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1.
Molecules ; 26(6)2021 Mar 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33805790

RESUMO

A highly specific and sensitive proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR) method has been developed for the quantification of ephedrine alkaloid derivatives in Ephedra herbal commercial prescriptions. At the region of δ 4.0 to 5.0 ppm in the 1H NMR spectrum, the characteristic signals are separated well from each other, and six analogues in total, methylephedrine (ME), ephedrine (EP), norephedrine (NE), norpseudoephedrine (NP), pseudoephedrine (PE), and methylpseudoephedrine (MP) could be identified. The quantities of these compounds are calculated by the relative ratio of the integral values of the target peak for each compound to the known concentrations of the internal standard anthracene. The present method allows for a rapid and simple quantification of ephedrine alkaloid derivatives in Ephedra-related commercial prescriptions without any preliminary purification steps and standard compounds, and accordingly it can be a powerful tool to verify different Ephedra species. In comparison to conventional chromatographic methods, the advantages of this method include the fact that no standard compounds are required, the quantification can be directly performed on the crude extracts, a better selectivity for various ephedrine alkaloid derivatives, and the fact that a very significant time-gain may be achieved.

2.
BMC Cancer ; 21(1): 379, 2021 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33836680

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Immunotherapy is a vital component in cancer treatment. However, due to the complex genetic bases of cancer, a clear prediction index for efficacy has not been established. Tumor mutation burden (TMB) is one of the essential factors that affect immunotherapeutic efficacies, but it has not been determined whether the mutation is associated with the survival of Skin Cutaneous Melanoma (SKCM) patients. This study aimed at evaluating the correlation between TMB and immune infiltration. METHODS: Somatic mutation profiles (n = 467), transcriptome data (n = 471), and their clinical information (n = 447) of all SKCM samples were downloaded from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database. For each sample, TMB was calculated as the number of variants per megabase. Based on K-M survival analysis, they were allocated into the high-TMB and low-TMB groups (the optimal cutoff was determined by the 'surv_cutpoint' algorithm of survival R package). Then, Gene ontology (GO) and Gene Set Enrichment Analyses (GSEA) were performed, with immune-associated biological pathways found to be significantly enriched in the low-TMB group. Therefore, immune genes that were differentially expressed between the two groups were evaluated in Cox regression to determine their prognostic values, and a four-gene TMB immune prognostic model (TMB-IP) was constructed. RESULTS: Elevated TMB levels were associated with better survival outcomes in SKCM patients. Based on the cutoff value in OS analysis, they were divided into high-TMB and low-TMB groups. GSEA revealed that the low-TMB group was associated with immunity while intersection analysis revealed that there were 38 differentially expressed immune-related genes between the two groups. Four TMB-associated immune genes were used to construct a TMB-IP model. The AUC of the ROC curve of this model reached a maximum of 0.75 (95%CI, 0.66-0.85) for OS outcomes. Validation in each clinical subgroup confirmed the efficacy of the model to distinguish between high and low TMB-IP score patients. CONCLUSIONS: In SKCM patients, low TMB was associated with worse survival outcomes and enriched immune-associated pathways. The four TMB-associated immune genes model can effectively distinguish between high and low-risk patients.

3.
Viruses ; 13(3)2021 03 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33808906

RESUMO

The heterogeneity of immune response to COVID-19 has been reported to correlate with disease severity and prognosis. While so, how the immune response progress along the period of viral RNA-shedding (VRS), which determines the infectiousness of disease, is yet to be elucidated. We aim to exhaustively evaluate the peripheral immune cells to expose the interplay of the immune system in uncomplicated COVID-19 cases with different VRS periods and dynamic changes of the immune cell profile in the prolonged cases. We prospectively recruited four uncomplicated COVID-19 patients and four healthy controls (HCs) and evaluated the immune cell profile throughout the disease course. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were collected and submitted to a multi-panel flowcytometric assay. CD19+-B cells were upregulated, while CD4, CD8, and NK cells were downregulated in prolonged VRS patients. Additionally, the pro-inflammatory-Th1 population showed downregulation, followed by improvement along the disease course, while the immunoregulatory cells showed upregulation with subsequent decline. COVID-19 patients with longer VRS expressed an immune profile comparable to those with severe disease, although they remained clinically stable. Further studies of immune signature in a larger cohort are warranted.


Assuntos
Linfócitos B/imunologia , /virologia , Leucócitos Mononucleares/imunologia , RNA Viral/metabolismo , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Eliminação de Partículas Virais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , RNA Viral/genética , Adulto Jovem
4.
Sci Total Environ ; 781: 146697, 2021 Mar 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33794465

RESUMO

Para-nitrophenol (PNP) is often detected in industrial wastewater that is discharged into municipal wastewater treatment plants. Intermittent discharge of PNP into municipal treatment facilities puts their biological process at risk of inhibition, and the risk is especially great for nitrification. In this work, nitrifying biomass was acclimated to PNP. The acclimated biomass retained most of its ammonium-removal activity when it was exposed to PNP at up to 100 mg/L, while the normal (unacclimated) biomass had nearly complete inhibition. PNP was effectively biodegraded by the acclimated biomass, but the normal biomass had minimal PNP biodegradation. After PNP disappeared, the acclimated biomass recovered its ability for NH4+-N removals within one to two days, but the normal biomass did not fully recovery even after seven days. The acclimated biomass had superior ability to sustain nitrification due to its ability to biodegrade PNP and its selection of nitrifying bacteria more resistant to PNP. The PNP-acclimated community was enriched in genera that could have been active in the biodegradation of PNP, such as Chloroflexi. Although the abundance of well-known nitrifiers, Nitrosomonas and Nitrospira, decreased, Nitrosospira and other genera within the Proetobacteria phylum increased, presumably because they were more resistant to PNP.

5.
J Org Chem ; 2021 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33703903

RESUMO

A highly regioselective protocol for intermolecular thiocyanation-amination of alkynes by N-thiocyano-dibenzenesulfonimide (NTSI) as the SCN and nitrogen sources has been developed. A C-S bond and C-N bond are simultaneously constructed in only one step. The reaction under simple mild conditions features a broad substrate scope, atom economy, high yields (up to 94%), and excellent functional group tolerance.

6.
Carbohydr Polym ; 261: 117850, 2021 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33766346

RESUMO

ß-Glucans are widely found in plants and microorganisms, which has a variety of functional activities. During production and application, interactions with other components have a great influence on the structure and functional properties of ß-glucan. In this paper, interactions (including non-covalent interaction and free-radical reaction) between natural product derived ß-glucan and ascorbic acid, polyphenols, bile acids/salts, metal ion or other compounds were summarized. Besides, the mechanism and influence factors of interactions between ß-glucan and small-molecule compounds, and their effects on the functional properties of ß-glucan were detailed. This review aims to develop an understanding and practical suggestions on interactions between ß-glucan and small-molecule compounds, which is expected to provide a useful reference for processing and application.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33670129

RESUMO

Little is known about the patterns of sedentary behavior and physical activity (PA) within different school levels (i.e., primary school and secondary school) and on different day types (i.e., weekdays and weekend days) among youths with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The sample was recruited from one city in Taiwan. A total of 68 male youths with ASD, aged 6-17 years, participated in the study. PA was assessed using an ActiGraph accelerometer, and sedentary behaviors (i.e., TV viewing, computer use, and reading time) were determined using a self-report log. The main findings were that (a) primary school youths with ASD were more active than secondary school youths with ASD on both weekdays and weekend days, but primary school youths with ASD also had more sedentary time than did secondary school youths with ASD on both weekdays and weekend days; (b) secondary school youths with ASD were more active but also more sedentary on weekdays compared with weekend days, but they had more screen use on weekend days compared with on weekdays. Future interventions are required to decrease sedentary behavior and increase PA to improve the health of these youths according to school level and day of the week.

8.
Reprod Sci ; 2021 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33721297

RESUMO

This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of SHBG in predicting insulin resistance (IR) in newly diagnosed, untreated patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Hundred newly diagnosed, untreated patients with PCOS and 61 subjects without PCOS (41 healthy volunteers with normal BMI and 20 subjects with overweight/obese) were included in the study. Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was used to assess the effectiveness of SHBG in predicting IR in overweight/obese and non-overweight PCOS patients and the optimal cut-off values of SHBG. The results showed negative correlations between log-SHBG and log-I0 (r = - 0.372, P < 0.001) and log-SHBG and log-Homeostatic Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) (r = - 0.393, P < 0.001) after adjusting for blood pressure, serum lipid, age, and body mass index (BMI) in all of the PCOS patients. In patients with IR (defined as HOMA-IR ≥2.29), the area under the ROC curves (AUCs) of the SHBG for ROC analysis in the non-overweight group, overweight/obese group, and all PCOS patients were 0.774 (P = 0.0001), 0.922 (P = 0.0001), and 0.885 (P = 0.0001), respectively. The optimal cut-off value of SHBG was 37 nmol/L with a sensitivity of 97.62% and specificity of 80.85% in the overweight group. In patients with IR (HOMA-IR ≥2.5), the AUCs of SHBG for ROC analysis in the non-overweight group, overweight/obese group, and all PCOS patients were 0.741 (P = 0.0003), 0.928 (P = 0.0001), and 0.880 (P = 0.0001), respectively. The optimal cut-off value of SHBG was 30.2 nmol/L with a sensitivity of 97.44% and specificity of 82.69% in the overweight/obese group. In conclusion, this study observed a negative correlation between SHBG and HOMA-IR in PCOS patients after adjustment of confounding factors. SHBG was an independent influential factor of HOMA-IR and can be used as a positive predictive marker for IR in PCOS patients, especially in those who are overweight/obese.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33738732

RESUMO

The instant endeavor was undertaken for determination of lead (Pb) in water, soil, forage, and cow's blood domesticated in contaminated area of heavy automobiles' exhaust in Sahiwal town of District Sargodha, Pakistan. Water samples showed that the concentration of Pb ranged from 1.14 to 0.44 mg kg-1 at all sites. It was maximum at site 5 and minimum at site 2. Soil samples showed the concentration of Pb at all sites ranged from 1.58 to 0.279 mg kg-1. It was maximum in soil where Avena sativa was grown at site 5 and was found minimum in soil where Zea mays was grown at site 2. While among samples of forage, the concentration of Pb ranges from 0.048 to 2.002 mg kg-1. The highest Pb amount was found in Brassica campestris at site 1 and the minimum was recorded in Trifolium alexandrinum at site 2. Finally, the blood samples of cow depicted that concentration of Pb ranged from 4.468 to 0.217 mg kg-1. It was the maximum at site 1 and the minimum at site 3. It is recommended that such study should be conducted in other districts for public awareness.

10.
Neurosci Lett ; 751: 135803, 2021 04 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33705930

RESUMO

Sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) is a common causes of disability. Neural stem cells (NSCs) from the cochlear nuclei have been considered to be a potential direction for the treatment of SNHL. Neuregulin 1 (NRG1)/ErbB2 signaling displays an essential role in nervous system development. In this study, we aimed to explore the roles of NRG1/ErbB2 in differentiation and apoptosis of cochlear nuclei NSCs. The data showed that the expression of NGR1 and ErbB2 in cochlear nuclei NSCs isolated from rats were increased with the age of rats. NRG1 treatment reduced the nestin-positive cells number, increased the MAP2-positive and GFAP-positive cells number, decreased the expression of cleaved-caspase-3, and increased the activation of PI3K/AKT. ErbB2 knockdown by lentiviral-mediated ErbB2 shRNA infection reversed the effect of NRG1 on cochlear nuclei NSCs. LY294002 administration further enhanced the effect of ErbB2 silencing on the expression of nestin, MAP2, GFAP and cleaved-caspase-3. Taken together, NRG1/ErbB2 regulates differentiation and apoptosis of cochlear nucleus NSCs through PI3K/Akt pathway.

11.
Protein Pept Lett ; 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33645472

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pulmonary surfactant dysfunction is an important pathological factor in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and pulmonary fibrosis (PF). OBJECTIVE: In this study, the characteristics of recombinant mature surfactant protein B (SP-B) and reteplase (rPA) fusion protein maintaining good pulmonary surface activity and rPA fibrinolytic activity in acute lung injury cell model were studied. METHODS: We studied the characteristics of SP-B fusion expression, cloned rPA gene and N-terminal rPA/C-terminal SP-B co-expression gene, and constructed them into eukaryotic expression vector pEZ-M03 to obtain recombinant plasmids pEZ-rPA and pEZ-rPA/SP-B. The recombinant plasmids was transfected into Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) K1 cells and the expression products were analyzed by Western Blot. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was used to induce CCL149 (an alveolar epithelial cell line) cell injury model. Fluorescence staining of rPA and rPA/SP-B was carried out with the enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) that comes with pEZ-M03; the cell Raman spectroscopy technique was used to analyze the interaction between rPA/SP-B fusion protein and the phospholipid structure of cell membrane in CCL149 cells. The enzyme activity of rPA in the fusion protein was determined by fibrin-agarose plate method. RESULTS: The rPA/SP-B fusion protein was successfully expressed. In the CCL149 cell model of acute lung injury (ALI), the green fluorescence of rPA/SP-B is mainly distributed on the CCL149 cell membrane. The rPA/SP-B fusion protein can reduce the disorder of phospholipid molecules and reduce cell membrane damage. The enzyme activity of rPA/SP-B fusion protein was 3.42, and the fusion protein still had good enzyme activity. CONCLUSION: The recombinant eukaryotic plasmid pEZ-rPA/SP-B is constructed and can be expressed in the eukaryotic system. Studies have shown that rPA/SP-B fusion protein maintains good SP-B lung surface activity and rPA enzyme activity in acute lung injury cell model.

12.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(7): e24474, 2021 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33607778

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Sepsis is a life-threatening condition, and serum lactate levels have been used to predict patient prognosis. Studies on serum lactate levels in patients undergoing regular hemodialysis who have sepsis are limited. This study aimed to determine the predictive value of serum lactate levels for sepsis-related mortality among patients who underwent last hemodialysis at three different times before admission to the emergency department (ED).This retrospective cohort study was conducted from January 2007 to December 2013 in southern Taiwan. All hemodialysis patients with sepsis, receiving antibiotics within 24 hours of sepsis confirmation, admitted for at least 3 days, and whose serum lactate levels were known were examined to determine the difference in the serum lactate levels of patients who underwent last hemodialysis within 4 hours (Groups A), in 4-12 hours (Group B), and beyond 12 hours (Group C) before visited to the ED. All the continuous variables, categorical variables and mortality were compared by using Kruskal-Wallis test or Mann-Whitney test, the χ2 or Fisher exact tests, and multiple logistic regression model, respectively.A total of 490 patients were enrolled in the study, and 8.0% (39), 21.5% (84), and 74.9% (367) of the patients were in Group A, Group B and Group C, respectively; the serum lactate levels (2.91 vs 2.13 vs 2.79 mmol/L, respectively; P = .175) and 28-day in-hospital mortality (17.9% vs 14.6% vs 22.9%) showed no statistically significant difference between 3 groups. The association between serum lactate levels and 28-day in-hospital mortality was reliable in Group B (P = .002) and Group C (P < .001), but it was unreliable in Group A (P = .629).Serum lactate level has acceptable sensitivity in predicting 28-day in-hospital mortality among patients with sepsis who undergo last hemodialysis after 4 hours, but is not reliable when the last hemodialysis takes place within 4 hours.


Assuntos
Falência Renal Crônica/sangue , Falência Renal Crônica/mortalidade , Ácido Láctico/sangue , Diálise Renal/estatística & dados numéricos , Sepse/sangue , Sepse/mortalidade , Idoso , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Curva ROC , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Tempo
13.
J Ovarian Res ; 14(1): 32, 2021 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33583431

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aims of this study were to compare the efficacy of different androgens measured by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) in representing hyperandrogenemia and to evaluate adrenal-origin androgens with a dexamethasone suppression test in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). METHODS: One hundred and two patients with PCOS and 41 healthy volunteers were recruited and total serum testosterone (TT), androstenedione (AD), dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S) were measured by LC-MS/MS. ROC analysis was performed to compare the efficacy of different androgens in representing hyperandrogenemia. Dexamethasone suppression test was performed in 51 patients with PCOS and above indicators were measured after dexamethasone administration. The prediction efficacy of DHEA and DHEA-S at baseline in the dexamethasone suppression test was evaluated with ROC analysis. RESULTS: The AUCs of TT, AD, free androgen index (FAI) and DHEA-S in ROC analysis for representing hyperandrogenemia were 0.816, 0.842, 0.937 and 0.678, respectively. The optimal cutoff value of TT was 0.337 ng/ml, with a sensitivity of 72.0% and specificity of 82.93%. The optimal cutoff value for AD was 1.309 ng/ml, with a sensitivity of 81.0% and specificity of 73.17%. The optimal cutoff value of the FAI was 2.50, with a sensitivity of 87.0% and specificity of 92.68%. Alternatively, AD or FAI more than the optimal cutoff values as evidence of hyperandrogenemia had the highest sensitivity of 91.18%. The levels of cortisol, DHEA and DHEA-S were all suppressed to narrow ranges after dexamethasone administration. Nine and 8 of 51 patients with PCOS had significant decreases in TT and AD, respectively. DHEA can be used as a indicator for predicting significant decrease of TT in dexamethasone suppression test with cutoff value of 13.28 ng/ml. A total of 27.5% (14/51) of patients had DHEA-S excess, but only 1 of 9 patients who had a significant decrease in TT had elevated level of DHEA-S at baseline. CONCLUSIONS: AD measured by LC-MS/MS can represent hyperandrogenemia in PCOS patients and, combined with TT or FAI, can improve the screening efficiency of hyperandrogenemia. Seventeen percent of PCOS patients had adrenal-origin androgen dominance, with TT significantly decreasing after 2 days of dexamethasone administration. Adrenal-origin androgen dominance was not parallel with DHEA-S excess in patients with PCOS.

14.
Trials ; 22(1): 35, 2021 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33413569

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a common arrhythmia, which is closely related to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Although acupuncture is used in the treatment of AF, the evidence is insufficient. The objective of this pilot trial is to evaluate the feasibility, preliminary efficacy, and safety of acupuncture in reducing AF burden for persistent AF after catheter ablation (CA). METHODS AND DESIGN: This will be a multi-center, 3-arm, pilot randomized controlled trial in China. Sixty patients in total will be randomly assigned to the specific acupoints group, the non-specific acupoints group, or the non-acupoints group in a 1:1:1 ratio. The whole study period is 6 months, including a 3-month treatment period and a 3-month follow-up period. All patients will receive 18 sessions of acupuncture over 12 weeks after CA and appropriate post-ablation routine treatment. The primary outcome is AF burden at 6 months after CA measured by electrocardiography patch that can carry out a 7-day continuous ambulatory electrocardiographic monitoring. The secondary outcomes include AF burden at 3 months after CA, recurrence of AF, quality of life, etc. The adverse events will also be recorded. DISCUSSION: This pilot study will contribute to evaluating the feasibility, preliminary efficacy, and safety of acupuncture in reducing AF burden for persistent AF after CA. The results will be used for the sample size calculation of a subsequent large-scale trial. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Chinese Clinical Trial Registry ChiCTR2000030576 . Registered on 7 March 2020.

15.
Environ Technol ; : 1-9, 2021 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33461424

RESUMO

Acidic fracturing flowback fluid (AFFF) has the characteristics of low pH value, high chemical oxygen demand (COD), high corrosiveness and complex components. Surface discharge without treatment may contaminate the environment. However, wastewater treatment after centralized transportation has potential safety risks and requires high costs. In this study, we confirmed that calcium and magnesium could affect cross-linking property of fracturing fluid prepared by flowback fluid, and conducted a three-step process, two-stage filtration, chemical precipitation, and flocculation precipitation, on AFFF. After treatment, we made new hydraulic fracturing fluid using the treated acidic flowback fluid as base fluid and compared the quality of the new hydraulic fracturing fluid to the ones used freshwater as base fluid. The results showed when concentration of sodium carbonate, polyaluminium chloride (PAC), polyacrylamide (PAM) were 145, 1000, and 20 mg/L respectively, the treatment result was optimal. After treatment, the oil content of AFFF decreased from 7400 to 26.53 mg/L and suspended solids (SS) from 650 to 18.24 mg/L, and the removal rate of high-valence metal ions was more than 99%. The rheological properties and viscoelasticity of new fracturing fluid prepared by the treated AFFF were similar to the ones prepared by freshwater, which met the requirements of high temperature and shear resistance for ultra-deep wells.

16.
Polymers (Basel) ; 13(2)2021 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33450824

RESUMO

A dielectric thermal smart glass (DTSG) based on the dielectric heating optical (DHO) effect in tunable helical polymer-based superstructures-cholesteric liquid crystals (CLCs)-was exhibited in this study. Field-induced dielectric heating can strongly affect the orientation of liquid crystals and change its optical properties. The purpose of this research focuses on dual-frequency CLC materials characterized by their specific properties on dielectric relaxation and demonstrates their potential for antibacterial biosensor applications. The developed DTSG is driven by voltages with modulated frequencies. The principal of DTSG in transparent states are a planar (P) state and a heated planar (HP) state reflecting infrared light, operated with the voltage at low and high frequencies, respectively. The scattering states are a focal conic (FC) state and a heated FC (HFC) state, with an applied frequency near the crossover frequency. The biomolecule detection of the antibacterial property was also demonstrated. The detection limitation of the DTSG biosensor was found to be about 0.5 µg/mL. The DTSG material has many potential industrial applications, such as in buildings, photonic devices, and biosensor applications.

17.
Int J Med Sci ; 18(4): 1007-1014, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33456358

RESUMO

Glaucoma is a leading cause of irreversible blindness worldwide. This study evaluates the reduction of intraocular pressure (IOP) induced by C. cicadae mycelia extract in a steroid-induced rat model of glaucoma. Cordyceps cicadae mycelia is a well-known and valued traditional Chinese herbal medicine. C. cicadae mycelia were cultured using a liquid fermentation technique. The harvested C. cicadae mycelia were then lyophilized and extracted with two solvents, water and ethanol. The aqueous extract (CCM-DW) and ethanolic extract (CCM-EtOH) of the mycelia were obtained through lyophilization. Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups (n = 6 in each group): a normal group, a control group, and experimental groups treated with CCM-DW, or CCM-EtOH (both at 50 mg/kg/body weight). Except for those in the normal group, all rats received a subconjunctival injection of betamethasone to induce high IOP. The rats in the experimental groups received a daily administration of CCM by oral gavage for four consecutive weeks. IOP reduction is the known treatment for glaucoma. The results revealed that steroid treatment caused a significant increase in the animals' IOP (control group). Elevated IOP decreased significantly after treatment with CCM-DW and CCM-EtOH (p < 0.01), and CCM-DW was more effective than CCM-EtOH. CCM-DW and CCM-EtOH were capable of causing significant decreases in high IOP-induced lesions in pathological studies in which it was shown that the efficacy of CCM-DW surpassed that of CCM-EtOH. After CCM-DW administration for 28 days, there were significant decreases in malondialdehyde and lactate dehydrogenase levels and significant increases in catalase, superoxide dismutase, and glutathione peroxidase levels. In summary, C. cicadae mycelia may be beneficial for preventing or treating glaucoma due to its significant IOP-lowering and antioxidant activities.

18.
Biochem Genet ; 59(2): 604-616, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33415668

RESUMO

Inflammatory responses play significant role in infectious etiology-induced acute lung injury (ALI). Histone deacetylase 2 is found to be essential and stimulated in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced ALI by regulating proinflammatory cytokines. miR-23b has been demonstrated to be downregulated in LPS-induced inflammatory injury. In this study, we aimed to explore the interaction between miR-23b and HDAC2 and their function in LPS-induced ALI. LPS treatment was induced on murine alveolar macrophage cell line MH-S. Level of miR-23b and HDAC2 were determined by real-time PCR or Western blot. Proinflammatory cytokines expression and secretion were detected by real-time PCR and ELISA assay. The levels of miR-23b and HDAC2 were manipulated by transient transfection of miRNA mimics, shRNA or overexpression vector. The interaction between miR-23b and HDAC2 were tested by Luciferase reporter assay. LPS treatment inhibited miR-23b expression, while increased HDAC2 level in MH-S cells. Proinflammatory cytokines were stimulated by LPS treatment. Knockdown of HDAC2 or overexpression of miR-23b significantly repressed the expression of proinflammatory cytokines induced by LPS. miR-23b could suppress HDAC2 expression by directly targeting to its mRNA. LPS treatment stimulated the inflammatory responses in macrophages through inhibition of miR-23b, enhanced HDAC2 expression and inducing the expression of its downstream targets TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1ß. Overexpression of miR-23b was sufficient to suppress inflammatory responses by targeting HDAC2, making it a promising therapeutic target to ALI treatment.

19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33410057

RESUMO

The use of wastewater in irrigation weakens the beneficial properties of the soil and leads to a threat to food safety standards. The present research was designed to explore the cobalt toxicity associated with the ingestion of wastewater irrigated wheat. Wheat plants of five different varieties were collected from 7 different sites of Punjab, Pakistan, which were irrigated with three different sources of water. The sampling was done in two cropping years. The cobalt values in water, soil and wheat samples (root, shoot, grain) ranged from 0.46 to 1.24 mg/l, 0.15 to 1.20, 0.29 to 1.30, 0.08 to 0.76 and 0.12 to 0.57 mg/kg, respectively. All the water samples showed high cobalt concentration than the maximum permissible value. However, all the soil and wheat plant samples were found within the maximum allowable range. The high cobalt concentration in irrigating water showed that the continuous usage of such type of water may lead to cobalt toxicity in living organisms with the passage of time and may results in severe health risks.

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