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1.
Nurs Res ; 2021 Apr 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33935213

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fatigue is a common symptom in adults with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and is influenced by many physiological, psychological, and situational factors. However, the influencing factors of fatigue associated with IBD have not been evaluated. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to examine factors associated with fatigue during IBD and develop a parsimonious model that describes the influencing factors of fatigue. METHODS: The study was a secondary analysis of cross-sectional data obtained from IBD Partners, an online cohort of adults with the disease, including 12,053 eligible participants. Data were collected using the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) short-form scales measuring fatigue, sleep disturbances, pain interference, anxiety, depression, and satisfaction with social roles. Physical activity was measured using a single question. Demographic and clinical variables were collected. Path analysis was computed to identify the direct and indirect effect of situational, physiological, and psychological factors on IBD fatigue based on the Middle Range Theory of Unpleasant Symptoms' conceptual framework. RESULTS: The majority of the participants were White females. The data best fit a model with situational factors (physical activity and satisfaction with social roles as the mediators). The direct effect of IBD activity, age, sleep disturbances, pain interference, anxiety, and depression on IBD fatigue was significant. Significant indirect effects were noted on IBD fatigue from sleep disturbances, pain interference, and depression via physical activity and satisfaction with social roles. DISCUSSION: The study identified two important intervening variables from the tested model. Additionally, other symptoms such as sleep, pain, anxiety, and depression are essential also influence IBD fatigue.

2.
J Ultrasound Med ; 2021 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33938029

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to determine ultrasonic image characteristics that enable differentiation between cholesterol and adenomatous polyps and to assess the diagnostic efficacy of combining conventional ultrasound (CUS) with contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS). METHODS: Eighty-nine patients with gallbladder polyps of 1-2 cm in diameter were enrolled and examined by CUS and CEUS before cholecystectomy. The appearances on CUS and CEUS were recorded and analyzed. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to calculate the optimal size threshold for distinguishing cholesterol from adenomatous polyps. A logistic regression analysis was performed to identify diagnostic variables. ROC analysis was performed to evaluate the diagnostic efficacy of the size, the independent variables, and the combined factors. RESULTS: There were differences in size, number, vascularity on CUS and intralesional vascular shape, wash-out, and area under the curve on CEUS between the two groups (P < .05). ROC analysis indicated that a maximum diameter of 1.45 cm was the optimal threshold for the prediction of adenomatous polyps. The logistic regression analysis proved that the single polyp, presence of vascularity, and intralesional linear vessels were associated with adenomatous polyps (P < .05). ROC analysis showed that the area under the ROC curve, sensitivity, and specificity for the combination of the three independent variables were 0.858, 87.3%, and 67.6%. The number combined with intralesional vascular shape had the highest diagnostic sensitivity of 91.2%. CONCLUSIONS: The combination of CUS and CEUS demonstrated great significance in the differential diagnosis of cholesterol and adenomatous polyps.

3.
Child Abuse Negl ; 117: 105065, 2021 Apr 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33853021

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Trauma-informed parenting interventions have been used in child welfare to help caregivers respond to children in trauma-informed ways that can mitigate the effects of maltreatment and build strong caregiver-child relationships. Existing studies support their effectiveness with children and youth involved in the child welfare system. However, to further advance the effectiveness of evidenced-based intervention for child welfare populations, one key step is to identify subgroups of individuals who have different intervention responses or outcomes. OBJECTIVE: To identify pre-treatment moderators that can distinguish subgroups of caregivers and children who benefit differently from an intervention. PARTICIPANTS AND SETTING: 414 children in foster care (age 3 or younger) and their caregivers (birth, adoptive, kin, and nonkin) were randomly assigned to receive a trauma-informed parenting intervention in the Illinois Birth through Three Title IV-E waiver demonstration or foster care services as usual. METHODS: Model-based Recursive Partitioning (MOB) was used to identify treatment moderators and moderator interactions. MOB fits a parametric model and uses a data-driven method to find subgroups for which the specified parametric model has different parameters. Two parametric models (logistic and linear regression) were used in accordance with two outcomes: reunification (binary) and caregiver-child attachment (continuous). We examined 21 potential pre-treatment moderators in both models. RESULTS: For the reunification outcome, the MOB produced the following three treatment moderators, which identified subgroups of participants who responded differently to the intervention: (a) caregivers' relationship with the child (kin vs. non-kin/permanent caregivers), (b) caregiver-child attachment, and (c) case history of physical abuse. For the attachment outcome, caregivers' age was found to be a treatment moderator. Future developments of trauma-informed interventions should consider these moderators.

4.
Microb Pathog ; 156: 104915, 2021 Apr 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33930416

RESUMO

Staphylococcus aureus is one of the leading hospital-associated and community-associated pathogens, which has caused a global public health concern. The emergence of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) along with the widespread use of different classes of antibiotics has become a significant therapeutic challenge. Antibiotic resistance is a disturbing problem that poses a threat to humans. Treatment options for S. aureus resistant to ß-lactam antibiotics include glycopeptide antibiotic, cyclic lipopeptide antibiotic, cephalosporins and oxazolidinone antibiotic. The most representative types of these antibiotics are vancomycin, daptomycin, ceftaroline and linezolid. The frequent use of the first-line drug vancomycin for MRSA treatment has increased the number of resistant strains, namely vancomycin intermediate resistant S. aureus (VISA) and vancomycin resistant S. aureus (VRSA). A systematic literature review of relevant published studies in PubMed before 2020 was conducted. In recent years, there have been some reports on the relevant resistant mechanisms of vancomycin, daptomycin, ceftaroline and linezolid. In this review, we have summarized the antibiotic molecular modes of action and different gene mutants at the whole-genome level, which will aid in further development on new drugs for effective MRSA treatment based on describing different resistance mechanisms of classic antibiotics.

5.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 10(1): 700-709, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33739229

RESUMO

Bloodstream infections (BSIs) caused by carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CRKP) are potentially life-threatening and an urgent threat to public health. The present study aims to clarify the characteristics of carbapenemase-encoding and virulent plasmids, and their interactions with the host bacterium. A total of 425 Kp isolates were collected from the blood of BSI patients from nine Chinese hospitals, between 2005 and 2019. Integrated epidemiological and genomic data showed that ST11 and ST307 Kp isolates were associated with nosocomial outbreak and transmission. Comparative analysis of 147 Kp genomes and 39 completely assembled chromosomes revealed extensive interruption of acrR by ISKpn26 in all Kp carbapenemase-2 (KPC-2)-producing ST11 Kp isolates, leading to activation of the AcrAB-Tolc multidrug efflux pump and a subsequent reduction in susceptibility to the last-resort antibiotic tigecycline and six other antibiotics. We described 29 KPC-2 plasmids showing diverse structures, two virulence plasmids in two KPC-2-producing Kp, and two novel multidrug-resistant (MDR)-virulent plasmids. This study revealed a multifactorial impact of KPC-2 plasmid on Kp, which may be associated with nosocomial dissemination of MDR isolates.

6.
Mol Biotechnol ; 63(6): 534-543, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33782841

RESUMO

In recent years, with the increasing public health awareness, low-calorie rare sugars have received more attention on a global scale. D-Allulose, the C-3 epimer of D-fructose, is a representative rare sugar. It displays high sweetness and excellent physiological functions, but only provides a caloric value of 0.4 kcal/g. D-Allulose 3-epimerase (DAEase) is indispensable in D-allulose production. In this study, a putative DAEase from Thermoclostridium caenicola was identified and characterized. The novel T. caenicola DAEase displayed maximum activity at pH 7.5 and 65 °C in the presence of 1 mM Co2+. The half-life (t1/2) at 50 °C was 13.6 h, and the melting temperature (Tm) was 62.4 °C. It was strictly metal-dependent, and the addition of Co2+ remarkably enhanced its thermostability, with a 5.4-fold increase in t1/2 value at 55 °C and 4.8 °C increase in Tm. Furthermore, DAEase displayed high relative activity (89.0%) at a weakly acidic pH 6.5 and produced 139.8 g/L D-allulose from 500 g/L D-fructose, achieving a conversion ratio of 28.0%. These findings suggest that T. caenicola DAEase is a promising biocatalyst for the production of D-allulose.

7.
J Clin Med ; 10(4)2021 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33672525

RESUMO

Transfusion reactions are mainly induced by the interaction of an antigen and antibody. However, transfusion reactions still occur with the implementing of crossmatching and usage of pre-storage leukoreduced blood products. The roles of CD28 and CTLA4 gene polymorphisms in transfusion reaction have been shown, and subjects with certain single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the CD28 or CTLA4 gene had a significantly higher risk of transfusion reactions. In total, 40 patients with transfusion reactions after receiving pre-storage leukoreduced blood products were enrolled in this study. We focused on the SNPs located in the CD28 promoter region (rs1879877, rs3181096, rs3181097, and rs3181098) to find out the significant SNP. A luciferase reporter assay was used to investigate the expression level of protein affected by promoter SNP variation. We found that the polymorphism of rs3181097 was associated with transfusion reactions (p = 0.003 in additive model and p = 0.015 in dominant model). Consequently, we investigated the biological function in the CD28 promoter polymorphisms (rs1879877 G > T, rs3181096 C > T, rs3181097 G > A, and rs3181098 G > A) by using dual-spectral luciferase reporter assay. The results showed that the ex-pression level of CD28 was decreased under the effect of rs3181097 with A-allele. This suggested that rs3181097 may regulate immune response through decreasing CD28 protein expression and then lead to development of transfusion reactions.

8.
Polymers (Basel) ; 13(5)2021 Feb 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33673597

RESUMO

An efficient, green and reusable catalyst for organic pollutant wastewater treatment has been a subject of intense research in recent decades due to the limitation of current technologies. Cellulose based aerogel composites are considered to be an especially promising candidate for next-generation catalytic material. This project was conducted in order to evaluate the behavior and ability of green and reusable sugarcane bagasse aerogels to remove P-Nitrophesnol from waste-water aqueous. Co-Zeolitic imidazolate framework@ sugarcane bagasse aerogels composite catalysts were successfully prepared via simple in situ synthesis. The structure of hybrid aerogels and their efficient catalyst in peroxymonosulfate (PMS) activation for the degradation of p-nitrophenol (PNP) was investigated. As a result, the hybrid aerogels/PMS system removed 98.5% of PNP (10mg/L) within 60~70 min, while the traditional water treatment technology could not achieve this. In addition, through a free radical capture experiment and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), the degradation mechanism of PNP was investigated. Further research found that the hybrid aerogels can effectively activate PMS to produce sulfate (SO4•-) and hydroxyl (OH• ). Both of them contributed to the degradation of PNP, and SO4•- plays a crucial role in the degradative process. The most important feature of hybrid aerogels can be easily separated from the solution. The obtained results showed that the outer coating structure of cellulose can stabilize Co-ZIF and reduce the dissolution of cobalt ions under complex reaction conditions. Moreover, the prepared hybrid aerogels exhibit excellent reusability and are environmentally friendly with efficient catalytic efficiency. This work provides a new strategy for bagasse applications and material reusability.

9.
ACS Nano ; 2021 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33734662

RESUMO

The rapid development of integrated circuits and electronic devices creates a strong demand for highly thermally conductive yet electrically insulating composites to efficiently solve "hot spot" problems during device operation. On the basis of these considerations, hexagonal boron nitride nanosheets (BNNS) have been regarded as promising fillers to fabricate polymer matrix composites. However, so far an efficient approach to prepare ultrahigh-aspect-ratio BNNS with large lateral size while maintaining an atomically thin nature is still lacking, seriously restricting further improvement of the thermal conductivity for BNNS/polymer composites. Here, a rapid and high-yield method based on a microfluidization technique is developed to obtain exfoliated BNNS with a record high aspect ratio of ≈1500 and a low degree of defects. A foldable and electrically insulating film made of such a BNNS and poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) matrix through filtration exhibits an in-plane thermal conductivity of 67.6 W m-1 K-1 at a BNNS loading of 83 wt %, leading to a record high value of thermal conductivity enhancement (≈35 500). The composite film then acts as a heat spreader for heat dissipation of high-power LED modules and shows superior cooling efficiency compared to commercial flexible copper clad laminate. Our findings provide a practical route to produce electrically insulating polymer composites with high thermal conductivity for thermal management applications in modern electronic devices.

10.
Microb Drug Resist ; 2021 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33570473

RESUMO

As a potential "Superbug," Pseudomonas aeruginosa remains the leading concern in antimicrobial resistance. In this study, the emergence of clinical P. aeruginosa isolate was found to carry crpP and blaGES-5 on the chromosome and blaKPC-2 on a plasmid. A clinical P. aeruginosa strain Guangzhou-PaeC79 with an extensively drug-resistant phenotype was isolated, which was resistant to all classes of clinical commonly used antibiotics. It contains one chromosomal DNA and one plasmid, with seven acquired antimicrobial resistance genes identified on the chromosome, including carbapenem resistance gene blaGES-5 and fluoroquinolone resistance gene crpP, and carbapenem resistance gene blaKPC-2 located on an IncP-6-type plasmid pPAEC79 carrying a Tn3-like element. Carriage of any two of the resistance genes has never been previously reported, and simultaneous carriage of three bla and crpP may explain the bacterial phenotype as high-level resistance to imipenem and meropenem (≥16 µg/mL) and resistance to ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33634585

RESUMO

Theoretical calculations unveil the charge redistribution over abundant interfaces and the enhanced electronic states of Ru/RuS2 heterostructure. The resulting surface electron-deficient Ru sites display optimized adsorption behavior toward diverse reaction intermediates, thereby reducing the thermodynamic energy barriers. Experimentally, for the first time the laminar Ru/RuS2 heterostructure is rationally engineered by virtue of the synchronous reduction and sulfurization under eutectic salt system. Impressively, it exhibits extremely high catalytic activity for both OER (201 mV @ 10 mA cm-2 ) and HER (45 mV @ 10 mA cm-2 ) in acidic media due to favorable kinetics and excellent specific activity, consequently leading to a terrific performance in acidic overall water splitting devices (1.501 V @ 10 mA cm-2 ). The in-depth insight into the internal activity origin of interfacial effect could offer precise guidance for the rational establishment of hybrid interfaces.

12.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 1475, 2021 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33446692

RESUMO

Adverse reactions may still occur in some patients after receiving haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), even when choosing a human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-matched donor. The adverse reactions of transplantation include disease relapse, graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), mortality and CMV infection. However, only the relapse was discussed in our previous study. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the correlation between the gene polymorphisms within the HLA region and the adverse reactions of post-HSCT in patients with acute leukaemia (n = 176), where 72 patients were diagnosed with acute lymphocytic leukaemia (ALL) and 104 were acute myeloid leukaemia (AML). The candidate single nucleotide polymorphisms were divided into three models: donor, recipient, and donor-recipient pairs and the data of ALL and AML were analysed individually. Based on the results, we found 16 SNPs associated with the survival rates, the risk of CMV infection, or the grade of GVHD in either donor, recipient, or donor-recipient matching models. In the ALL group, the rs209132 of TRIM27 in the donor group was related to CMV infection (p = 0.021), the rs213210 of RING1 in the recipient group was associated with serious GVHD (p = 0.003), and the rs2227956 of HSPA1L in the recipient group correlated with CMV infection (p = 0.001). In the AML group, the rs3130048 of BAG6 in the donor-recipient pairs group was associated with serious GVHD (p = 0.048). Moreover, these SNPs were further associated with the duration time of survival after transplantation. These results could be applied to select the best donor in HSCT.

13.
J Formos Med Assoc ; 2021 Jan 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33516585

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: This study aims at investigating the epidemiological profile of chronic hepatitis C (CHC) regarding hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype in Taiwan. METHODS: A total of 29,087 CHC patients with advanced fibrosis who received direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) therapy under Taiwan's National Health Insurance (NHI) during 2017-2018 were recruited. The HCV genotype distribution and its association with patients' demographic factors including age, gender, and geographical areas were examined. RESULTS: The most common genotypes were 1b (59.5%) and 2 (30.1%) with characteristics of older age (mean ± standard deviation (SD): 66.5 ± 10.7 years and 67.3 ± 10.9 years) and female gender predominant (57.1% and 59.4%), which were associated with iatrogenic infection decades ago. Most of patients with genotype 1a (5.9%) and 6 (3.7%) infection were relatively younger (59.2 ± 12.0 years and 60.0 ± 13.8 years) and male gender predominant (59.1% and 61.1%), except Liujia and Liuying districts in southern Taiwan. The youngest group (53.2 ± 11.8 years) and most male gender predominant (74.3%) was genotype 3 (0.37%). These genotypes with characteristics of being younger and male gender predominant were highly related to injection drug use in recent years. The number of genotype 4 patients were extremely rare (n = 25) and efficacy of genotype-4-specific-DAA was significantly poorer than non-genotype-4-specific DAA (P value = 0.0411). CONCLUSIONS: The significant differences in demographic characteristics among CHC patients with different HCV genotypes found in this study suggest HCV genotype was highly associated with transmission pattern and may be used as a reference for HCV control.

14.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(23)2020 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33255884

RESUMO

Inflammation is the main pathophysiology of dry eye, characterized by tear film instability and hyperosmolarity. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of inflammation and cellular autophagy using an in vitro dry eye model with primary cultured human corneal epithelial cells (HCECs). Primary HCECs cultured with fresh limbal explants from donors were switched to a hyperosmotic medium (450 mOsM) by adding sodium chloride into the culture medium. We observed the stimulated inflammatory mediators, TNF-α, IL-1ß, IL-6 and IL-8, as well as the increased expression of autophagy related genes, Ulk1, Beclin1, Atg5 and LC3B, as evaluated by RT-qPCR and ELISA. The immunofluorescent staining of LC3B and Western blotting revealed the activated autophagosome formation and autophagic flux, as evidenced by the increased LC3B autophagic cells with activated Beclin1, Atg5, Atg7 and LC3B proteins, and the decreased levels of P62 protein in HCECs. Interestingly, the autophagy activation was later at 24 h than inflammation induced at 4 h in HCECs exposed to 450 mOsM. Furthermore, application of rapamycin enhanced autophagy activation also reduced the inflammatory mediators and restored cell viability in HCECs exposed to the hyperosmotic medium. Our findings for the first time demonstrate that the autophagy activation is a late phase response to hyperosmotic stress, and is enhanced by rapamycin, which protects HCECs by suppressing inflammation and promoting cells survival, suggesting a new therapeutic potential to treat dry eye diseases.

15.
iScience ; 23(12): 101793, 2020 Dec 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33294800

RESUMO

Efficient electrocatalyst toward hydrogen evolution/oxidation reactions (HER/HOR) and oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) is desirable for water splitting, fuel cells, etc. Herein, we report an advanced platinum phosphide (PtP2) material with only 3.5 wt % Pt loading embedded in phosphorus and nitrogen dual-doped carbon (PNC) layer (PtP2@PNC). The obtained catalyst exhibits robust HER, HOR, and ORR performance. For the HER, a much low overpotential of 8 mV is required to achieve the current density of 10 mA cm-2 compared with Pt/C (22 mV). For the HOR, its mass activity (MA) at an overpotential of 40 mV is 2.3-fold over that of the Pt/C catalyst. Interestingly, PtP2@PNC also shows exceptional ORR MA which is 2.6 times higher than that of Pt/C and has robust stability in alkaline solutions. Undoubtedly, this work reveals that PtP2@PNC can be employed as nanocatalysts with an impressive catalytic activity and stability for broad applications in electrocatalysis.

16.
J Clin Neurosci ; 81: 448-454, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33222961

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare the clinical symptoms, brain copper deposition changes of Meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) and penicillamine therapy in patients with Wilson disease (WD) within 2 years. METHODS: 68 drug-naive patients with WD were enrolled. 10 WD patients treated with zinc gluconate alone were used as the control group. Neurological symptoms were scored using the modified Young Scale. Liver function tests, copper indices and sensitive weighted imaging (SWI) examination were collected. The values of corrected phase (CP) were collected. WD patients were treated with DPA (group 1) or DMSA (group 2) for two years, and followed up every 2 months. RESULTS: The ratio of neurological improvement in group 2 was higher than that in group 1 (P = 0.029). Higher rate of neurologic worsening was noticed in patients treated with DPA vs DMSA (P = 0.039). The post-treatment neurological score of DMSA group was lower than that of Zn group (P = 0.037). Hepatic function in 63.3% of patients was stable, while 16.7% was improved, and 20% was deteriorated, after DMSA therapy. Urinary copper levels were lower 1 month (p = 0.032), 4 months (p = 0.041), 12 months (p = 0.037) after initiation of treatment in group 2 than in group 1. At the first year of treatment, the CP values in globus pallidus and substantia nigra in group 2 were higher than those in group 1 (P = 0.034,0.039). At the second year of treatment, the CP values of substantia nigra in group 2 were higher (P = 0.041). Discontinuation was more common in patients on DPA therapy (P = 0 0.032). CONCLUSIONS: DMSA could remove metal from brain tissue faster than DPA. DMSA is effective for neurologic symptoms, while the outcome for hepatic symptoms is not entirely satisfactory. DMSA therapy is better tolerated than DPA.

17.
Retina ; 2020 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33136976

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To explore the pathological features and clinical significance of three types of neovascularization elsewhere (NVE) in proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR). METHODS: NVE was classified based on the origins and morphologic features using fluorescein angiography (FA), angiographic and structural optical coherence tomography (OCT). The topographical distribution, vitreoretinal interface (VRI) and responsiveness to panretinal photocoagulation (PRP) were compared among three types of NVE. RESULTS: One hundred and twenty-seven NVEs were classified into three types. Type 1 NVE was concentrated along or adjacent to vascular arcades; type 2 was distributed more peripherally than were types 1 or 3 NVE. The arch-bridge-like VRI accounted for 79% of type 1 NVE. The flat and flat-forward VRI accounted for 95% and 100% in type 2 and type 3 NVE, respectively. At three months after PRP, the regression rates for types 1, 2, and 3 NVE were 82%, 100%, and 80%, respectively. Type 2 NVE showed best regression rate after PRP (both P < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Three types of NVE determine the distinctly topographical distributions, VRI features, and differential responsiveness to PRP treatment. This new concept may have important clinical implications in assessing the treatment and prognosis of PDR.

18.
Oncol Nurs Forum ; 47(6): 721-731, 2020 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33063780

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Guided by Mishel's uncertainty in illness theory, patterns of change in uncertainty were explored over time for patients with prostate cancer and their partners. In addition, the relationships between uncertainty and its antecedents were examined, and the role effects (patient versus partner) on these relationships were assessed. SAMPLE & SETTING: This study is a secondary analysis of the longitudinal data collected from a randomized clinical trial. METHODS & VARIABLES: The current authors fitted multiple-level models that included time-invariant baseline variables (sociodemographics and cancer factors) and time-varying variables (uncertainty, symptoms, and social support) measured at baseline and at 4, 8, and 12 months thereafter. RESULTS: No statistically significant patterns of change in uncertainty over time were detected. Partners reported greater uncertainty than patients. Higher uncertainty was associated with more general and prostate cancer-specific symptoms, recurrent and advanced prostate cancer, higher prostate-specific antigen level, and lower social support. More urinary symptoms were associated with greater uncertainty in patients than in partners. IMPLICATIONS FOR NURSING: Uncertainty management can be tailored for and target symptom management and social support.

19.
Polymers (Basel) ; 12(10)2020 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33066184

RESUMO

The industrial advancement of high-performance technologies directly depends on the thermo-mechanical properties of materials. Here we give an account of a facile approach for the bulk production of a polyethylene terephthalate (PET)/polypropylene (PP)-based nanocomposite blend with Inorganic Fullerene Tungsten Sulfide (IF-WS2) nanofiller using a single extruder. Nanofiller IF-WS2 was produced by the rotary chemical vapor deposition (RCVD) method. Subsequently, IF-WS2 nanoparticles were dispersed in PET and PP in different loadings to access impact and their dispersion behavior in polymer matrices. As-prepared blend nanocomposites were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), dynamic differential scanning (DSC), dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). In this work, the tensile strength of the PP/PET matrix with 1% IF-WS2 increased by 31.8%, and the thermal stability of the sample PP/PET matrix with 2% increased by 18 °C. There was an extraordinary decrease in weight loss at elevated temperature for the nanocomposites in TGA analysis, which confirms the role of IF-WS2 on thermal stability versus plain nanocomposites. In addition, this method can also be used for the large-scale production of such materials used in high-temperature environments.

20.
Biomark Med ; 14(12): 1165-1181, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32969246

RESUMO

Liver transplantation has been widely accepted as an effective intervention for end-stage liver diseases and early hepatocellular carcinomas. However, a variety of postoperative complications and adverse reactions have baffled medical staff and patients. Currently, transplantation monitoring relies primarily on nonspecific biochemical tests, whereas diagnosis of multiple complications depends on invasive pathological examination. Therefore, a noninvasive monitoring method with high selectivity and specificity is desperately needed. This review summarized the potential of endogenous small-molecule metabolites as biomarkers for assessing graft function, ischemia-reperfusion injury and liver rejection. Exogenous metabolites, mainly those immunosuppressive agents with high intra- and inter-individual variability, were also discussed for transplantation monitoring.

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