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1.
World J Clin Cases ; 10(13): 4020-4032, 2022 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35665105

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Superior mesenteric artery embolism (SMAE) has acute onset and fast progression, which seriously threatens the life of patients. Multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) is one of the most important diagnostic methods for SMAE, which plays an important role in the diagnosis and prognosis of SMAE. AIM: To evaluate the value of combined clinical data and MDCT findings in the diagnosis of acute SMAE and predict the risk factors for SMAE-related death. METHODS: Data from 53 SMAE patients who received abdominal MDCT multi-phase enhancement and superior mesenteric artery digital subtraction angiography examinations were collected. Univariate cox regression and multivariate cox model were used to analyze the correlation between death risk and clinical and computed tomography features in SMAE patients. RESULTS: Univariate Cox regression model showed that intestinal wall thinning, intestinal wall pneumatosis, blood lactate > 2.1 mmol/L and blood pH < 7.35 increased the risk of death in patients with SMAE. After adjusting for age, sex, embolic involvement length and embolic distribution region, multivariate Cox regression model I showed that blood lactate > 2.1 mmol/L (HR = 5.26, 95%CI: 1.04-26.69, P = 0.045) and intestinal wall thinning (HR = 9.40, 95%CI: 1.05-83.46, P = 0.044) were significantly increases the risk of death in patients with SMAE. CONCLUSION: For patients with SAME, increased blood lactate and intestinal wall thinning are the risk factors for death; hence, close monitoring may reduce the mortality rate. Clinical observation combined with MDCT signs can significantly improve SMAE diagnosis.

2.
Bioresour Technol ; : 127429, 2022 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35667532

RESUMO

In order to increase the utilization of herbal residues, realize efficient utilization of resources, the bacterial community and anaerobic fermentation characteristics of alfalfa ensiling treated with 36 kinds of herbal residues were studied. All the herbal residues improved the anaerobic fermentation quality in different degrees, indicated by lower pH, NH3-N and butyric acid concentrations. However, the contents of lactic and acetic acids varied widely in silage with different herbal residues. Pearson's correlation analysis showed that the improved fermentation quality was closely associated with the variation of lactic acid bacteria community. Consequently, the herbal residues could improve anaerobic fermentation quality by stimulating desirable Lactobacillus species and inhibiting undesirable microbes. This study provides new insights for efficient utilization of herbal residues.

3.
Nutrition ; 101: 111704, 2022 Apr 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35696740

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies to estimate the overall prevalence and prognostic value of sarcopenic obesity (SO) in patients with cancer. We searched PubMed, Embase, Web of Science and the Cochrane Library for observational studies reporting the prevalence of SO and its prognosis in patients with cancer from inception to December 2020. The pooled prevalence, hazard ratios (HRs), odds ratios (ORs) and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of data extracted from the studies were calculated. We included 10 004 patients with cancer from 38 studies. The pooled prevalence of SO in this group of patients was 20% (95% CI, 17%-24%). Meta-analysis showed SO was significantly associated with poor overall survival (HR, 1.83; 95% CI, 1.41-2.38), recurrence-free survival (HR, 2.10; 95% CI, 1.57-2.80), disease-free survival (HR, 1.94; 95% CI, 1.01-3.74), postoperative complications (OR, 3.01; 95% CI, 2.08-4.33), and prolonged hospital length of stay (OR, 5.69; 95% CI, 2.76-11.74). The results for the relationship between SO and chemotherapy toxicity were inconsistent and controversial. Current limited evidence suggested that SO may be associated with poor cancer-specific survival (HR, 5.00; 95% CI, 1.40-16.70), but not progression-free survival (HR, 0.61; 95% CI, 0.32-1.16). The present review indicated SO is common in patients with cancer and is significantly associated with several poor outcomes. Therefore, it is necessary to diagnose and screen for SO in patients with cancer in the future, and appropriate interventions should be further explored to improve the prognosis of cancer patients.

4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(11)2022 May 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35682619

RESUMO

Hybrid rice technology has been used for more than 50 years, and eating and cooking quality (ECQ) has been a major focus throughout this period. Waxy (Wx) and alkaline denaturation (ALK) genes have received attention owing to their pivotal roles in determining rice characteristics. However, despite significant effort, the ECQ of restorer lines (RLs) has changed very little. By contrast, obvious changes have been seen in inbred rice varieties (IRVs), and the ECQ of IRVs is influenced by Wx, which reduces the proportion of Wxa and increases the proportion of Wxb, leading to a decrease in amylose content (AC) and an increase in ECQ. Meanwhile, ALK is not selected in the same way. We investigated Wx alleles and AC values of sterile lines of female parents with the main mating combinations in widely used areas. The results show that almost all sterile lines were Wxa-type with a high AC, which may explain the low ECQ of hybrid rice. Analysis of hybrid rice varieties and RLs in the last 5 years revealed serious homogenisation among hybrid rice varieties.


Assuntos
Oryza , Alelos , Amilose/genética , Oryza/genética , Melhoramento Vegetal , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Receptores Proteína Tirosina Quinases/genética , Ceras
5.
Cell Biosci ; 12(1): 88, 2022 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35690792

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: An animal model that can mimic the SARS-CoV-2 infection in humans is critical to understanding the rapidly evolving SARS-CoV-2 virus and for development of prophylactic and therapeutic strategies to combat emerging mutants. Studies show that the spike proteins of SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 bind to human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (hACE2, a well-recognized, functional receptor for SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2) to mediate viral entry. Several hACE2 transgenic (hACE2Tg) mouse models are being widely used, which are clearly invaluable. However, the hACE2Tg mouse model cannot fully explain: (1) low expression of ACE2 observed in human lung and heart, but lung or heart failure occurs frequently in severe COVID-19 patients; (2) low expression of ACE2 on immune cells, but lymphocytopenia occurs frequently in COVID-19 patients; and (3) hACE2Tg mice do not mimic the natural course of SARS-CoV-2 infection in humans. Moreover, one of most outstanding features of coronavirus infection is the diversity of receptor usage, which includes the newly proposed human CD147 (hCD147) as a possible co-receptor for SARS-CoV-2 entry. It is still debatable whether CD147 can serve as a functional receptor for SARS-CoV-2 infection or entry. RESULTS: Here we successfully generated a hCD147 knock-in mouse model (hCD147KI) in the NOD-scid IL2Rgammanull (NSG) background. In this hCD147KI-NSG mouse model, the hCD147 genetic sequence was placed downstream of the endogenous mouse promoter for mouse CD147 (mCD147), which creates an in vivo model that may better recapitulate physiological expression of hCD147 proteins at the molecular level compared to the existing and well-studied K18-hACE2-B6 (JAX) model. In addition, the hCD147KI-NSG mouse model allows further study of SARS-CoV-2 in the immunodeficiency condition which may assist our understanding of this virus in the context of high-risk populations in immunosuppressed states. Our data show (1) the human CD147 protein is expressed in various organs (including bronchiolar epithelial cells) in hCD147KI-NSG mice by immunohistochemical staining and flow cytometry; (2) hCD147KI-NSG mice are marginally sensitive to SARS-CoV-2 infection compared to WT-NSG littermates characterized by increased viral copies by qRT-PCR and moderate body weight decline compared to baseline; (3) a significant increase in leukocytes in the lungs of hCD147KI-NSG mice, compared to infected WT-NSG mice. CONCLUSIONS: hCD147KI-NSG mice are more sensitive to COVID-19 infection compared to WT-NSG mice. The hCD147KI-NSG mouse model can serve as an additional animal model for further interrogation whether CD147 serve as an independent functional receptor or accessory receptor for SARS-CoV-2 entry and immune responses.

6.
BMJ Open ; 12(6): e061740, 2022 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35667715

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: High-risk human papilloma virus (HPV)-associated cervical cancer is the fourth most common cancer in women worldwide. Current treatments of high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) of the cervix are based on invasive surgical interventions, compromising cervical competence and functionality. APRICITY is a multicentre, prospective, double-blind, randomised controlled phase 3 study further evaluating the efficacy and safety of Cevira, an integrated drug-delivery and light-delivery device for hexaminolevulinate photodynamic therapy, which shows promise as a novel, non-invasive outpatient therapy for women with HSIL. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Patients with biopsy-confirmed HSIL histology are invited to participate in the study planned to be conducted at 47 sites in China and 25 sites in Ukraine, Russia and the European Union. The aim is to include at least 384 patients, which will be randomised to either Cevira or placebo group (2:1). All patients will be assessed 3 months after first treatment and a second treatment will be administered in patients who are HPV positive or have at least low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion. Primary endpoint is the proportion of the responders 6 months after first treatment. Secondary efficacy and safety endpoints will be assessed at 6 months, and data for secondary performance endpoints of the Cevira device will be collected at 3 months and 6 months, in case second treatment was administered. All patients in the Cevira group will be enrolled in an open, long-term extension study for 6 months to collect additional efficacy and safety data (study extension endpoints). ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The study was approved by the ethics committee of the Peking Union Medical College Hospital and Hannover Medical University, Germany. Findings will be disseminated through peer review publications and conference presentations. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT04484415; clinicaltrials.gov.


Assuntos
Carcinoma in Situ , Infecções por Papillomavirus , Fotoquimioterapia , Lesões Intraepiteliais Escamosas , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero , Ácido Aminolevulínico/análogos & derivados , Ensaios Clínicos Fase III como Assunto , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto , Infecções por Papillomavirus/complicações , Fotoquimioterapia/métodos , Estudos Prospectivos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/patologia
7.
Pain Ther ; 2022 Jun 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35674985

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Pain management for older patients with hip fractures is challenging. This study aimed to investigate the effect of ultrasound-guided fascia iliac compartment block (UGFICB) using different doses of nalbuphine in combination with ropivacaine on preoperative analgesia in older patients with hip fractures. METHODS: In this multicenter randomized controlled trial, 280 elderly patients with hip fracture were randomly allocated into four UGFICB groups (n = 70 in each group): a ropivacaine group (30 mL 0.1% ropivacaine + 0.9% normal saline) and three ropivacaine plus nalbuphine groups (5, 10, and 20 mg nalbuphine, respectively). The primary outcomes were the duration of analgesia at rest and on passive movement. Secondary outcomes included sensory block area, side effects, and vital signs. The doses of rescue analgesia with parecoxib sodium were also analyzed. RESULTS: The addition of nalbuphine dose-dependently increased the duration of analgesia at rest and on passive movement (P < 0.05) and expanded the area of sensory block (P < 0.05). Compared with the ropivacaine group, the pain scores at rest and on movement at 6 and 8 h after the block were lower in three ropivacaine plus nalbuphine groups (P < 0.05), without between-group differences at 2, 4, and 12 h. The four groups had comparable side effects (nausea and vomiting) and vital signs (P > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: UGFICB with 5, 10, and 20 mg nalbuphine added to ropivacaine prolonged the analgesia duration, increased sensory block area, reduced pain, and decreased the doses of rescue parecoxib sodium for older patients after hip fracture, without obvious side effects. Among these three doses, nalbuphine 20 mg in combination with ropivacaine provided the longest duration of analgesia and the largest sensory block area. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Chinese Clinical Trial Registry (ChiCTR2000029934).

8.
Anesthesiol Clin ; 40(2): 257-274, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35659399

RESUMO

Addressing resident wellness is an important topic given the high risk for burnout and depression in resident physicians compared with the general U.S. population. This article provides an overview of various approaches to help conceptualize and intervene on resident wellness, based on the 9-strategies framework to improve wellness laid out by Shanafelt and colleagues. This article outlines the most relevant literature in each strategy followed by the authors' experience within their anesthesiology residency program.


Assuntos
Anestesiologia , Esgotamento Profissional , Internato e Residência , Esgotamento Profissional/prevenção & controle , Educação de Pós-Graduação em Medicina , Humanos
9.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 33(5): 1283-1290, 2022 May.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35730087

RESUMO

To improve carbon (C) sequestration and soil fertility of red soil, a two-year (2017 and 2018) field experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of two organic amendments (i.e., corn straw and sheep manure) applied alone or combined with biochar on soil nutrient content, enzyme activities involved in C cycling, and microbial substrate utilization rate in infertile red soil. There were six treatments, including control (non-amendment), corn straw, sheep manure and across biochar treatments (without and with biochar amendment, respectively). The organic amendments and biochar were applied in 2017 and 2018. The results showed that, compared with the control, organic amendments significantly increased soil pH, organic C, total nitrogen, available phosphorus and potassium contents. Compared with straw and manure alone, the biochar co-application with straw or manure significantly increased the contents of soil organic C, available potassium, and available nitrogen, without any significant interactive effects. Application of organic amendments significantly increased the activities of soil ß-glucosidase (BG), cellobiohydrolase (CB), ß-xylosidase (XYL), and peroxidase (PERO). The combined application of biochar and straw significantly reduced the activity of phenol oxidase (PHOX) by 28.6% and PERO by 22.2% in comparison with straw addition alone, respectively, while the combined application of biochar and manure significantly reduced the activities of α-glucosidase (AG) by 46.1%, BG by 50.9%, XYL by 41.6%, and PERO by 31.3% compared with manure addition alone, respectively. Compared with the control, the application of organic amendments significantly enhanced soil basal respiration and microbial utilization rates of carbohydrates, whereas biochar co-application significantly decreased microbial utilization rates of carbohydrates and carboxylic acids. Microbial C source utilization rates were significantly and positively correlated with the activities of BG and PERO. Thus, biochar co-application with organic amendments can enhance nutrient content and reduce enzymatic and microbial metabolic activities, thereby may facilitate C sequestration and fertility of infertile red soil.

10.
Fac Rev ; 11: 13, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35719130

RESUMO

Decoding the complexity of the brain requires an understanding of the architecture, function, and development of its neuronal circuits. Neuronal classifications that group neurons based on specific features/behaviors have become essential to further analyze the different subtypes in a systematic and reproducible way. A comprehensive taxonomic framework, accounting for multiple defining and quantitative features, will provide the reference to infer generalized rules for cells ascribed to the same neuronal type, and eventually predict cellular behaviors, even in the absence of experimental measures. Technologies that enable cell-type classification in the nervous system are rapidly evolving in scalability and resolution. While these approaches depict astonishing diversity in neuronal morphology, electrophysiology, and gene expression, a robust metric of the coherence between different profiling modalities leading to a unified classification is still largely missing. Focusing on GABAergic neurons of the cerebral cortex, Gouwens et al.1 pioneered the first integrated cell-type classification based on the simultaneous analysis of the transcriptional networks, the recording of intrinsic electrophysiological properties, and the reconstruction of 3D morphologies of the same cell. Their comprehensive and high-quality data provide a new framework to shed light on what may be considered a "neuronal cell type."

11.
Front Oncol ; 12: 908903, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35719942

RESUMO

Purpose: To investigate the dosimetric impact on target volumes and organs at risk (OARs) when unmodified auto-segmented OAR contours are directly used in the design of treatment plans. Materials and Methods: A total of 127 patients with cervical cancer were collected for retrospective analysis, including 105 patients in the training set and 22 patients in the testing set. The 3D U-net architecture was used for model training and auto-segmentation of nine types of organs at risk. The auto-segmented and manually segmented organ contours were used for treatment plan optimization to obtain the AS-VMAT (automatic segmentations VMAT) plan and the MS-VMAT (manual segmentations VMAT) plan, respectively. Geometric accuracy between the manual and predicted contours were evaluated using the Dice similarity coefficient (DSC), mean distance-to-agreement (MDA), and Hausdorff distance (HD). The dose volume histogram (DVH) and the gamma passing rate were used to identify the dose differences between the AS-VMAT plan and the MS-VMAT plan. Results: Average DSC, MDA and HD95 across all OARs were 0.82-0.96, 0.45-3.21 mm, and 2.30-17.31 mm on the testing set, respectively. The D99% in the rectum and the Dmean in the spinal cord were 6.04 Gy (P = 0.037) and 0.54 Gy (P = 0.026) higher, respectively, in the AS-VMAT plans than in the MS-VMAT plans. The V20, V30, and V40 in the rectum increased by 1.35% (P = 0.027), 1.73% (P = 0.021), and 1.96% (P = 0.008), respectively, whereas the V10 in the spinal cord increased by 1.93% (P = 0.011). The differences in other dosimetry parameters were not statistically significant. The gamma passing rates in the clinical target volume (CTV) were 92.72% and 98.77%, respectively, using the 2%/2 mm and 3%/3 mm criteria, which satisfied the clinical requirements. Conclusions: The dose distributions of target volumes were unaffected when auto-segmented organ contours were used in the design of treatment plans, whereas the impact of automated segmentation on the doses to OARs was complicated. We suggest that the auto-segmented contours of tissues in close proximity to the target volume need to be carefully checked and corrected when necessary.

12.
Front Hum Neurosci ; 16: 917769, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35721355

RESUMO

Purpose: Comitant exotropia (CE) is a common eye disorder characterized by impaired stereoscopic vision and eye deviation. Previous neuroimaging studies demonstrated that patients with CE were accompanied by specific functional and structural abnormalities of the brain. However, the effect of impaired stereoscopic vision and eye deviation on interhemispheric homotopic connectivity remains unknown. Methods: A total of thirty-six patients with CE (25 males and 11 females) and 36 well-matched healthy controls underwent magnetic resonance imaging scanning. The voxel-mirrored homotopic connectivity (VMHC) method was applied to assess the interhemispheric homotopic connectivity changes in patients with CE. Furthermore, the support vector machine method was applied to assess to differentiate patients with CE from healthy controls (HCs) with the VMHC maps as a feature. Results: Compared with HCs, patients with CE showed significantly increased VMHC values in the bilateral cerebelum_ 8 and cerebelum_4_5. Moreover, we found that the VMHC maps showed an accuracy of 81.94% and an area under the curve of 0.87 for distinguishing the patients with CE from HCs. Conclusion: Our study demonstrates that patients with CE showed interhemispheric homotopic connectivity changes in the cerebellum, which might reflect the neurological mechanisms of impaired stereoscopic vision and eye deviation in patients with CE.

13.
Neurochem Res ; 2022 Jun 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35725978

RESUMO

To clarify the potential role of selenium (Se) on cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury, we utilized mouse middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) followed by reperfusion as an animal model and oxygen-glucose deprivation and reoxygenation (OGD/R) to treat N2a cells as a cell model, respectively. MCAO model was established in mice and then divided into different groups with or without Se treatment. TTC staining was used to observe whether the cerebral I/R modeling was successful, and the apoptosis level was determined by TUNEL staining. The expression of GPx-4 and p22phox was assessed by western blot. In vitro experiments, the OGD/R induced oxidative stress in N2a cells was assessed by levels of GSH/GSSG, malondialdehyde, superoxide dismutase and iron content, respectively. QRT-PCR was used to detect the mRNA levels of Cox-2, Fth1, Mfn1 and mtDNA in N2a cells. JC-1 staining and flow cytometry was performed to detect the mitochondrial membrane potential. Se treatment alleviated cerebral I/R injury and improved the survival rate of mice. Additionally, Se treatment apparently attenuated oxidative stress and inhibited iron accumulation in MCAO model mice and OGD/R model of N2a cells. In terms of its mechanism, Se could up-regulate Mfn1 expression to alleviate oxidative stress and ferroptosis by promoting mitochondrial fusion in vivo and vitro. These findings suggest that Se may have great potential in alleviating cerebral I/R injury.

14.
Environ Pollut ; 308: 119616, 2022 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35700878

RESUMO

Excessive fertilization leads to high nitrogen (N) leaching under intensive plastic-shed vegetable production systems, and thereby results in the contaminations of ground or surface water. Therefore, it is urgent to develop cost-effective strategies of nitrogen management to overcome these obstacles. A 15-year experiment in annual double-cropping systems was conducted to explore impacts of N application rate and straw amendment on mineral N leaching loss in plastic-shed greenhouse. The results showed that seasonal mineral N leaching was up to 103.4-603.4 kg N ha-1, accounting for 12%-41% of total N input under conventional N fertilization management. However, optimized N application rates by 47% and straw addition obviously decreased mineral N leaching by 4%-86%, while had no negative impacts on N uptake and tomato yields. These large decreases of N leaching loss were mainly due to the reduced leachate amount and followed by N concentration in leachate, which was supported by improved soil water holding capacity after optimizing N application rates and straw addition. On average, 52% of water leachate and 55% of mineral N leaching simultaneously occurred within 40 days after planting, further indicating the dominant role of water leakage in regulating mineral N leaching loss. Moreover, decreasing mineral N leaching was beneficial for reducing leaching loss of base cations. Therefore, optimized N application rates and straw amendment effectively alleviates mineral N leaching losses mainly by controlling the water leakage without yield loss in plastic-shed greenhouse, making this strategy promising and interesting from environmental and economical viewpoints.

15.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 2022 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35708904

RESUMO

We design a vanadium nitride (VN) modified porous carbon nanofiber film as the host to load SeS2 as the cathode (SeS2@VN/CNFs) for improving Li storage capacity. The conductive porous carbon nanofibers can accommodate active SeS2 and release the volume change. The introduced VN nanoparticles can chemically anchor the intermediate species and improve the utilization of SeS2. As a result, the SeS2@VN/CNFs cathode displays a superior electrochemical performance including a high reversible capacity of 806 mAh g-1 at 0.2 C and good long-term cycling stability in Li-SeS2 batteries.

16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35703292

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to observe the effect of nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) on the phenotype changes of macrophages in the anterior vaginal wall of patients with pelvic organ prolapse (POP). METHODS: The tissues of the anterior vaginal wall of the control group (n = 30) and POP groups (n = 60) were collected during operation. The expressions of Nrf2, iNOS (representative factor of M1 macrophages), and CD206 (representative factor of M2 macrophages) were determined by immunohistochemical staining and Western blot. Morphological changes and collagen distribution of the anterior vaginal wall were observed by hematoxylin-eosin staining and Masson trichrome staining. RESULTS: Compared with the control group, the expression levels of Nrf2 and CD206 protein in the anterior vaginal wall tissues of the POP groups were significantly decreased (P < 0.05), and were negatively proportional to the degree of prolapse (P < 0.05). The expression of iNOS was significantly increased and was directly proportional to the degree of prolapse (P < 0.05). Hematoxylin-eosin staining and Masson trichrome staining showed that the collagen fibers are more sparsely arranged and disordered in the POP group than the control. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with POP, the expression of antioxidant factor Nrf2 is reduced in the vaginal anterior wall tissues and the antioxidant capacity is weakened, leading to the blocked polarization of macrophages and the accumulation of a large number of M1 macrophages in the tissue, affecting the occurrence and development of POP.

17.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 241: 113756, 2022 Jun 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35691196

RESUMO

Zearalenone (ZEN) is a potent oestrogenic mycotoxin that is mainly produced by Fusarium species and is a serious environmental pollutant in animal feeds. Apiotrichum mycotoxinivorans has been widely used as a feed additive to detoxify ZEN. However, the effects of ZEN on A. mycotoxinivorans and its detoxification mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, transcriptomic and bioinformatic analyses were used to investigate the molecular responses of A. mycotoxinivorans to ZEN exposure and the genetic basis of ZEN detoxification. We detected 1424 significantly differentially expressed genes (DEGs), of which 446 were upregulated and 978 were downregulated. Functional and enrichment analyses showed that ZEN-induced genes were significantly associated with xenobiotic metabolism, oxidative stress response, and active transport systems. However, ZEN-inhibited genes were mainly related to cell division, cell cycle, and fungal development. Subsequently, bioinformatic analysis identified candidate ZEN-detoxification enzymes. The Baeyer-Villiger monooxygenases and carboxylesterases, which are responsible for the formation and subsequent hydrolysis of a new ZEN lactone, respectively, were significantly upregulated. In addition, the expression levels of genes related to conjugation and transport involved in the xenobiotic detoxification pathway were significantly upregulated. Moreover, the expression levels of genes encoding enzymatic antioxidants and those related to growth and apoptosis were significantly upregulated and downregulated, respectively, which made it possible for A. mycotoxinivorans to survive in a highly toxic environment and efficiently detoxify ZEN. This is the first systematic report of ZEN tolerance and detoxification in A. mycotoxinivorans. We identified the metabolic enzymes that were potentially involved in detoxifying ZEN in the GMU1709 strain and found that ZEN-induced transcriptional regulation of genes is key to withstanding highly toxic environments. Hence, our results provide valuable information for developing enzymatic detoxification systems or engineering this detoxification pathway in other species.

18.
Molecules ; 27(11)2022 Jun 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35684527

RESUMO

Rosa roxburghii Tratt, a Rosaceae plant endemic to China, produces fruit with high nutritional and medicinal value. The effects of R. roxburghii must on the growth, nutrient composition, and antioxidant activity of Pleurotus ostreatus mycelia was investigated. We measured the mycelial growth rate, proximate composition, amino acid and crude polysaccharide content, and the antioxidant activity of the crude polysaccharides of P. ostreatus mycelia cultivated under different concentrations of R. roxburghii must (2%, 4%, and 8%, v/v). Low concentrations of R. roxburghii must (2% and 4%) promoted mycelial growth, while a high concentration (8%) inhibited mycelial growth. Low concentrations of R. roxburghii must had no significant effects on the soluble substances, fat, ash, and crude fiber in P. ostreatus mycelia, but significantly increased the crude protein and total amino acid contents (p < 0.05). The addition of R. roxburghii must at low concentrations significantly increased the crude polysaccharide content in mycelia (p < 0.05) but had no impact on the scavenging of hydroxyl radicals and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). Therefore, R. roxburghii must at low concentration can be used as a substrate for P. ostreatus cultivation to increase the protein and polysaccharide contents in mycelia.


Assuntos
Pleurotus , Rosa , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/química , Carboidratos da Dieta/metabolismo , Nutrientes , Polissacarídeos/química , Rosa/química
19.
Adv Mater ; : e2202891, 2022 Jun 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35679161

RESUMO

Single-atom catalysts have emerged as an efficient oxidant activator for eliminating organic pollutants in Fenton-like systems. However, the complex preparation, single active site, lack of fundamental mechanism understanding, and harsh pH conditions currently limit their practical applications. In this work, single-atom iron anchored nitrogen-rich g-C3 N4 nanotubes (FeCN) were designed and synthesized by a facile approach, and an eco-friendly peracetic acid (PAA) was selected as the oxidant for Fenton-like reactions. The constructed heterogeneous system achieves an enhanced degradation of various organic contaminants over a wide pH range of 3.0-9.0, exhibiting an ultrahigh and stable catalytic activity. This performance outperforms equivalent quantities of pristine g-C3 N4 by 75 times. The 18 O isotope-labeling technique, probe method, and theoretical calculations demonstrate that the efficient catalytic activity relies on the high-valent iron-oxo species coupled with organic radicals generated by PAA. An increase in electron transport from the contaminant to the formed "metastable PAA/FeCN catalyst surface complex" was detected. A double driving mechanism for the tubular g-C3 N4 regulated by a single Fe site and PAA activation was proposed. This work opens an avenue for developing novel catalysts with the coexistence of multiple active units and providing opportunities for significantly improving catalytic efficiency. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

20.
Front Immunol ; 13: 885782, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35693782

RESUMO

Trained immunity is driven by metabolism and epigenetics in innate immune cells in mammals. The phenomenon of trained immunity has been identified in invertebrates, including shrimp, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. To elucidate mechanisms of trained immunity in shrimp, the metabolomic changes in hemolymph of Marsupenaeus japonicus trained by the UV-inactivated white spot syndrome virus (UV-WSSV) were analyzed using tandem gas chromatography-mass/mass spectrometry. The metabolomic profiles of shrimp trained with UV-WSSV followed WSSV infection showed significant differences comparison with the control groups, PBS injection followed WSSV infection. 16 differential metabolites in total of 154 metabolites were identified, including D-fructose-6-phosphate, D-glucose-6-phosphate, and D-fructose-6-phosphate, and metabolic pathways, glycolysis, pentose phosphate pathway, and AMPK signaling pathway were enriched in the UV-WSSV trained groups. Further study found that histone monomethylation and trimethylation at H3K4 (H3K4me1 and H3K4me3) were involved in the trained immunity. Our data suggest that the UV-WSSV induced trained immunity leads to metabolism reprogramming in the shrimp and provide insights for WSSV control in shrimp aquaculture.


Assuntos
Penaeidae , Vírus da Síndrome da Mancha Branca 1 , Animais , Proteínas de Artrópodes , Imunidade Inata , Mamíferos/metabolismo , Raios Ultravioleta
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