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1.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 190: 130-140, 2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34481848

RESUMO

Quinoa starch was developed as a new kind of Pickering emulsifier by enzymatic modification. The morphological structure, crystalline structure, lamellar structure, fractal structure, particle size distribution, contact angle, emulsion index (EI), and emulsion micromorphology were studied to explore the relationship between structure characteristics, hydrophilic property, and emulsifying properties of enzymatically modified (EM) quinoa starches. With the increasing enzymatic hydrolysis time in the test range of 0-9 h, particle size of EM quinoa starch decreased, and the broken starch and contact angle of EM quinoa starch increased; the EI value of emulsions with EM quinoa starch increased, and the oil droplet size of emulsions with EM quinoa starch decreased. It suggested that both the smallest particle size and the closest extent of the contact angle to 90° derived the best emulsifying property of EM-9. The EM quinoa starch had higher emulsifying capacity at higher oil volume fraction (Φ) (50%) than at lower Φ (20%), proving that the EM starch has potential to be used as Pickering emulsifiers in higher oil products, such as salad dressing.

2.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(11): 2552-2559, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32627488

RESUMO

Scutellariae Radix(Huangqin) is a well-known traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) used for the treatment of clearing heat in clinical application. It is bitter-cold by using directly, but the bitter-cold property can be relieved after wine-frying. The study of taste changes before and after wine-frying of Scutellariae Radix is of great significance in identifying Scutellariae Radix and wine-processed Scutellariae Radix and clarifying the traditional theory of wine-processing. In this experiment, 10 batches of Scutellariae Radix and wine-processed Scutellariae Radix were prepared. The contents of 5 flavonoids were determined by high performance liquid chromatography(HPLC), and principal component analysis(PCA) was performed with 5 flavonoids as variables. As a result, the contents were different in different batches of Scutellariae Radix, but Scutellariae Radix and wine-processed Scutellariae Radix could not be distinguished. Five sensory attributes(sour, salty, fresh, sweet, and bitter) were evaluated by artificial tasting, and the response values of 7 sensors(AHS, AHS, PKS, CTS, NMS, CPS, ANS, SCS) representing the taste of pieces were detected by electronic tongue. The correlation between sensory evaluation and response values of the electronic tongue were analyzed, and the results showed that the sensory evaluation of sour, salty, fresh, sweet, bitter and AHS, CTS, NMS, ANS, SCS sensors had different degrees of correlation, indicating that the electronic tongue technology can be used as an alternative to artificial taste and can serve as a means for quantifying the taste, and it can be used to evaluate the taste of TCM pieces. The taste method was used to analyze the response values of the electronic tongue, and the results showed that the bitterness of wine-processed Scutellariae Radix decreased and the salty taste increased. PCA was used to analyze taste changes before and after wine-processed Scutellariae Radix, and the results showed that taste differences between 2 pieces were divided into 2 categories. PCA loading scattering plots showed that response of saltiness and bitterness were the major factors to affect overall taste in Scutellariae Radix and wine-processed Scutellariae Radix. Based on electronic tongue response values, the Fisher discriminant model for Scutellariae Radix and wine-processed Scutellariae Radix was established, which showed that it could effectively discriminate them with a recognition rate of 100%. The experimental results showed that the electronic tongue combined with multivariate statistical analysis can be used to evaluate taste of TCM, at the same time, it could provide a fast and simple method for identifying different processed products.


Assuntos
Scutellaria baicalensis , Vinho/análise , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Paladar
3.
Shock ; 45(4): 441-9, 2016 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26513709

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the effects of intraperitoneal resuscitation (PR) with different concentrations of sodium pyruvate (PY) on intestinal ischemia reperfusion injury in rats hemorrhagic shock (HS). METHODS: Sixty rats were randomly assigned to six groups. These included: group SHAM, intravenous resuscitation only (VR) group, and four PR groups based on resuscitation fluid: glucose-lactate-based peritoneal dialysis solution (LA), and PY-1.1%, PY-1.6%, and PY-2.2% (concentrations in grams/dL). Mean arterial pressure (MAP) was monitored continuously. Blood pH, base excess (BE), lactate, intestinal myeloperoxidase (MPO), malondialdehyde (MDA), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin-6 (IL-6), activated caspase-3, and zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1) were measured; intestinal mucosal damage index (IMDI) and subcellular changes were observed; apoptotic index (AI) was calculated. RESULTS: Three hours after resuscitation, in PY groups, MPO, MDA, IMDI, AI, TNF-alpha, and IL-6 were significantly lower than VR and LA groups, while pH and BE were higher. PY groups showed less expression of activated caspase-3 but elevated ZO-1. Among PY groups, group PY-1.1% had the lowest MPO, MDA and TNF-alpha, and had less pathological damage and subcellular changes than other experimental groups. CONCLUSIONS: PR using PY solution combined with VR provided protection against intestinal ischemia-reperfusion injury following HS and resuscitation. Under the same hypertonic condition, 1.1% PY solution showed significant advantages compared with 2.2% and 1.6% solutions. The underlying mechanisms may include the maintenance of hemodynamic stability, regulation of homeostasis, inhibition of oxidative stress and inflammation, and protection of intestinal epithelial tight junction barrier function.


Assuntos
Intestinos , Ácido Pirúvico/farmacologia , Traumatismo por Reperfusão , Ressuscitação/métodos , Choque Hemorrágico , Animais , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Infusões Parenterais , Intestinos/irrigação sanguínea , Intestinos/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/tratamento farmacológico , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/fisiopatologia , Choque Hemorrágico/tratamento farmacológico , Choque Hemorrágico/fisiopatologia
4.
Exp Ther Med ; 10(5): 1857-1864, 2015 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26640562

RESUMO

The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) transfected with survivin on lung fibrosis in mice. Mice with bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis were allocated at random to group A, B or C, and injected with 1×106 survivin gene-expressing BMSCs, 1×106 BMSCs or normal saline, respectively. A total of 6 mice were sacrificed from each group on days 7, 14 and 28 after treatment. The extent of alveolitis and pulmonary fibrosis was assessed and the apoptotic rates of the BMSCs and survivin-expressing BMSCs were detected. The content of surfactant protein A (SP-A) in the lung and hydroxyproline (Hyp) in the serum was measured. The mRNA expression levels of transforming growth factor (TGF)-ß1 and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 in the lung tissue of the mice was detected. Furthermore, the protein expression levels of caspase-3 and -9 were detected. The apoptotic rates of the BMSCs (group B) and survivin-expressing BMSCs (group A) were 14.466±1.953 and 7.718±0.493%, respectively. The degree of lung fibrosis in groups A and B was reduced compared with that in group C. The hydroxyproline content in groups A and B was reduced compared with that in group C, and the SP-A content in groups A and B was increased compared with that in group C. The mRNA expression levels of TGF-ß1 in group A were reduced compared with those in group B, and the levels in group B were reduced compared with those in group C. By contrast, the mRNA expression levels of MMP-9 in group A were increased compared with those in groups B and C, and the levels in group B were increased compared with those in group A. The expression levels of caspase-3 and -9 in group A were elevated compared with those in groups B and C. In conclusion, BMSCs are effective in preventing bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis, and survivin may enhance the protective effects of BMSCs.

5.
Shock ; 42(5): 464-71, 2014 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25051285

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We explored the effects of direct peritoneal resuscitation with pyruvate-peritoneal dialysis solution (PDS) following intravenous resuscitation (VR) on intestinal ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats with hemorrhagic shock (HS). METHODS: Fifty rats were randomly assigned equally to five groups. In group sham, a surgical operation was performed on rats without shock or resuscitation. In group VR, rats were subjected only to VR. In groups NS, LA, and PY, direct peritoneal resuscitation was performed with normal saline (NS), lactate-based PDS (Lac-PDS), and pyruvate-based PDS (Pyr-PDS), respectively, after VR. Mean arterial pressure was monitored in the right common carotid artery. Two hours after resuscitation, the lactate level in arterial blood and the wet weight/dry weight ratio of the intestine were determined. The intestinal mucosal damage index was estimated, and ultrastructural changes in the intestinal mucosa were observed. Malondialdehyde, myeloperoxidase, nitric oxide, and tumor necrosis factor α levels were also measured. RESULTS: Two hours after HS and resuscitation, the increase in arterial blood lactate and intestinal wet weight/dry weight ratio declined significantly in rats from Groups LA and PY compared with groups VR and NS, whereas group PY was more advantageous in the changes of these parameters. The intestinal mucosal damage index and ultrastructural changes were also improved in groups LA and PY when compared with groups VR and NS. Protection was more apparent with Pyr-PDS than Lac-PDS. Hemorrhagic shock resulted in a significant increase in malondialdehyde levels and myeloperoxidase activity and was accompanied by overexpression of tumor necrosis factor α and a reduction in nitric oxide levels. These changes were significantly attenuated by Lac-PDS and Pyr-PDS at 2 h after resuscitation, and Pyr-PDS showed more effective protection for the intestine than Lac-PDS. CONCLUSIONS: Direct peritoneal resuscitation with Lac-PDS and Pyr-PDS after VR alleviated intestinal injury from HS in rats, and Pyr-PDS was superior to Lac-PDS in its protective effect. Mechanisms of action might include the elimination of free oxygen radicals, reduction of neutrophil infiltration, inhibition of the inflammatory response, and regulation of intestinal mucosal blood flow and barrier function.


Assuntos
Intestino Delgado/irrigação sanguínea , Ácido Pirúvico/uso terapêutico , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/prevenção & controle , Ressuscitação/métodos , Choque Hemorrágico/terapia , Animais , Soluções para Diálise/uso terapêutico , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos/métodos , Hidratação/métodos , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Mucosa Intestinal/irrigação sanguínea , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Mucosa Intestinal/ultraestrutura , Intestino Delgado/metabolismo , Intestino Delgado/ultraestrutura , Ácido Láctico/sangue , Masculino , Microscopia Eletrônica , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/etiologia , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/metabolismo , Choque Hemorrágico/complicações , Choque Hemorrágico/metabolismo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
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