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1.
Protein Expr Purif ; 189: 105973, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34560256

RESUMO

The novel anti-PD-L1/TGFBR2-ECD fusion protein (BR102) comprises an anti-PD-L1 antibody (HS636) which is fused at the C terminus of the heavy chain to a TGF-ß1 receptor Ⅱ ectodomain (TGFBR2-ECD), and which can sequester the PD-1/PD-L1 pathway and TGF-ß bioactivity in the immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment. In the expression of TGFBR2-ECD wild-type fused protein (BR102-WT), a 50 kDa clipped species was confirmed to be induced by proteolytic cleavage at a "QKS" site located in the N-terminus of the ectodomain, which resulted in the formation of IgG-like clipping. The matrix metalloproteinase-9 was determined to be associated with BR102-WT digestion. In addition, it was observed that the N-glycosylation modifications of the fusion protein were tightly involved in regulating proteolytic activity and the levels of cleavage could be significantly suppressed by MMP-inhibitors. To avoid proteolytic degradation, eliminating protease-sensitive amino acid motifs and introducing potential glycosylation were performed. Three sensitive motifs were mutated, and the levels of clipping were strongly restrained. The mutant candidates exhibited similar binding affinities to hPD-L1 and hTGF-ß1 as well as highly purified BR102-WT2. Furthermore, the mutants displayed more significant proteolytic resistance than that of BR102-WT2 in the lysate incubation reaction and the plasma stability test. Moreover, the bifunctional candidate Mu3 showed an additive antitumor effect in MC38/hPD-L1 bearing models as compared to that of with anti-PD-L1 antibody alone. In conclusion, in this study, the protease-sensitive features of BR102-WT were well characterized and efficient optimization was performed. The candidate BR102-Mutants exhibited advanced druggability in drug stability and displayed desirable antitumor activity.

2.
Cancer Lett ; 524: 109-120, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34673127

RESUMO

Prostate cancer (PCa), especially castration-resistant PCa, is a common and fatal disease. circRNAs had been confirmed to affect the proliferation of a variety of malignant tumors. Exploring the role of circRNAs in PCa progression and discovering new therapeutic targets are of great importance for the treatment of PCa. In the present study, we found that the expression of circPFKP was significantly increased in PCa tissues compared with adjacent noncancerous prostate tissues, and was correlated with the D'Amico risk classification, N stage, and prognostic stage group of PCa. CircPFKP promotes the proliferation of PCa cells in vitro and in vivo. Suppressing circPFKP induced the G1/S arrest of PCa cells. Mechanistically, circPFKP interacted with IMPDH2, promoted the biogenesis of guanine nucleotides. Moreover, the replenishment of intracellular guanine nucleotides pool reverses the inhibitory effect of knocking-down circPFKP on PCa cell proliferation. hnRNPF might promote circPFKP generation by binding to flanking Alu elements. Our results identify a novel functional interaction of circPFKP with IMPDH2, which promotes the proliferation of PCa cells.

3.
Neural Regen Res ; 17(5): 1125-1130, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34558541

RESUMO

Both interposition nerve grafts and masseter nerve transfers have been successfully used for facial reanimation after irreversible injuries to the cranial portion of the facial nerve. However, no comparative study of these two procedures has yet been reported. In this two-site, two-arm, retrospective case review study, 32 patients were included. Of these, 17 patients (eight men and nine women, mean age 42.1 years) underwent interposition nerve graft after tumor extirpation or trauma between 2003 and 2006 in the Ear Institute, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, China, and 15 patients (six men and nine women, mean age 40.6 years) underwent masseter-to-facial nerve transfer after tumor extirpation or trauma between November 2010 and February 2016 in Shanghai Ninth People's Hospital, China. More patients achieved House-Brackmann III recovery after masseter nerve repair than interposition nerve graft repair (15/15 vs. 12/17). The mean oral commissure excursion ratio was also higher in patients who underwent masseter nerve transfer than in patients subjected to an interposition nerve graft. These findings suggest that masseter nerve transfer results in strong oral commissure excursion, avoiding obvious synkinesis, while an interposition nerve graft provides better resting symmetry. This study was approved by the Institutional Ethics Committee, Shanghai Ninth People's Hospital, China (approval No. SH9H-2019-T332-1) on December 12, 2019.

4.
Neuropharmacology ; 202: 108835, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34648772

RESUMO

Peripheral nerve injuries (PNIs) often result in persistent neuropathic pain, seriously affecting quality of life. Existing therapeutic interventions for PNI-induced neuropathic pain are far from satisfactory. Extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs) and p38 have been found to participate in triggering and maintaining PNI-induced neuropathic pain. However, ERK and p38 also contribute to axonal regeneration and motor function recovery after PNI, making it difficult to inhibit ERK and p38 for therapeutic purposes. In this study, we simultaneously characterized neuropathic pain and motor function recovery in a mouse sciatic nerve crush injury model to identify the time window for therapeutic interventions. We further demonstrated that delayed delivery of a combination of ERK and p38 inhibitors at three weeks after PNI could significantly alleviate PNI-induced neuropathic pain without affecting motor function recovery. Additionally, the combined use of these two inhibitors could suppress pain markedly better than either inhibitor alone, possibly reducing the required dose of each inhibitor and alleviating the side effects and risks of the inhibitors when used individually.

5.
J Exp Med ; 219(1)2022 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34825915

RESUMO

Targeted therapies represent attractive combination partners with immune checkpoint blockade (ICB) to increase the population of patients who benefit or to interdict the emergence of resistance. We demonstrate that targeting WEE1 up-regulates immune signaling through the double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) viral defense pathway with subsequent responsiveness to immune checkpoint blockade even in cGAS/STING-deficient tumors, which is a typical phenotype across multiple cancer types. WEE1 inhibition increases endogenous retroviral elements (ERVs) expression by relieving SETDB1/H3K9me3 repression through down-regulating FOXM1. ERVs trigger dsRNA stress and interferon response, increasing recruitment of anti-tumor T cells with concurrent PD-L1 elevation in multiple tumor models. Furthermore, combining WEE1 inhibition and PD-L1 blockade induced striking tumor regression in a CD8+ T cell-dependent manner. A WEE1 inhibition-induced viral defense signature provides a potentially informative biomarker for patient selection for combination therapy with WEE1 and ICB. WEE1 inhibition stimulates anti-tumor immunity and enhances sensitivity to ICB, providing a rationale for the combination of WEE1 inhibitors and ICB in clinical trials.

6.
Phytomedicine ; 94: 153836, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34775357

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The application/abuse of antibiotics can cause antibiotic-induced intestinal injury (AIJ), a typical clinical issue that disturbs intestinal homeostasis. However, the underlying post-transcriptional mechanism of AIJ remains unknown. Glycyrrhetinic acid (GA) is one of the main components of Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch. and Glycyrrhiza inflata Batalin (Fabaceae), and findings of our previous study showed that GA can maintain intestinal homeostasis post-transcriptionally through the RNA-binding protein human antigen R (HuR). PURPOSE: This study aimed to elucidate the role of HuR in AIJ and the protective effects of GA on AIJ. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Clindamycin hydrochloride was used to clarify the effect of the antibiotic on the intestinal epithelium. Intestinal epithelium cell-6 (IEC-6) and Caco2 cells were used to demonstrate the in vitro effects of the antibiotic and GA on intestinal cells. HuR plasmid and siRNA were used to overexpress or silence HuR in vitro. SD rats were induced by using clindamycin hydrochloride capsules (250 mg/kg i.g.) for 7 consecutive days to construct the in vivo AIJ model. Rats of the AIJ model group were administrated GA (10 and 20 mg/kg i.g.) for 7 days, and subsequently, the protective effect of GA on the intestinal epithelium was evaluated. RESULTS: In vitro results showed that the antibiotic (150-500 µM) suppressed proliferation, induced a delay in restitution after wounding, and caused cell cycle arrest at the G0/G1 phase in IEC-6 and Caco-2 cells. Moreover, the expression levels of HuR and its downstream gene, occludin and cyclin D1, decreased after treatment with the antibiotic (500 µM). Overexpression of HuR and GA (10 and 20 µM) reversed the antibiotic-induced inhibition of proliferation and G0/G1 phase arrest, and the antibiotic-induced decrease in HuR, occludin, and cyclin D1 expression was reversed after GA treatment (10 and 20 µM) in IEC-6 cells. In vivo results revealed the antibiotic-induced epithelial injury of both the small intestines (shortened and spared mucosa) and the large intestines (injured/deformed glands, reduced number of cup cells, and evident inflammatory cell infiltration), all of which were ameliorated after GA treatment (10 and 20 µM). CONCLUSION: Antibiotics induce intestinal epithelial injury through HuR, and GA can exert a protective effect on AIJ by restoring HuR levels.

7.
Oncol Lett ; 23(1): 17, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34820016

RESUMO

Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have a role in the occurrence and development of lung squamous cell carcinoma (LUSC). lncRNA γ-butyrobetaine hydroxylase 1 (BBOX1)-antisense 1 (AS1) may contribute to disease development. However, there are no studies on the role of BBOX1-AS1 in LUSC to date. In the present study, an in-house gene microarray analysis was performed to detect the differentially expressed lncRNAs and mRNAs between three pairs of LUSC and normal lung tissues. Only one lncRNA, BBOX1-AS1, was differentially expressed in the in-house microarray and The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) and ArrayExpress databases. Reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) was then performed and the original RNA-sequencing data from the TCGA, GEO and ArrayExpress datasets were used to determine the expression and clinical value of BBOX1-AS1 in LUSC. In addition, a Cell Counting Kit-8 assay, cell cycle analysis and scratch assay were performed to explore whether BBOX1-AS1 expression affected the proliferation and migration of LUSC cells in vitro. The results of the RT-qPCR analysis and data obtained from the TCGA database, GEO datasets, in-house gene microarray and standard mean deviation analysis all supported the upregulated expression level of BBOX1-AS1 in LUSC. Furthermore, silencing of BBOX1-AS1 inhibited the proliferation and migration of LUSC cells according to in vitro assays. In addition, the cells were arrested in S-phase after knockdown of BBOX1-AS1. In conclusion, the expression level of BBOX1-AS1 was upregulated in LUSC tissues. BBOX1-AS1 may exert an oncogenic effect on LUSC by regulating various biological functions. However, additional functional experiments should be performed to verify the exact mechanism.

8.
Sci Total Environ ; 803: 150081, 2022 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34500283

RESUMO

Dioecious plant species presented sexual differences in metal accumulation and allocation between male and female conspecifics that grown on metal contaminated soil. As the Elemental defense hypothesis postulates that metals accumulated in plant tissues could protect plants from herbivory, whether such sexual dimorphism in response to metal stress of a dioecious plant will lead to differences in herbivore resistance between male and female conspecifics is still unknown. In this study, we used female and male siblings of Populus deltoides to investigate the effect of plant sex on the growth and feeding preferences of four leaf herbivores and a root herbivore under soil cadmium (Cd) stress. The results showed that the male plants accumulated significantly higher Cd in the leaves while the females allocated more Cd in the roots. Leaf herbivores fed on male leaves grew worse than those fed on female leaves under Cd exposure, while the root herbivore showed the opposite results. In addition, all leaf herbivores strongly preferred the leaves from Cd-stressed female plants than male ones. The quantification of gene expression further showed that Cd stress could significantly upregulate more genes involved in Cd uptake, transport and detoxification pathways in male leaves and female roots. In combination with the correlation tests, we postulated that such sexual differences in herbivore resistance between the two plant sexes was most likely due to the different Cd allocation patterns in plant leaves and roots.


Assuntos
Populus , Cádmio/toxicidade , Herbivoria , Folhas de Planta , Raízes de Plantas , Populus/genética , Solo
9.
Med Gas Res ; 12(1): 1-5, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34472495

RESUMO

Gliomas are common brain mass with a high mortality rate. Patients with gliomas have a severely bad outcome, with an average survive duration less 15 months because of high recurrent rate and being resistant to radio-therapy and chemistry drugs therapy. Hyperbaric oxygen is extensively taken as an adjuvant treatment for various disease conditions. To know the characteristics of hyperbaric oxygen as a remedy for gliomas, we find that, in general, hyperbaric oxygen shows an obviously positive effect on the treatment of gliomas, and it can also relieve the complications caused by postoperative radiotherapy and chemotherapy of gliomas. Whereas, several researches have shown that hyperbaric oxygen promotes glioma progression.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas , Glioma , Oxigenação Hiperbárica , Neoplasias Encefálicas/terapia , Terapia Combinada , Glioma/terapia , Humanos , Oxigênio
10.
Med Gas Res ; 12(1): 6-9, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34472496

RESUMO

Central nervous system tumors are classified as diseases of special clinical significance with high disability and high mortality. In addition to cerebrovascular diseases and craniocerebral injuries, tumors are the most common diseases of the central nervous system. Hydrogen sulfide, the third endogenous gas signaling molecule discovered in humans besides nitric oxide and carbon monoxide, plays an important role in the pathophysiology of human diseases. It is reported that hydrogen sulfide not only exerts a wide range of biological effects, but also develops a certain relationship with tumor development and neovascularization. A variety of studies have shown that hydrogen sulfide acts as a vasodilator and angiogenetic factor to facilitate growth, proliferation, migration and invasion of cancer cells. In this review, the pathological mechanisms and the effect of hydrogen sulfide on the central nervous system tumors are introduced.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Sistema Nervoso Central , Sulfeto de Hidrogênio , Monóxido de Carbono , Sistema Nervoso Central , Neoplasias do Sistema Nervoso Central/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Transdução de Sinais
11.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 283: 114707, 2022 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34619319

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Guizhi-Shaoyao-Zhimu decoction (GSZD), a classical traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) prescription, is used empirically to treat various types of arthritis in TCM clinical practice. However, the underlying mechanisms of GSZD on gouty inflammation are not totally elucidated. AIM OF STUDY: The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of GSZD on peritoneal recruitment of neutrophils, production of proinflammatory mediators, activations of nuclear factor (NF)-κB and nucleotide oligomerization domain-like receptor protein-3 (NLRP3) inflammasome in mice with monosodium urate crystal (MSU)-induced peritonitis (MIP). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Mice were intragastrically administered with GSZD for 7 days. After the last administration, mice were intraperitoneally injected with MSU. Peritoneal exudates of mice were harvested, and total peritoneal cells were calculated. Levels of interleukin (IL)-1ß, IL-6 and monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP)-1 in peritoneal exudates were tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Expressions of IL-1ß, NLRP3, cysteinyl aspartate specific proteinase (caspase)-1, apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing the caspase activation and recruitment domain (ASC), phosphorylated (p)-p65, inhibitor of NF-κB (IκB)α, p-IκB kinase (IKK)ß, nuclear p65, p-mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) in peritoneal cells were analyzed by Western blot. Binding activity of NF-κB to DNA was measured by a Trans AM™ kit for p65. Interaction between ASC and pro-caspase-1 was assessed by co-immunoprecipitation assay. RESULTS: Total peritoneal cells, levels of IL-1ß, IL-6 and MCP-1 were significantly reduced by GSZD treatment in peritoneal exudates of MIP mice. As for the activation of NF-κB, GSZD treatment significantly reduced the levels of p-p65, p-IKKß, nuclear p65 and p-MAPKs, enhanced the level of IκBα and abated the binding ability of NF-κB to DNA in peritoneal cells of MIP mice. As for the activation of NLRP3 inflammasome, GSZD treatment significantly reduced the levels of IL-1ß, NLRP3 and caspase-1, and alleviated the interaction between ASC and pro-caspase-1 in peritoneal cells of MIP mice. Nevertheless, GSZD didn't remarkably change the level of ASC. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that GSZD attenuates the MSU-induced inflammation through inhibiting the activations of NF-κB and NLRP3 inflammasome.

12.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 607(Pt 1): 538-545, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34520901

RESUMO

Binary transition metal oxides, especially vanadate metal oxides, are highly desirable for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) anode materials due to their low-budget and high theoretical lithium storage capacity. However, low conductivity and poor cycle stability caused by volume changes during charge and discharge limit their grid-scale applications. Herein, a novel spinel MnV2O4 double-layer hollow sandwich nanosheets enclosed in N-doped porous carbon layer (MnV2O4/NC) was efficiently synthesized in 5 min by microwave-assisted and in-situ pyrolysis the coated polydopamine. MnV2O4/NC shows the superior performance as anode for LIBs with a specific capacities of 760 mA h g-1 at 1000 mA g-1 and outstanding of cycling stability with a specific capacities of 525.5 mA h g-1 after 1000 cycles even at 5000 mA g-1, respectively, which due to its unique double-layer hollow sandwich microstructure, mixed lithium storage mechanism and in-situ coating of nitrogen-doped carbon layer.

13.
Food Chem ; 372: 131226, 2022 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34627095

RESUMO

The effects of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) on the conformation and immunoreactivity of bovine ß-lactoglobulin (BLG) were studied. BLG was treated under 100-600 MPa at the temperature of 20-60 °C. The immunoglobulin E (IgE) binding ability of BLG decreased when the pressure increased from 0.1 to 200 MPa. However, the IgE binding increased with the increase in pressure from 200 to 400 MPa, followed by a gradual decrease until a pressure of 600 MPa. The IgE binding ability continuously decreased with an increase in pressure at 60 °C. The conformation of HHP-treated BLG was evaluated using fluorescence spectroscopy, circular dichroism spectroscopy and molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. Increasing the temperature and pressure promoted the unfolding of BLG, causing the disappearance of some α-helixes and some ß-sheets. Based on ELISA analysis, it was revealed that HHP-termperature treatment altered the immunoreactivity of BLG by altering the structures and conformational states of BLG.


Assuntos
Imunoglobulina E , Lactoglobulinas , Animais , Bovinos , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Pressão Hidrostática , Temperatura
14.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 23156, 2021 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34848817

RESUMO

To investigate that the bacteriological concentration and pH value in peritoneal drainage fluid might serve as indicators of early diagnosis of anastomotic leakage following rectal resection. We prospectively analyzed consecutive patients who were treated for rectal diseases with anastomosis at the department of general surgery, the affiliated hospital of Nanjing University Medical School between August 2018 and December 2020. The bacteriological concentration and the pH value in peritoneal drainage fluid were tested on the first, fourth, seventh days postoperatively. A total of 300 consecutive patients underwent rectal resection were tested. 21 patients present with AL and the overall AL rate was 7%. The bacteriological concentration in peritoneal drainage fluid of AL group was significantly higher than that in non-AL group. The AUC value was 0.98 (95% confidence intervals 0.969-1.000) according to the ROC curve. The best cut-off value was 1143/uL. The sensitivity and specificity were 100% and 93.19% respectively. There was no difference of pH value between the AL and non-AL groups. According the results of present study, a high bacteriological concentration in peritoneal drainage fluid is a good marker for predicting and diagnosing AL following rectal resection. However, owing to the limitation of the sample, there was no validation attempt in the study. A large sample study is needed to validate the conclusion.

17.
Hum Psychopharmacol ; : e2825, 2021 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34739739

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: In recent years, interest in using lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) in psychiatric research and corresponding therapy has increased rapidly. In this meta-analysis, we explored the effects of LSD on healthy subjects with respect to subjective drug effects, blood pressure, heart rate, body temperature and side effects. METHOD: PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library were searched from January 2010 to December 2020 for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on the effects of LSD in healthy people. Subsequently, 5 RCTs with 132 healthy people which focused on the effects of LSD were enrolled in our study. RESULT: We found that taking 50, 100 and 200 mcg LSD doses were associated with a significant increase in the maximal difference from the baseline compared to the placebo group among the outcomes of AMRS (Adjective Mood Rating Scale) score. Significant differences existed between the LSD and placebo groups when taking 100 and 200 mcg LSD in acute adverse effects (100 mcg: SMD = .97, 95% confidence interval [CI], .50, 1.44, Z = 4.04, p < .001; 200 mcg: SMD = 1.18, 95% CI, 0.65, 1.72, Z = 4.32, p < .001). CONCLUSIONS: Meta-analysis of the subjective effects of LSD in healthy people revealed moderate significant effect sizes in favor of LSD with no significant adverse effects. A 100 mcg dose of LSD has potential for use in psychological-assisted therapy and may improve the mental fitness of patients with disease-related psychiatric distress. Additional clinical trials are necessary to explore the efficacy and safety of LSD as a psychological-assisted therapy.

19.
Adv Sci (Weinh) ; : e2103470, 2021 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34747156

RESUMO

Oncolytic adenoviruses (Ads) have gained great attention in cancer therapy because they cause direct cytolytic infection and indirectly induce antitumor immunity. However, their efficacy is compromised by host antiviral immune response, poor tumor delivery, and the immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment (TME). Here, a natural killer (NK) cell-mediated Ad delivery system (Ad@NK) is generated by harnessing the merits of the two components for combinational immunotherapy and virotherapy of cancer. In this biohybrid system, NK cells with a tumor-homing tropism act as bioreactors and shelters for the loading, protection, replication, amplification, and release of Ads, thereby leading to a highly efficient systemic tumor-targeted delivery. As feedback, Ad infection offers NK cells an enhanced antitumor immunity by activating type I interferon signaling in a STAT4-granzyme B-dependent manner. Moreover, it is found that the Ad@NK system can relieve immunosuppression in the TME by promoting the maturation of dendritic cells and the polarization of macrophages to M1 phenotype. Both in vitro and in vivo data indicate the excellent antitumor and antimetastatic functions of Ad@NKs by destroying tumor cells, inducing immunogenic cell death, and immunomodulating TME. This work provides a clinical basis for improved oncolytic virotherapy in combination with NK cell therapy based on the inter-supplementary biohybrid system.

20.
Asian J Androl ; 2021 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34747722

RESUMO

This study analyzed the effects of male age and abstinence time on semen quality and explored the best abstinence time for Chinese males among different age groups. Semen parameters, including sperm kinetics, morphology, and DNA fragmentation index (DFI), were reviewed from 2952 men. Samples were divided into six age groups (≤25 years, 26-30 years, 31-35 years, 36-40 years, 41-45 years, and >45 years) and were divided into six groups according to different abstinence time (2 days, 3 days, 4 days, 5 days, 6 days, and 7 days). The differences in semen quality between the groups were compared, and the effect of age and abstinence time on semen quality was analyzed. Significant differences were observed in semen volume, progressive motility (PR), and DFI among the age groups (all P < 0.05), and no significant differences were observed in sperm morphological parameters (all P > 0.05). There were significant differences in semen volume, PR, and DFI among different abstinence time groups (all P < 0.05) and no significant differences in sperm morphological parameters (all P > 0.05). Pearson analysis showed that male age and abstinence time were both significantly correlated with sperm kinetics and DFI (both P < 0.05), while no significant correlation was found with sperm morphological parameters (all P > 0.05). The box plots and histograms of men's age, abstinence time, and semen quality show that most semen quality parameters differ significantly between the 2 days and 7 days abstinence groups and other groups at different ages. Except for the sperm morphology parameters, sperm kinetic parameters and sperm DFI are linearly related to male age and abstinence time.

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