performed on Pd(II)-catalyzed enantioselective reactions involving acetyl-protected aminomethyl oxazolines (APAO) ligands that significantly improved reactivity and selectivity in C(sp3)-H borylation. The results support a mechanism including initiation of C(sp3)-H bond activation generating a five-membered palladacycle and ligand exchange, followed by HPO42--promoted transmetalation. These resulting Pd(II) complexes further undergo sequential reductive elimination by coordination of APAO ligands and protonation to afford the enantiomeric products and deliver Pd(0) complexes, which will then proceed by oxidation and deprotonation to regenerate the catalyst. The C(sp3)-H activation is found to be the rate- and enantioselectivity-determining step, in which the APAO ligand acts as the proton acceptor to form the two enantioselectivity models. The results demonstrate that the diverse APAO ligands control the enantioselectivity by differentiating the distortion and interaction between the major and minor pathways.

3.
Inorg Chem ; 57(17): 10726-10735, 2018 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30124291

RESUMO

A computational study of Cp*CoIII/RhIII-catalyzed carboamination/olefination of N-phenoxyacetamides with alkenes was carried out to elucidate the catalyst-controlled chemoselectivity. The reaction of the two catalysts shares a similar process that involves N-H and C-H activation as well as alkene insertion. Then the reaction bifurcates at the generated seven-membered metallacycle. For Cp*CoIII catalyst, the resulting metallacycle undergoes oxidation addition, reductive elimination, and protonation to yield the carboamination product exclusively. However, the Cp*RhIII catalyst could promote the subsequent olefination pathway via sequential ß-H elimination, reductive elimination, oxidation addition, and protonation, which enables the experimentally observed mixtures of both carboamination and olefination products. Our results uncover that the higher propensity for the ß-H-elimination of the Cp*RhIII than the Cp*CoIII catalyst in the olefination pathway could be responsible for the different selectivity and reactivity of the two catalysts.

4.
Org Biomol Chem ; 16(21): 3952-3960, 2018 05 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29749412

RESUMO

Ferroptosis is a non-apoptotic, iron dependent form of regulated cell death that is characterized by the accumulation of lipid hydroperoxides. It has drawn considerable attention owing to its putative involvement in diverse neurodegenerative diseases. Ferrostatins are the first identified inhibitors of ferroptosis and they inhibit ferroptosis by efficiently scavenging free radicals in lipid bilayers. However, their further medicinal application has been limited due to the deficient knowledge of the lipid peroxyl radical-trapping mechanism. In this study, experimental and theoretical methods were performed to illustrate the possible lipid hydroperoxide inhibition mechanism of ferrostatins. The results show that an ortho-amine (-NH) moiety from ferrostatins can simultaneously interact with lipid radicals, and then form a planar seven-membered ring in the transition state, and finally present greater reactivity. NBO analysis shows that the formed planar seven-membered ring forces ortho-amines into better alignment with the aromatic π-system. It significantly increases the magnitudes of amine conjugation and improves spin delocalization in the transition state. Additionally, a classical H-bond type interaction was discovered between a radical and an o-NH group as another transition state stabilizing effect. This type of radical-trapping mechanism is novel and has not been found in diphenylamine or traditional polyphenol antioxidants. It can be said that o-phenylenediamine is a privileged pharmacophore for the design and development of ferroptosis inhibitors.


Assuntos
Morte Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Cicloexilaminas/farmacologia , Desenho de Drogas , Fenilenodiaminas/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Depuradores de Radicais Livres , Humanos , Peróxidos Lipídicos/metabolismo , Peróxidos Lipídicos/farmacologia , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
5.
Dalton Trans ; 47(14): 4893-4901, 2018 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29546266

RESUMO

The detailed mechanism of palladium-catalyzed γ-C(sp3)-H olefination/cyclization of triflyl-protected amines was investigated by density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The olefinated intermediate was initially formed in the first catalytic cycle involving ligand exchange, bicarbonate-assisted C(sp3)-H bond cleavage, alkene insertion and 'reductive ß-hydride elimination'. The following syn-addition and reductive elimination furnish the aza-Wacker product. The first step of reductive elimination is the rate-determining step. The mechanism unveils the important roles of bicarbonate: aiding the C-H activation and abstracting the ß-proton in the second step of reductive elimination. The parallel bridging mode in the metal-olefin intermediate facilitates the syn-addition, explaining the experimentally observed stereoselectivity. The effect of the monodentate pyridine-based ligands is also discussed.

6.
J Org Chem ; 83(8): 4545-4553, 2018 04 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29569916

RESUMO

The introduction of a C═O, C═C, C═S, or C═N bond has emerged as an effective strategy for carbocycle synthesis. A computational mechanistic study of Rh(III)-catalyzed coupling of alkynes with enaminones, sulfoxonium ylides, or α-carbonyl-nitrones was carried out. Our results uncover the roles of dual directing groups in the three substrates and confirm that the ketone acts as the role of the directing group while the C═C, C═N, or C═S bond serves as the cyclization site. By comparing the coordination of the ketone versus the C═C, C═N, or C═S bond, as well as the chemoselectivity concerning the six- versus five-membered formation, a competition relationship is revealed within the dual directing groups. Furthermore, after the alkyne insertion, instead of the originally proposed direct reductive elimination mechanism, the ketone enolization is found to be essential prior to the reductive elimination. The following C(sp2)-C(sp2) reductive elimination is more favorable than the C(sp3)-C(sp2) formation, which can be explained by the aromaticity difference in the corresponding transition states. The substituent effect on controlling the selectivity was also discussed.

7.
Analyst ; 143(2): 511-518, 2018 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29200221

RESUMO

Herein, a novel ferrocene-rhodamine receptor conjugated with an allylimine bridge was facilely synthesized. This triple channel receptor can selectively and sensitively monitor Pd2+ ions through chromogenic, fluorogenic and electrochemical assays in aqueous medium with a low detection limit (8.46 × 10-9 M) and a fast response (<8 min). It can be applied as a fluorescent probe for effective survey of Pd2+ ions in living cells. Moreover, a plausible recognition mode was proposed and rationalized by theoretical calculations.


Assuntos
Corantes Fluorescentes , Metalocenos , Paládio/análise , Rodaminas , Células HeLa , Humanos , Íons
8.
Org Lett ; 19(19): 5284-5287, 2017 10 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28910113

RESUMO

A tandem [3 + 2] cycloaddition/reductive cyclization of nitrochalcones with activated methylene isocyanides for the efficient synthesis of pyrrolo[2,3-b]quinolones is reported. In this reaction, the in situ generated dihydropyrroline acts as the internal reductant to convert the nitro into an electrophilic nitroso group, which undergoes subsequent C-N bond formation. Transition-metal-free, simple experimental procedure and ready accessibility of starting materials characterize the present transformation.

9.
Dalton Trans ; 46(29): 9430-9439, 2017 Jul 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28696477

RESUMO

The Pd(ii)-catalyzed site-selective δ-C(sp3)-H alkenylation in the presence of more accessible γ-C(sp3)-H bonds is investigated by DFT calculations. Migratory insertion is found to be both the rate-limiting and the selectivity-determining step. The origin of the unusual site-selectivity is originally attributed to the different steric repulsion between the alkyne and palladacycle; however, our theoretical results reveal that the inherent electronic effect instead of steric repulsion determines the site-selectivity. The proposal is further validated by model calculations involving the less sterically hindered 1,2-dimethyl acetylene and acetylene. In addition, a novel HCO3--assisted N-H activation mechanism is reported, and the origin of the regioselectivity of an unsymmetrical alkyne is also studied.

10.
Inorg Chem ; 56(9): 5392-5401, 2017 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28414433

RESUMO

Recently, a new synthetic methodology of rhodium-catalyzed carboamination/cyclopropanation from the same starting materials at different reaction conditions has been reported. It provides an efficient strategy for the stereospecific formation of both carbon- and nitrogen-based functionalities across an alkene. Herein we carried out a detailed theoretical mechanistic exploration for the reactions to elucidate the switch between carboamination and cyclopropanation as well as the origin of the chemoselectivity. Instead of the experimentally proposed RhIII-RhI-RhIII catalytic mechanism, our results reveal that the RhIII-RhV-RhIII mechanism is much more favorable in the two reactions. The chemoselectivity is attributed to a combination of electronic and steric effects in the reductive elimination step. The interactions between alkene and the rhodacycle during the alkene migration insertion control the stereoselectivity in the carboamination reactions. The present results disclose a dual role of the methanol solvent in controlling the chemoselectivity.

11.
J Phys Chem A ; 120(46): 9151-9158, 2016 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27802050

RESUMO

The mechanism of redox-neutral Rh(III)-catalyzed coupling reactions of arylnitrones with alkynes was investigated by density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The free energy profiles associated with the catalytic cycle, involving C(sp2)-H activation, insertion of alkyne, transfer of O atom, cyclization and protodemetalation, are presented and analyzed. An overwhelming preference for alkyne insertion into Rh-C over Rh-O is observed among all pathways, and the most favorable route is determined. The pivalate-assisted C-H activation step is turnover-limiting, and the cyclization step determines the diastereoselectivity of the reaction, with the stereoselectivity arising mainly from the difference of noncovalent interactions in key transition states. The detailed mechanism of O atom transfer, RhIII-RhI-RhIII versus RhIII-RhV-RhIII cycle, is discussed.

12.
Inorg Chem ; 44(19): 6591-608, 2005 Sep 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16156617

RESUMO

Two new bent oxadiazole bridging benzoacetylene ligands 2,5-bis(4-ethynylphenyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazole (L9) and 2,5-bis(3-ethynylphenyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazole (L10) were synthesized. The coordination chemistry of them with various inorganic Ag(I) salts has been investigated. Seven new coordination polymers were prepared by solution reactions and fully characterized by infrared spectroscopy, elemental analysis, and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. [Ag2(L9)](SO3CF3)2 (1) (triclinic, P; a =10.292(4), b = 10.794(4), c = 11.399(5) A; alpha = 98.894(5), beta = 102.360(6), gamma = 90.319(5) degrees ; Z = 2), [Ag(L9)]SbF6 (2) (orthorhombic, Cmca; a = 19.059(9), b = 12.922(6), c = 15.609(7) A; Z = 8), [Ag(L9)]BF4 (3) (orthorhombic, Cmca; a = 19.128(3), b = 12.6042(18), c = 28.003(4) A; Z = 16), [Ag(L9)]ClO4 (4) (monoclinic, P2(1)/c; a = 8.5153(16), b = 19.722(4), c = 10.320(2) A; beta = 105.307(3) degrees ; Z = 4), [Ag(L10)]SO3CF3 (5) (triclinic, P; a = 9.0605(13), b = 10.4956(15), c = 10.8085(16) A; alpha = 101.666(2), beta = 109.269(2), gamma = 100.944(2) degrees ; Z = 2), [Ag(L10)(H2O)(0.5)]BF4.0.5H2O (6) (monoclinic, C2/m; a = 32.180(6), b = 17.027(3), c = 8.1453(15) A; beta = 102.541(3) degrees ; Z = 8), and {[Ag2(L10)2(H2O)](ClO4)2}.o-xylene (7) (monoclinic, P2(1)/c; a = 8.1460(10), b = 17.326(2), c = 30.345(4) A; beta = 97.71 degrees ; Z = 4) were obtained by the combination of L9 and L10 with various Ag(I) salts in a benzene/methylene chloride mixed solvent system. In addition, the luminescent and electrical conductive properties of these new compounds were investigated.

13.
Org Lett ; 4(17): 2909-11, 2002 Aug 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12182586

RESUMO

[reaction: see text] Bond dissociation enthalpies (BDEs) for the curcumin-related compounds have been calculated using density functional theory (DFT) methods. It was found that the antioxidant mechanism of curcumin was a H-atom abstraction from the phenolic group, not from the central CH2 group in the heptadienone link. Curcumin, methylcurcumin, and half-curcumin had similar O-H BDEs, indicating that the two phenolic groups in curcumin were independent of each other.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/química , Curcumina/química , Hidrogênio/química , Modelos Químicos , Fenol/química , Termodinâmica
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12075414

RESUMO

Theoretical methods including structure-activity relationships (SAR) and quantum chemical calculations were used to elucidate the free radical scavenging activity differences of 10 flavonoid antioxidants. SAR could give a qualitative explanation on the antioxidant activity differences. And a further elucidation was performed by a theoretical parameter, the difference of heat of formation between antioxidant and its free radical (deltaHOF), calculated by Austin Model 1 (AM1) method. Besides, deltaHOF showed a linear correlationship with the logarithm of the relative antioxidant efficiency (lgRAE, r = 0.7523), indicating that the theoretical methods were effective to elucidate the differences of antioxidant activity. On the other hand, the ineffectiveness of another theoretical parameter, the highest occupied molecular orbit (HOMO) energy level, was verified further.

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