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1.
Food Chem ; 335: 127512, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32745837

RESUMO

To reveal the potential of core bacterial and fungal communities for aroma formation in the fermentation of chili pepper, shifts in microbial diversity and volatile metabolites during the 32-day fermentation process were measured using high-throughput sequencing and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Rosenbergiella and Staphylococcus were the dominant bacterial genera, where Hyphopichia and Kodamaea were the most abundant fungi, in fermented chili pepper. Sixteen differential volatile metabolites were detected in fermented and unfermented samples using differential metabolomics analysis. Nine strains from the genera Hyphopichia, Staphylococcus, Rosenbergiella, and Bacillus were isolated from fermented chili pepper. The correlation of dominant microorganisms with key odorants by Spearman correlation and two-way orthogonal partial least squares analysis indicated that Hyphopichia exhibited a significant positive correlation with the formation of 11 key odorants. These findings enhance our understanding of the core functional bacterial and fungal genera involved in the production of desirable flavors in fermented chili pepper.

2.
Biomater Sci ; 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33057463

RESUMO

The use of gold nanoparticles as diagnostic tools is burgeoning, especially in the cancer community with a focus on theranostic applications to both cancer diagnosis and treatment. Gold nanoparticles have also demonstrated great potential for use in diagnostic and therapeutic approaches in ophthalmology. Although many ophthalmic imaging modalities are available, there is still a considerable unmet need, in particular for ophthalmic molecular imaging for the early detection of eye disease before morphological changes are more grossly visible. An understanding of how gold nanoparticles are leveraged in other fields could inform new ways they could be utilized in ophthalmology. In this paper, we review current ophthalmic imaging techniques and then identify optical coherence tomography (OCT) and photoacoustic imaging (PAI) as the most promising technologies amenable to the use of gold nanoparticles for molecular imaging. Within this context, the development of gold nanoparticles as OCT and PAI contrast agents are reviewed, with the most recent developments described in detail.

3.
Cancer Rep (Hoboken) ; : e1294, 2020 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33048465

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Therapeutic effect and immunosuppressor cell alteration in adding transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) to sorafenib for advanced stage hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remain unclear. AIMS: To examine the therapeutic effect and immunosuppressor cell alteration in adding TACE to sorafenib. METHODS: Forty-four advanced stage HCC patients were divided into group A (n = 17) treated by sorafenib (400-600 mg/day) alone and group B patients (n = 27) treated by sorafenib and TACE. The frequency of regulatory T-cells and myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC), and patients' outcomes were examined. Advanced HCC patients' survival was improved by adding TACE to sorafenib if N/L was reduced from ≥2.5 to <2.5 by TACE. RESULTS: The median (interquartile) follow-up for all patients was 8.5 (3.5 to 15.5) with a range from 1 to 71 months. The median (interquartile) survival was 5.0 (2.3-11.3) months for group A and 11.0 (5.0-19.0) months for group B patients (P = .024). In group A, the patients (n = 8) with neutrophil-to-lymphocytes ratio (N/L) < 2.5 had better survival than the patients (n = 9) with N/L ≥ 2.5 (P = .006). In group B, 6 of 13 patients with N/L ≥ 2.5 had N/L reduction to <2.5 after combination therapy of sorafenib and TACE, and their 6-month, 1-year and 2-year survival were improved (P = .013). For immune cell examination, the frequency of CD4+ and CD8+ T-lymphocytes, regulatory T-cell and MDSC were not altered by sorafenib treatment. However, actual number of lymphocytes had a tendency to increase (from 978.5 ± 319.4/mm3 prior to treatment to 1378.0 ± 403.3/mm3 , P = .086) for the patients with N/L reduction. CONCLUSION: Immunosuppressor cells were not altered by sorafeinb. Patients' survival was improved if N/L ≥ 2.5 was reduced to <2.5 by TACE.

4.
Cell Death Differ ; 2020 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33024274

RESUMO

Development of renal fibrosis is a hallmark of renal aging and chronic kidney disease of all etiologies and characterized by extensive renal cell injuries and subsequent myofibroblast transdifferentiations (MTDs), which are significantly influenced by aberrant histone deacetylase (HDAC) activities. However, the key HDAC isoforms and effectors that are causally involved in the processes remain poorly understood. Here, we report that aberrant HDAC3 induction and its inhibition of Klotho, a renal epithelium-enriched aging suppressor, contribute significantly to renal fibrogenesis. HDAC3 was preferentially elevated with concomitant Klotho suppression in fibrotic kidneys incurred by unilateral ureter obstruction (UUO) and aristolochic acid nephropathy (AAN), whereas Hdac3 knockout resisted the fibrotic pathologies. The HDAC3 elevation is substantially blocked by the inhibitors of TGFß receptor and Smad3 phosphorylation, suggesting that TGFß/Smad signal activates Hdac3 transcription. Consistently, an HDAC3-selective inhibitor RGFP966 derepressed Klotho and mitigated the renal fibrotic injuries in both UUO and AAN mice. Further, HDAC3 overexpression or inhibition in renal epithelia inversely affected Klotho abundances and HDAC3 was inducibly associated with transcription regulators NCoR and NF-kB and bound to Klotho promoter in fibrotic kidney, supporting that aberrant HDAC3 targets and transcriptionally inhibits Klotho under renal fibrotic conditions. More importantly, the antirenal fibrosis effects of RGFP966 were largely compromised in mice with siRNA-mediated Klotho knockdown. Hence, HDAC3 aberration and the subsequent Klotho suppression constitute an important regulatory loop that promotes MTD and renal fibrosis and uses of HDAC3-selective inhibitors are potentially effective in treating renal fibrotic disorders.

5.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 16671, 2020 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33028837

RESUMO

Visually significant corneal injuries and subsequent scarring collectively represent a major global human health challenge, affecting millions of people worldwide. Unfortunately, less than 2% of patients who could benefit from a sight-restoring corneal transplant have access to cadaveric donor corneal tissue. Thus, there is a critical need for new ways to repair corneal defects that drive proper epithelialization and stromal remodeling of the wounded area without the need for cadeveric donor corneas. Emerging therapies to replace the need for donor corneas include pre-formed biosynthetic buttons and in situ-forming matrices that strive to achieve the transparency, biocompatibility, patient comfort, and biointegration that is possible with native tissue. Herein, we report on the development of an in situ-forming hydrogel of collagen type I crosslinked via multi-functional polyethylene glycol (PEG)-N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS) and characterize its biophysical properties and regenerative capacity both in vitro and in vivo. The hydrogels form under ambient conditions within minutes upon mixing without the need for an external catalyst or trigger such as light or heat, and their transparency, degradability, and stiffness are modulated as a function of number of PEG arms and concentration of PEG. In addition, in situ-forming PEG-collagen hydrogels support the migration and proliferation of corneal epithelial and stromal cells on their surface. In vivo studies in which the hydrogels were formed in situ over stromal keratectomy wounds without sutures showed that they supported multi-layered surface epithelialization. Overall, the in situ forming PEG-collagen hydrogels exhibited physical and biological properties desirable for a corneal stromal defect wound repair matrix that could be applied without the need for sutures or an external trigger such as a catalyst or light energy.

6.
J Vet Pharmacol Ther ; 2020 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33051869

RESUMO

This study aimed to examine the bioavailability (BA) and pharmacokinetic (PK) characteristics of sulfadiazine (SDZ) in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) after oral and intravenous administrations. Blood samples were collected at predetermined time points of 0.083, 0.17, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 24, 48, 72, and 96 hr (n = 6). The samples were extracted and purified by organic reagents and determined by the ultra-performance liquid chromatography. The software named 3P97 was used to calculate relevant PK parameters. The results demonstrated that the concentration-time profile of SDZ was best described by a one-compartmental open model with first-order absorption after a single oral dose. The main PK parameters of the absorption rate constant (Kα ), the absorption half-life (t1/2 Kα ), the elimination rate constant (Ke ), the elimination half-life (t1/2Ke ), and the area under concentration-time profile (AUC0-∞ ) were 0.3 1/h, 2.29 hr, 0.039 1/h, 17.64 hr, and 855.78 mg.h/L, respectively. Following intravenous administration, the concentration-time curve fitted to a two-compartmental open model without absorption. The primary PK parameters of the distribution rate constant (α), the elimination rate constant (ß), the distribution half-life (t1/2α ), the elimination half-life (t1/2ß ), the apparent distribution volume (VSS ), the total clearance (CL), and AUC0-∞ were 9.62 1/hr, 0.039 1/hr, 0.072 hr, 17.71 hr, 0.33 L/kg, 0.013 L h-1  kg-1 , and 386.23 mg.h/L, respectively. Finally, the BA was calculated to be 22.16%. Overall, this study will provide some fundamental information on PK properties in the development of a new formulation SDZ in the future and is partially beneficial for the appropriate usage of SDZ in aquaculture.

7.
PLoS Med ; 17(10): e1003363, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33001984

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Metastatic breast cancer (mBC) is a heterogenous disease with increasing availability of targeted therapies as well as emerging genomic markers of therapeutic resistance, necessitating timely and accurate molecular characterization of disease. As a minimally invasive test, analysis of circulating tumour DNA (ctDNA) is well positioned for real-time genomic profiling to guide treatment decisions. Here, we report the results of a prospective testing program established to assess the feasibility of ctDNA analysis to guide clinical management of mBC patients. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Two hundred thirty-four mBC patients (median age 54 years) were enrolled between June 2015 and October 2018 at the Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne, Australia. Median follow-up was 15 months (range 1-46). All patient samples at the time of enrolment were analysed in real time for the presence of somatic mutations. Longitudinal plasma testing during the course of patient management was also undertaken in a subset of patients (n = 67, 28.6%), according to clinician preference, for repeated molecular profiling or disease monitoring. Detection of somatic mutations from patient plasma was performed using a multiplexed droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) approach to identify hotspot mutations in PIK3CA, ESR1, ERBB2, and AKT1. In parallel, subsets of samples were also analysed via next-generation sequencing (targeted panel sequencing and low-coverage whole-genome sequencing [LC-WGS]). The sensitivity of ddPCR and targeted panel sequencing to identify actionable mutations was compared. Results were discussed at a multidisciplinary breast cancer meeting prior to treatment decisions. ddPCR and targeted panel sequencing identified at least 1 actionable mutation at baseline in 80/234 (34.2%) and 62/159 (39.0%) of patients tested, respectively. Combined, both methods detected an actionable alteration in 104/234 patients (44.4%) through baseline or serial ctDNA testing. LC-WGS was performed on 27 patients from the cohort, uncovering several recurrently amplified regions including 11q13.3 encompassing CCND1. Increasing ctDNA levels were associated with inferior overall survival, whether assessed by ddPCR, targeted sequencing, or LC-WGS. Overall, the ctDNA results changed clinical management in 40 patients including the direct recruitment of 20 patients to clinical trials. Limitations of the study were that it was conducted at a single site and that 31.3% of participants were lost to follow-up. CONCLUSION: In this study, we found prospective ctDNA testing to be a practical and feasible approach that can guide clinical trial enrolment and patient management in mBC.

8.
Nutrients ; 12(10)2020 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33086593

RESUMO

The beneficial effects of ginger polyphenols have been extensively reported. However, their metabolic characteristics and health effects on gut microbiota are poor understood. The purpose of this study was to investigate the digestion stability of ginger polyphenols and their prebiotic effects on gut microbiota by simulating digestion and fermentation in vitro. Following simulated digestion in vitro, 85% of the polyphenols were still detectable, and the main polyphenol constituents identified in ginger extract are 6-, 8-, and 10-gingerols and 6-shogaol in the digestive fluids. After batch fermentation, the changes in microbial populations were measured by 16S rRNA gene Illumina MiSeq sequencing. In mixed-culture fermentation with fecal inoculate, digested ginger extract (GE) significantly modulated the fecal microbiota structure and promoted the growth of some beneficial bacterial populations, such as Bifidobacterium and Enterococcus. Furthermore, incubation with GE could elevate the levels of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) accompanied by a decrease in the pH value. Additionally, the quantitative PCR results showed that 6-gingerol (6G), as the main polyphenol in GE, increased the abundance of Bifidobacterium significantly. Therefore, 6G is expected to be a potential prebiotic that improves human health by promoting gut health.

9.
Blood Adv ; 4(20): 5174-5183, 2020 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33095872

RESUMO

Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cells directed against CD19 have drastically altered outcomes for children with relapsed and refractory acute lymphoblastic leukemia (r/r ALL). Pediatric patients with r/r ALL treated with CAR-T are at increased risk of both cytokine release syndrome (CRS) and sepsis. We sought to investigate the biologic differences between CRS and sepsis and to develop predictive models which could accurately differentiate CRS from sepsis at the time of critical illness. We identified 23 different cytokines that were significantly different between patients with sepsis and CRS. Using elastic net prediction modeling and tree classification, we identified cytokines that were able to classify subjects as having CRS or sepsis accurately. A markedly elevated interferon γ (IFNγ) or a mildly elevated IFNγ in combination with a low IL1ß were associated with CRS. A normal to mildly elevated IFNγ in combination with an elevated IL1ß was associated with sepsis. This combination of IFNγ and IL1ß was able to categorize subjects as having CRS or sepsis with 97% accuracy. As CAR-T therapies become more common, these data provide important novel information to better manage potential associated toxicities.

10.
PLoS Biol ; 18(10): e3000891, 2020 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33090988

RESUMO

Externally deposited eggs begin development with an immense cytoplasm and a single overwhelmed nucleus. Rapid mitotic cycles restore normality as the ratio of nuclei to cytoplasm (N/C) increases. A threshold N/C has been widely proposed to activate zygotic genome transcription and onset of morphogenesis at the mid-blastula transition (MBT). To test whether a threshold N/C is required for these events, we blocked N/C increase by down-regulating cyclin/Cdk1 to arrest early cell cycles in Drosophila. Embryos that were arrested two cell cycles prior to the normal MBT activated widespread transcription of the zygotic genome including genes previously described as N/C dependent. Zygotic transcription of these genes largely retained features of their regulation in space and time. Furthermore, zygotically regulated post-MBT events such as cellularization and gastrulation movements occurred in these cell cycle-arrested embryos. These results are not compatible with models suggesting that these MBT events are directly coupled to N/C. Cyclin/Cdk1 activity normally declines in tight association with increasing N/C and is regulated by N/C. By experimentally promoting the decrease in cyclin/Cdk1, we uncoupled MBT from N/C increase, arguing that N/C-guided down-regulation of cyclin/Cdk1 is sufficient for genome activation and MBT.

11.
Genomics ; 2020 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33096259

RESUMO

Zooxanthellae and coral can form an intracellular symbiotic system. Yet, little is known about the molecular mechanism underlying this symbiosis. In this study, we characterized the symbiosis based on analyses of gene expression at the single-cell level. Among 9110 single coral cells, we identified 4871 symbiotic cells based on the detection of both coral and zooxanthellae gene transcripts within a single cell. Using the bioinformatics tool Seurat, symbiotic cells were further clustered into five groups, 52 genes exhibited differential expression between groups. We proposed an index called the "symbiosis index", to indicate the degree of gene expression of both species in a single symbiotic cell. Interestingly, the index differed distinctly among the five groups. The symbiosis index was highly correlated with the expression of the coral gene gfas1.m1.6761 (ANKRD40), which encodes ankyrin repeat domain-containing protein 40 and is involved in DNA replication (r = 0.76). Two metabolism-related genes, DAGLA and betaGlu, were highly expressed in cells with a high symbiosis index. Four zooxanthellae genes, PRPF19, ATRN, aAA-ATPases and AK812-SmicGene44833, exhibited substantial changes in expression levels when zooxanthellae lived within coral. A trajectory analysis suggested that cells with a higher symbiosis index may be derived from those with a lower index during coral colony development. Taken together, our results provide evidence for zooxanthellae residing within coral, forming a symbiotic system. The symbiosis index is an effective indicator of different cell groups, with lineage relationships among groups. Additionally, we identified specific genes that exhibit expression changes in the symbiotic system.

12.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 266: 113432, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33011367

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Veronica ciliata Fisch. is a traditional medical herb that present in more than 100 types of Tibetan medicine prescriptions, most of which are used for liver disease therapy. Iridoid glycosides have been identified as the major active components of V.ciliata with a variety of biological activities. AIMS OF THE STUDY: The aim of this study is to explore the protective effect and potential mechanism of n-Butanol extract (BE) and iridoid glycosides (IG) from V.ciliata against ɑ-naphthyl isothiocyanate (ANIT)-induced hepatotoxicity and cholestasis in mice. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Mice were intragastrically (i.g.) given BE and IG at different dose or positive control ursodeoxycholic acid (UCDA) once a day for 14 consecutive days, and were treated with ANIT to cause liver injury on day 12th. Serum levels of hepatic injury markers and cholestasis indicators, liver index and liver histopathology were measured to evaluate the effect of BE and IG on liver injury caused by ANIT. The protein levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), nuclear factor kappa B(NF-κB), interleukin-6 (IL-6), Na+/taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (NTCP), bile salt export pump (BSEP), multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (MRP2), and the levels of oxidative stress indicators in liver tissue were investigated to reveal the underlying protective mechanisms of BE and IG against ANIT-induced hepatotoxicity and cholestasis. RESULTS: The n-Butanol extract (BE) and iridoid glycosides (IG) isolated from V.ciliata significantly decreased serum level of cholestatic liver injury markers aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), γ-glutamyl transferase (GGT), total bile acid (TBA), total bilirubin (TBIL), and direct bilirubin (DBIL) in ANIT-treated mice. Histopathology of the liver tissue showed that pathological damages were relieved upon BE and IG treatment. Meanwhile, the results indicated BE and IG notably restored relative liver weights, inhibited oxidative stress induced by ANIT through increasing hepatic level of superoxide dismutase (SOD), reduced glutathione (GSH), catalase (CAT) and decreasing hepatic content of malondialdehyde (MDA). Western blot revealed that BE and IG inhibited the expression of pro-inflammatory factors TGF-α, IL-6 and NF-κB. Furthermore, the decreased protein expression of bile acid transporters NTCP, BSEP, MRP2 were upregulated by BE and IG in a dose-dependent manner. CONCLUSION: The results have demonstrated that BE and IG exhibited a dose-dependently protective effect against ANIT-induced liver injury with acute intrahepatic cholestasis in mice, which might be related to the regulation of oxidative stress, inflammatory response and bile acid transport. In addition, these findings pointed out that iridoid glycosides as main active components of V.ciliata play a critical role in hepatoprotective effect of V.ciliata.

13.
Phytochemistry ; 180: 112534, 2020 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33065407

RESUMO

Fourteen undescribed diterpenoids caryopterisoids D - Q, three undescribed iridoid glucoside derivatives caryopterisides F - H, and 8 known diterpenoids were isolated from the 95% aqueous ethanolic extract of Caryopteris glutinosa. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic data analysis and chemical derivation studies. The structure and absolute configuration of caryopterisoid D were confirmed by X-ray crystallographic analysis. Caryopterisoids K and R, royleanone, 6α-hydroxydemethylcryptojaponol, and teuvincenone E were shown to reduce the biosynthesis of estrogen E2 with IC50 values from 0.25 to 3.06 µM in cell-based estrogen biosynthesis assays system.

14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33092296

RESUMO

A vulnerability curve is an important tool for the rapid assessment of drought losses, and it can provide a scientific basis for drought risk prevention and post-disaster relief. Those populations with difficulty in accessing drinking water because of drought (hereon "drought at risk populations", abbreviated as DRP) were selected as the target of the analysis, which examined factors contributing to their risk status. Here, after the standardization of disaster data from the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River in 2013, the parameter estimation method was used to determine the probability distribution of drought perturbations data. The results showed that, at the significant level of α = 0.05, the DRP followed the Weibull distribution, whose parameters were optimal. According to the statistical characteristics of the probability density function and cumulative distribution function, the bulk of the standardized DRP is concentrated in the range of 0 to 0.2, with a cumulative probability of about 75%, of which 17% is the cumulative probability from 0.2 to 0.4, and that greater than 0.4 amounts to only 8%. From the perspective of the vulnerability curve, when the variance ratio of the normalized vegetation index (NDVI) is between 0.65 and 0.85, the DRP will increase at a faster rate; when it is greater than 0.85, the growth rate of DRP will be relatively slow, and the disaster losses will stabilize. When the variance ratio of the enhanced vegetation index (EVI) is between 0.5 and 0.85, the growth rate of DRP accelerates, but when it is greater than 0.85, the disaster losses tend to stabilize. By comparing the coefficient of determination (R2) values fitted for the vulnerability curve, in the same situation, EVI is more suitable to indicate drought vulnerability than NDVI for estimating the DRP.

15.
Food Chem ; 341(Pt 1): 128118, 2020 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33022577

RESUMO

A metabolomics approach was employed to investigate differences and correlations among key odorants and non-volatile metabolites in broccoli juices fermented by plant- and animal-derived Pediococcus pentosaceus. Forty volatile metabolites were identified by headspace solid-phase microextraction/gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. According to orthogonal projections to latent structures-differential analysis, 24 and 21 differential volatiles were detected after fermentation by plant- and animal-derived P. pentosaceus, respectively. The concentrations of 10 odorants (OAV ≥ 1) detected by gas chromatography-olfactometry changed significantly after fermentation by P. pentosaceus. Using ultrahigh-pressure liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry, 49.47% of the non-volatile metabolites were classified as lipids and lipid-like molecules. The relative expressions of five non-volatile metabolites that exhibited significant correlations with odorants using Spearman correlation analysis changed significantly after fermentation. Fermentation with animal- and plant-derived P. pentosaceus can therefore change key odorants and non-volatile metabolites in broccoli juice that contribute to the characteristic organoleptic properties of products.

16.
J Sci Food Agric ; 2020 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33006396

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Global food security faces a number of challenges due to increasing population, climate change, and urbanization, while excessive use of nitrogen fertilizers has become a major challenge for sustainable, intensive agriculture. Assessing the impact of agronomic management practices on seed yield, grain quality, and soil fertility is a critical step in understanding nutrientuse efficiency. RESULT: The comprehensive evaluation index had good fitness to that of single attribute (i.e. seed yield, crop quality and soil fertility), indicating that the comprehensive evaluation index was reliable. Applying controlled-release urea (rice in wheat and oilseed rape field: 150 kg N ha-1 , other crops: 120 kg N ha-1 ) plus common urea (30 kg N ha-1 ) incorporating straw from the previous season across the growing season for cereal and oilseed crops showed a slight improvement in seed productivity and Nuse efficiency among three cropping systems in the traditional evaluation method. Compared with local farm practice (applying common urea of 150 kg N ha-1 ), applying these practices in combination based on the outcome of the comprehensive evaluation index method decreased the seed yield by -1.27 ~ 29.8% but improved quality and soil fertility for the paddy-upland cropping system, respectively. CONCLUSION: Properly managing N application by applying partial and fully controlled release of urea with or without straw incorporation for a specific crop system has the potential to provide a better compromise among yield, grain quality, and soil fertility in southern China. © 2020 Society of Chemical Industry.

17.
J Epidemiol ; 2020 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33012776

RESUMO

BackgroundTo investigate the causal link between early-life exposures and long-term health consequences, we established the Tianjin Birth Cohort (TJBC), a large-scale prospective cohort in northern China.MethodsTJBC aims to enroll 10,000 families with follow-ups from pregnancy until children's six year-old. Pregnant women and their spouses were recruited through a three-tier antenatal healthcare system at early pregnancy, with follow-ups at mid-pregnancy, late pregnancy, delivery, 42 days after delivery, 6 months after delivery and each year until 6 year-old. Antenatal/neonatal examination, biological samples and questionnaires were collected.ResultsFrom August 2017 to January 2019, a total of 3,924 pregnant women has already been enrolled, and 1697 women have given birth. We observed the prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus as 18.1%, anemia as 20.4%, and thyroid hypofunction as 2.0%. In singleton live births, 5.6% were preterm birth (PTB), 3.7% were low birth weight and 7.3% were macrosomia. Based on current data, we also identified maternal/paternal factors which increased the risk of PTB, including paternal age (OR, 1.07; 95% CI, 1.01-1.14 for each year increase), vaginal bleeding during pregnancy (OR, 2.82; 95% CI, 1.54-5.17) and maternal early-pregnancy BMI (OR, 1.08; 95% CI, 1.01-1.15 for each kg/m2 increase).ConclusionTJBC has the strength of collecting comprehensive maternal, paternal and childhood information. With a diverse range of biological samples, we are also engaging with emerging new technologies for multi-omics researches. The study would provide new insight into the causal link between macro/micro-environmental exposures of early life and short/long-term health consequences.

18.
Plant Cell ; 2020 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33037146

RESUMO

Catechyl lignin (C-lignin) is a linear homopolymer of caffeyl alcohol found in the seed coats of diverse plant species. Its properties make it a natural source of carbon fibers and high-value chemicals, but the mechanism of in planta polymerization of caffeyl alcohol remains unclear. In the ornamental plant Cleome hassleriana, lignin biosynthesis in the seed coat switches from guaiacyl (G) lignin to C-lignin at ~12 days after pollination. Here we found that the transcript profile of the laccase gene ChLAC8 parallels the accumulation of C-lignin during seed coat development. Recombinant ChLAC8 oxidizes caffeyl and sinapyl alcohols, generating their corresponding dimers or trimers in vitro, but cannot oxidize coniferyl alcohol. We propose a basis for this substrate preference based on molecular modeling/docking experiments. Suppression of ChLAC8 expression led to significantly reduced C-lignin content in the seed coats of transgenic Cleome plants. Feeding of 13C-caffeyl alcohol to the Arabidopsis thaliana caffeic acid O-methyltransferase (comt) mutant resulted in no incorporation of 13C into C-lignin, but expressing ChLAC8 in this genetic background led to appearance of C-lignin with over 40% label incorporation. These results indicate that ChLAC8 is required for C-lignin polymerization and determines lignin composition when caffeyl alcohol is available.

19.
Ren Fail ; 42(1): 950-957, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32924707

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is spreading rapidly, which poses great challenges to patients on maintenance hemodialysis. Here we report the clinical features of 66 hemodialysis patients with laboratory confirmed COVID-19 infection. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, AND MEASUREMENTS: Retrospective, single-center case series of the 66 hemodialysis patients with confirmed COVID-19 from 1 January to 5 March 2020; the final date of follow-up was 25 March 2020. RESULTS: The clinical data were collected from 66 hemodialysis patients with confirmed COVID-19. The incidence of COVID-19 in our center was 11.0% (66/602), of which 18 patients died. According to different prognosis, hemodialysis patients with COVID-19 were divided into the survival and death group. A higher incidence of fever and dyspnea was found in the death group compared with the survival group. Meanwhile, patients in the death group were often accompanied by higher white blood cell count, prolonged PT time, increased D-dimer (p < .05). More patients in the death group showed hepatocytes and cardiomyocytes damage. Furthermore, logistic regression analysis suggested that fever, dyspnea, and elevated D-dimer were independent risk factors for death in hemodialysis patients with COVID-19 (OR, 1.077; 95% CI, 1.014 to 1.439; p = .044; OR, 1.146; 95% CI, 1.026 to 1.875; p = .034, OR, 4.974; 95% CI, 3.315 to 6.263; p = .007, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: The potential risk factors of fever, dyspnea, and elevated D-dimer could help clinicians to identify hemodialysis patients with poor prognosis at an early stage of COVID-19 infection.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Dispneia , Febre , Produtos de Degradação da Fibrina e do Fibrinogênio/análise , Falência Renal Crônica , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Medição de Risco/métodos , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , China/epidemiologia , Comorbidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Dispneia/diagnóstico , Dispneia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Febre/diagnóstico , Febre/epidemiologia , Unidades Hospitalares de Hemodiálise/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Falência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , Falência Renal Crônica/terapia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mortalidade , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Prognóstico , Diálise Renal/métodos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
20.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(38): e22260, 2020 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32957375

RESUMO

We explored the psychological changes in suspected patients during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic and obtained evidence for early psychological guidance and intervention in this group. A total of 31 inpatients with suspected COVID-19 were identified at our hospital. The depression module of the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9), the General Anxiety Disorder (GAD)-7 scale, and the Self-Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ-20) mental health self-assessment questionnaire were used to assess depression, anxiety, and overall mental health. Among the patients, 32.3% had symptoms of depression and 19.4% had symptoms of anxiety. Levels of anxiety and fear varied. In comparing the PHQ-9 and 7-item Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale scores of suspected and confirmed patients, there was no significant difference in the distribution of severity of anxiety or depression in the 2 groups. The PHQ-9 scores indicated mild depression symptoms in 25.8% of suspected patients, moderate symptoms in 0%, and severe symptoms in 6.5%. Overall, 50% of confirmed patients had symptoms, with 30.8% classified as mild, 15.4% classified as moderate, and 3.8% classified as severe. The 7-item Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale scores in the group of suspected patients showed that 9.7% had mild symptoms, 0% had moderate symptoms, and 9.7% had severe symptoms. In the group of confirmed patients, 38.4% had symptoms (34.6% mild, 0% moderate, and 3.8% severe). Diagnosed patients had more visible symptoms of depression and different total PHQ-9 scores. During the COVID-19 epidemic, suspected and diagnosed patients had different levels of mental health problems. Diagnosed patients had more visible symptoms. The performance of suspected patients was higher, but their mental state was more polarized. It may thus be important to monitor the psychological state of suspected patients as early as possible to enable timely interventions that promote psychological rehabilitation.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/diagnóstico , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Depressão/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Adulto , Idoso , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Ansiedade/virologia , China/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Depressão/epidemiologia , Depressão/virologia , Medo/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Inquéritos e Questionários
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