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1.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 171: 112733, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33096430

RESUMO

As promising fluid biomarkers for non-invasive diagnosis, naturally-occurring exosomes in saliva have attracted a wide interest for their potential application in oral diseases especially oral cancers. However, accurate quantification of salivary exosomes is still challenging due to the current difficulties in simultaneous identification and measurement of these nano-sized vesicles. In this study, we developed a novel fluorescent biosensor for one-step sensitive quantification of salivary exosomes based on magnetic and fluorescent bio-probes (MFBPs). Within the MFBPs, self-assembled DNA concatamers loaded with numerous quantum dots (QDs) were ingeniously tethered to aptamers, which were anchored on the surface of magnetic microspheres (MMs). Efficient recognition and capture of an exosome by the aptamer would simultaneously trigger the release of a DNA concatamer as the detection signal carrier, thereby generating a "one exosome-numerous QDs" amplification effect. As the result, this biosensor allowed one-step quantification with less assay time and achieved a high sensitivity with low limit of detection. Moreover, unique fluorescent properties of QDs and the superparamagnetism of MMs offered a strong anti-interference ability, enabling a robust quantification in complex matrices. Furthermore, this biosensor exhibited a good clinical feasibility with favorable accuracy comparable to nanoscale flow cytometry, and a superiority in label-free analysis and convenient operation. This study provides a novel and general strategy for one-step sensitive quantification of exosomes from body fluids, facilitating the development of exosome-based liquid biopsy for disease diagnosis.

2.
Chemosphere ; 262: 127832, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32758709

RESUMO

This article has been retracted: please see Elsevier Policy on Article Withdrawal ( https://www.elsevier.com/about/our-business/policies/article-withdrawal). This article has been retracted at the request of the Authors. The corresponding author informed the journal that there were severe problems with the testing instrument that rendered the subsequent conclusions invalid. The authors apologise for any inconvenience caused.

3.
Food Chem ; 337: 127946, 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32927223

RESUMO

The counterfeit use of reconstituted milk to simulate fresh milk in some countries is largely driven by profiteering; hence, establishing a robust market-surveillance method is an important objective. In this study, an untargeted metabolomics approach that uses ultra-performance liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF-MS) was established to discover biomarkers that can be used to classify UHT and reconstituted milk. Furthermore, 36 positive- and 24 negative-ionization mode features were selected as candidate markers to establish a UPLC-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) method. The support vector machine (SVM) method was used to process the responses of the selected potential markers, and 100% classifiability was observed. The marker metabolites could be divided into three categories by hierarchical clustering analysis: peptides, lipids, and nucleic acids. The results suggest that the untargeted-to-MRM metabolomics method is an effective tool for distinguishing between UHT and reconstituted milk.

4.
Ann Surg ; 2020 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33196487

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to determine the optimal surgical procedure for early-stage pulmonary carcinoids (PCs). BACKGROUND: PCs, comprising typical carcinoids (TCs) and atypical carcinoids (ACs), are rare low-grade malignant tumors. We determine the optimal surgical management for early-stage PCs using data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results registry. METHODS: Clinical and survival data of patients with early-stage PC tumors with a diameter ≤3 cm were retrieved. The Kaplan-Meier method and log-rank tests were used to assess the differences in overall survival (OS). Subgroup analyses were also performed. To reduce the inherent bias of retrospective studies, two propensity score matching (PSM) analysis with (PSM2) or without (PSM1) consideration of lymph node assessment were performed. RESULTS: In total, 2,934 patients with PCs, including 2,741 (93.42%) with TCs and 193 (6.58%) with ACs, were recruited. After PSM1 analysis, TC patients in the lobectomy group had a significantly better OS than those in the sublobar resection group (P = 0.0067), which is more remarkable for patients with a tumor diameter of 2 cm < T ≤ 3 cm (P = 0.0345) and those aged <70 years (P = 0.0032). However, survival benefits were not found after PSM2 analysis which balanced lymph node assessment. In multivariate cox analysis, ag<70y, female, TC histology and adequate lymph node assessment were associated with better OS. CONCLUSIONS: Sublobar resection may not significantly compromise the long-term oncological outcomes in early-stage PCs ≤3 cm in size if lymph node assessment is performed adequately. Further validation in large randomized clinical trials is warranted.

5.
Biochemistry ; 59(46): 4429-4438, 2020 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33166472

RESUMO

Minor-groove base triples formed between stem 1 and loop 2 of the simian retrovirus type 1 (SRV-1) mRNA frameshifting pseudoknot are essential in stimulating -1 ribosomal frameshifting. How tertiary base triple formation affects the local stabilities of secondary structures (stem 1 and stem 2) and thus ribosomal frameshifting efficiency is not well understood. We made a short peptide nucleic acid (PNA) that is expected to invade stem 1 of the SRV-1 pseudoknot by PNA-RNA duplex formation to mimic the stem 1 unwinding process by a translating ribosome. In addition, we used a PNA for invading stem 2 in the SRV-1 pseudoknot. Our nondenaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis data for the binding of PNA to the SRV-1 pseudoknot and mutants reveal that mutations in loop 2 disrupting base triple formation between loop 2 and stem 1 in the SRV-1 pseudoknot result in enhanced invasion by both PNAs. Our data suggest that tertiary stem 1-loop 2 base triple interactions in the SRV-1 pseudoknot can stabilize both of the secondary structural components, stem 1 and stem 2. Stem 2 stability is thus coupled to the structural stability of stem 1-loop 2 base triples, mediated through a long-range effect. The apparent dissociation constants of both PNAs are positively correlated with the pseudoknot mechanical stabilities and frameshifting efficiencies. The relatively simple PNA local invasion experiment may be used to characterize the energetic contribution of tertiary interactions and ligand binding in many other RNA and DNA structures.

6.
Neuroimage ; 225: 117496, 2020 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33181352

RESUMO

In this work, we investigate the importance of explicitly accounting for cross-trial variability in neuroimaging data analysis. To attempt to obtain reliable estimates in a task-based experiment, each condition is usually repeated across many trials. The investigator may be interested in (a) condition-level effects, (b) trial-level effects, or (c) the association of trial-level effects with the corresponding behavior data. The typical strategy for condition-level modeling is to create one regressor per condition at the subject level with the underlying assumption that responses do not change across trials. In this methodology of complete pooling, all cross-trial variability is ignored and dismissed as random noise that is swept under the rug of model residuals. Unfortunately, this framework invalidates the generalizability from the confine of specific trials (e.g., particular faces) to the associated stimulus category ("face"), and may inflate the statistical evidence when the trial sample size is not large enough. Here we propose an adaptive and computationally tractable framework that meshes well with the current two-level pipeline and explicitly accounts for trial-by-trial variability. The trial-level effects are first estimated per subject through no pooling. To allow generalizing beyond the particular stimulus set employed, the cross-trial variability is modeled at the population level through partial pooling in a multilevel model, which permits accurate effect estimation and characterization. Alternatively, trial-level estimates can be used to investigate, for example, brain-behavior associations or correlations between brain regions. Furthermore, our approach allows appropriate accounting for serial correlation, handling outliers, adapting to data skew, and capturing nonlinear brain-behavior relationships. By applying a Bayesian multilevel model framework at the level of regions of interest to an experimental dataset, we show how multiple testing can be addressed and full results reported without arbitrary dichotomization. Our approach revealed important differences compared to the conventional method at the condition level, including how the latter can distort effect magnitude and precision. Notably, in some cases our approach led to increased statistical sensitivity. In summary, our proposed framework provides an effective strategy to capture trial-by-trial responses that should be of interest to a wide community of experimentalists.

7.
Brain Res Bull ; 166: 29-36, 2020 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33186631

RESUMO

Cortical neuronal cell death following traumatic brain injury (TBI) evoked by the cortical impact is a significant factor that contributes to neurological deficits. In the current study, we harvested the injured area and perilesional area of the injured brain induced by TBI. We explored the functions of Sec22b, an apoptosis-promoting kinase, and a pivotal bridge builder of apoptotic signaling in the etiopathogenesis of an experimental rat model of TBI. We found that Sec22b was expressed in neurons in the injured cortical area, and the expression level significantly decreased after TBI, especially at 24 h. Administration of Sec22b overexpressed plasmid significantly ameliorated TBI-induced apoptosis, neurological deficits, and blood-brain barrier permeability, accompanied by the activation of autophagy. However, the administration of Sec22b knockdown resulted in the opposite eff ;ects. Altogether, these findings indicated that Sec22b plays a neuroprotective role after TBI, suggesting that Sec22b may be a potential therapeutic target for TBI. We speculated that this neuroprotective effect might be achieved by upregulating autophagy levels and required further studies to explore.

8.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 133: 110968, 2020 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33189067

RESUMO

Neurodegenerative diseases (NDs) are common chronic diseases related to progressive damage of the nervous system. Globally, the number of people with an ND is dramatically increasing consistent with the fast aging of society and one of the common features of NDs is the abnormal aggregation of diverse proteins. Autophagy is the main process by which misfolded proteins and damaged organelles are removed from cells. It has been found that the impairment of autophagy is associated with many NDs, suggesting that autophagy has a vital role in the neurodegeneration process. Recently, more and more studies have reported that autophagy inducers display a protective role in different ND experimental models, suggesting that enhancement of autophagy could be a potential therapy for NDs. In this review, the evidence for beneficial effects of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) regulate autophagy in the models of Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), and other NDs are presented and common autophagy-related mechanisms are identified. The results demonstrate that TCM which regulate autophagy are potential therapeutic candidates for ND treatment.

9.
BMJ Open ; 10(11): e041592, 2020 11 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33208337

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: As governments attempt to navigate a path out of COVID-19 restrictions, robust evidence is essential to inform requirements for public acceptance of technologically enhanced communicable disease surveillance systems. We examined the value of core surveillance system attributes to the Australian public, before and during the early stages of the current pandemic. DESIGN: A discrete choice experiment was conducted in Australia with a representative group of respondents, before and after the WHO declared COVID-19 a Public Health Emergency of International Concern. We identified and investigated the relative importance of seven attributes associated with technologically enhanced disease surveillance: respect for personal autonomy; privacy/confidentiality; data certainty/confidence; data security; infectious disease mortality prevention; infectious disease morbidity prevention; and attribution of (causal) responsibility. Specifically, we explored how the onset of the COVID-19 outbreak influenced participant responses. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: 2008 Australians (general public) completed the experiment: 793 before COVID-19 outbreak onset (mean age 45.9 years, 50.2% male) and 1215 after onset (mean age 47.2 years, 49% male). RESULTS: All seven attributes significantly influenced respondents' preferences for communicable disease surveillance systems. After onset, participants demonstrated greater preference for a surveillance system that could prevent a higher number of illnesses and deaths, and were less concerned about their personal autonomy. However, they also increased their preference for a system with high data security. CONCLUSIONS: Public acceptance of technology-based communicable disease surveillance is situation dependent. During an epidemic, there is likely to be greater tolerance of technologically enhanced disease surveillance systems that result in restrictions on personal activity if such systems can prevent high morbidity and mortality. However, this acceptance of lower personal autonomy comes with an increased requirement to ensure data security. These findings merit further research as the pandemic unfolds and strategies are put in place that enable individuals and societies to live with SARS-CoV-2 endemicity.

10.
Chemistry ; 2020 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33135204

RESUMO

As the low-cost and natural abundant alternatives for lithium-ion batteries, sodium  and  potassium - ion batteries recently attract intensive attention. However, the  large  ionic radii of Na +  and K + render slow mobility and lead to sluggish diffusion in host materials. To address these issues, herein, hierarchical  FeSe 2  microspheres assembled by  closely packed nano/microrods   are  rationally  designed and synthesized via a facile solvothermal method.  Without carbonaceous material incorporation, the electrode delivers a reversible Na +  storage capacity of 559 mAh g -1  at a current rate of 0.1 A g -1  and remarkable rate performance with capacity of 525 mAh g -1  at 20 A g -1 . As for K +  storage, FeSe 2  anode delivers a high reversible capacity of 393 mAh g -1  at 0.4 A g -1 . Even at a high current density of 5 A g -1 , a discharge capacity of 322 mAh g -1  can be achieved that is among the best high-rate anodes for K +  storage. The excellent electrochemical performance can be attributable to the  favorable  morphology  structure  and the use of  ether-based electrolyte   d uring cycling. Moreover, quantitative study suggests a strong pseudocapacitive contribution that boosts fast kinetic and interfacial storage.

11.
J Diabetes ; 2020 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33135296

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Age at menarche was reported to be associated with the risk of diabetes. However, the impact of ideal cardiovascular health metrics (ICVHMs) on the association between age at menarche and adulthood diabetes risk remains unclarified. METHODS: We included 121431 women from the nationwide, population-based cohort of the REACTION (Risk Evaluation of Cancers in Chinese Diabetic Individuals: A Longitudinal) study. The diagnosis of diabetes was based on the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and HbA1c measurement. Logistic regression and multiplicative interaction analysis were conducted to investigate the potential interaction effect between age at menarche and ICVHMs on the development of diabetes. RESULTS: The multivariable-adjusted odds ratios of diabetes across categories of age at menarche (<14, 14-17, and > 17years) were 1.22 (95%CI: 1.17, 1.28), 1.00 (reference), and 0.89 (95%CI: 0.85, 0.93), respectively. In subgroup analysis, significant interactions were detected between total cholesterol, blood pressure levels and age at menarche on the risk of diabetes (P for interaction = 0.0091 and 0.0019, respectively). The increased risk associated with age at menarche <14 years was observed in participants with 3 or fewer ICVHMs, but not in women with 4 or more ICVHMs (P for interaction = 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: Age at menarche was inversely associated with the risk of diabetes in adulthood in Chinese women, and it appeared to be modified by the presence of ICVHMs. Further studies are needed to clarify the precise interrelationship and the generalizability of our results. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

12.
Biomed Res Int ; 2020: 6037434, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33178832

RESUMO

Background: The expression and mechanism of microRNA-205 (miRNA-205) in prostate cancer (PCa) and its bone metastasis remain controversial. Materials and Methods: The expression and discriminating capability of miRNA-205 were assessed by drawing a forest plot and a summarized receiver operating characteristic (SROC) curve, using data available from 27 miRNA-array and miRNA-sequencing datasets. The miRNA-205 target genes were acquired from online prediction tools, differentially upregulated genes in PCa, and differentially expressed genes (DEGs) after miRNA-205 transfection into PCa cell lines. Functional enrichment analysis was conducted to explore the biological mechanism of miRNA-205 targets. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was applied to verify the protein level of the hub gene. Results: The expression of miRNA-205 in the PCa group (1,461 samples) was significantly lower than that in the noncancer group (510 samples), and the downregulation of miRNA-205 showed excellent sensitivity and specificity in differentiating between the two groups. In bone metastatic PCa, the miRNA-205 level was further reduced than in nonbone metastatic PCa, and it showed a good capability in distinguishing between the two groups. In total, 153 miRNA-205 targets were screened through the three aforementioned methods. Based on the results of functional enrichment analysis, the targets of miRNA-205 were mainly enriched during chromosome segregation and phospholipid-translocating ATPase activity and in the spindle microtubule and the p53 signaling pathway. CDK1 had the highest connectivity in the PPI network analysis and was screened as one of the hub genes. A statistically significant negative correlation between miRNA-205 and CDK1 was observed. The expression of CDK1 in PCa samples was pronouncedly upregulated in terms of both the mRNA level and the protein level when compared with noncancer samples. Conclusion: miRNA-205 may play a vital role in PCa tumorigenesis and bone metastasis by targeting CDK1.

13.
Eur J Clin Pharmacol ; 2020 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33188452

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To describe the motivations, barriers, and sociodemographic characteristics of healthy Chinese volunteers in phase I research and to demonstrate the factors influencing their willingness to participate in subsequent trials. METHODS: Healthy subjects who participated in seven phase I trials at two centres were invited to participate in the cross-sectional survey at discharge by anonymously and voluntarily completing the self-administered questionnaire. RESULTS: From 442 subjects asked to complete the questionnaire, a response rate of 94.8% (419) was obtained, and 72.8% of the respondents had participated in a mean of 2.0 ± 1.3 previous studies. Over 90% of the subjects indicated that the main motivations to participate trials were to help more people, to contribute to scientific research, and to obtain money. The top 5 barriers were time inconvenience, advertisement sources, potential risks associated with the drug, privacy, and the route of drug administration. Nearly half (49.6%) of the subjects were willing to participate in the next trial. The factors impacting the willingness of the subjects to participate in subsequent trials were gender, screening frequency, enrolment frequency, level of understanding of the research, two motivating factors (to make money and receive a free check-up), and ten barriers (e.g. risk, distance, living conditions, and trust). CONCLUSIONS: The majority of healthy Chinese subjects were young, were less well educated, had low income levels, and had poor medical insurance coverage. Given the multiple sources of motivation and complex barriers to trial participation, investigators and recruitment staff should consider ethics aspects to guarantee volunteer safety and well-being.

14.
J Mol Model ; 26(12): 334, 2020 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33156445

RESUMO

This paper presented an effective way to select monomers to fabricate active layers for the thin-film composite (TFC) membrane at the molecular level. Five types of diamine monomers and six acid chloride monomers were firstly selected by a conformer search process. Then, the conceptual density functional theory (CDFT) method was adopted to examine the properties of these monomers. A few different molecular properties were calculated, including relative energy, hydrogen bond, global/local/difference local softness, hardness, chemical potential, and electrophilicity index. Similarly, polyamides that were the productions of interfacial polymerization reaction were also analyzed by CDFT. Our results showed that the mixture of trimesoyl chloride (TMC) and m-phenylenediamine (MPD) for the interfacial polymerization was ideal synthetic materials to fabricate the active layer of TFC membranes. Graphical abstract Polyamides synthesis by interfacial polymerization.

15.
Neurosci Lett ; : 135470, 2020 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33157174

RESUMO

Morphine is one of the most abused drugs in the world, which has resulted in serious social problems. The frontal association cortex (FrA) has been shown to play a key role in memory formation and drug addiction. N-Methyl-d-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) are abundant in the prefrontal cortex (PFc) and much evidence indicates that GluN2B-containing NMDARs are involved in morphine-induced conditioned place preference (CPP). However, the function of GluN2B in the FrA during morphine-induced CPP has yet to be fully investigated. In the present work, a CPP animal model was employed to measure the expression of phosphorylated (p-) GluN2B (Serine; Ser 1303) in the FrA and NAc in different phases of morphine-induced CPP. We found that p-GluN2B (Ser 1303) was increased in the FrA during the development and reinstatement phases but unchanged in the extinction phase. The use of ifenprodil, a GluN2B-specific antagonist, to block the activity of GluN2B in the two phases attenuated morphine-induced CPP and reinstatement. Furthermore, ifenprodil also blocked morphine-induced upregulation of p-GluN2B (Ser 1303) in the FrA in both phases. These results indicate that GluN2B-containing NMDARs in the FrA may be involved in the regulation of morphine-induced CPP and reinstatement.

16.
Ann Hum Biol ; : 1-13, 2020 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33191788

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In recent decades, considerable attention has been paid to exploring the population genetic characteristics of Han Chinese, mainly documenting a north-south genetic substructure. However, the central Han Chinese have been largely underrepresented in previous studies. AIM: To infer a comprehensive understanding of the homogenisation process and population history of Han Chinese. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: We collected samples from 122 Han Chinese from seven counties of Hubei province in central China and genotyped 534,000 genome-wide SNPs. We compared Hubei Han with both ancient and present-day Eurasian populations using Principal Component Analysis, ADMIXTURE, f statistics, qpWave and qpAdm. RESULTS: We observed Hubei Han Chinese are at a genetically intermediate position on the north-south Han Chinese cline. We have not detected any significant genetic substructure in the studied groups from seven different counties. Hubei Han show significant evidence of genetic admixture deriving about 63% of ancestry from Tai-Kadai or Austronesian-speaking southern indigenous groups and 37% from Tungusic or Mongolic related northern populations. CONCLUSIONS: The formation of Han Chinese has involved extensive admixture with Tai-Kadai or Austronesian-speaking populations in the south and Tungusic or Mongolic speaking populations in the north. The convenient transportation and central location of Hubei make it the key region for the homogenisation of Han Chinese.

17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33179959

RESUMO

Background: The expression level and clinical significance of integrin subunit beta 4 (ITGB4) in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) remain unclear. Materials and Methods: Expression of ITGB4 in HNSCC tissues were evaluated by calculating standard mean differences (SMDs) based on gene chips, RNA-seq, and immunohistochemistry data (n = 2330) from multiple sources. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to detect the ability of ITGB4 to distinguish HNSCC from non-HNSCC samples. The relationship between the expression level of ITGB4 and clinical parameters was evaluated by calculating SMDs. Results: Identical results of mRNA and protein levels indicated remarkable up-expression of ITGB4 in HNSCC tissues. Further ROC curves showed that ITGB4 could distinguish HNSCC from non-HNSCC samples. Genetic alteration analysis of ITGB4 in HNSCC indicated that overexpression of ITGB4 in HNSCC was likely not owing to genetic alteration of ITGB4. Moreover, ITGB4 overexpression level may be correlated with clinical T stage. Conclusion: ITGB4 likely plays an essential role in HNSCC occurrence based on our study and its potential diagnostic value is worthy of further exploration in the future.

18.
Int J Lab Hematol ; 2020 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33226193

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Multiple myeloma (MM) is characterized by the malignant proliferation of plasma cells, which produce a monoclonal immunoglobulin protein. The role of 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide formyltransferase/IMP cyclohydrolase (ATIC) has not yet been well studied in the area of MM. Thus, in the current study, we sought to examine the expression levels, including mRNA and protein levels of ATIC in MM. METHODS: Multiple myeloma microarray and RNA-seq data were screened from the SRA, GEO, ArrayExpress, and Oncomine databases. The mRNA level of ATIC was extracted from the high throughput data, and the prognostic value was studied. The protein level of ATIC was also detected by in-house immunohistochemistry on a tissue microarray. Potential signaling pathways were enriched with ATIC-related genes in MM. RESULTS: Both the mRNA and protein levels of ATIC were significantly upregulated in MM samples as compared to normal samples. Furthermore, the summarized Standardized Mean Difference was 1.66 with 674 cases of MM based on 10 independent studies including the in-house tissue microarray. The overall hazard ratio of ATIC in MM was 1.7 with 1631 cases of MM based on five microarrays. In the KEGG pathway analysis, the ATIC-related genes were mainly enriched in the pathway of complement and coagulation cascades. CONCLUSION: We provided the first evidence supporting the upregulation of ATIC may play an essential part in the tumorigenesis and development of MM. The promoting cancer capacity may be related to the pathway of complement and coagulation cascades.

19.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 20(1): 1051, 2020 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33213451

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Medical Financial Assistance (MFA) provides health insurance and financial support for millions of low income and disabled Chinese people, yet there has been little systematic analysis focused on this vulnerable population. This study aims to advance our understanding of MFA recipients' access to health care and whether their inpatient care use varies by remoteness. METHODS: Data were collected from the Surveillance System of Civil Affairs of Shaanxi province in 2016. To better proxy remoteness (geographic access), drive time from the respondent's village to the nearest county-level or city-level hospital was obtained by a web crawler. Multilevel models were used to explore the impacts of remoteness on inpatient services utilization by MFA recipients. Furthermore, the potential moderating role of hospital grade (i.e. the grade of medical institution where recipient's latest inpatient care services were taken in the previous year) on the relationship between geographic access and inpatient care use was explored. RESULTS: The analytical sample consisted of 9516 inpatient claims within 73 counties of Shaanxi province in 2016. We find that drive time to the nearest hospital and hospital grade are salient predictors of inpatient care use and there is a significant moderation effect of hospital grade. Compared to those with shortest drive time to the nearest hospital, longer drive time is associated with a longer inpatient stay but fewer admissions and lower annual total and out-of-pocket (OOP) inpatient costs. In addition, these associations are lower when recipients are admitted to a tertiary hospital, for annual total and OOP inpatient expenditures, but higher for length of the most recent inpatient stay no matter what medical treatments are taken in secondary or tertiary hospitals for the most remote recipients. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that remoteness has a significant and negative association with the frequency of inpatient care use. These findings advance our understanding of inpatient care use of the extremely poor and provide meaningful insights for further MFA program development as well as pro-poor health strategies.

20.
Biomed Chromatogr ; : e5020, 2020 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33159321

RESUMO

Chronic inflammation pain is a debilitating disease, and its mechanism still remains poorly understood. This study was attempt to illuminate the metabolic mechanism of chronic inflammation pain induced by Complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) injection especially at spinal level. The chronic inflammation pain model was established by CFA administration. The behavioral testing including mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia was performed. Meanwhile, liquid chromatograph-mass spectrometer (LC-MS)-based metabolomics approach was applied to analyze potential metabolic biomarkers. The orthogonal partial least squares discrimination analysis (OPLS-DA) mode was employed for determining metabolic changes, and western blot was performed to detect the protein expression change. The results showed that twenty-seven metabolites were obviously abnormal expression and seven metabolic pathways were significantly enriched comprising of aminoacyl-tRNA biosynthesis, arginine and proline metabolism, histidine metabolism, purine metabolism, phenylalanine, tyrosine and tryptophan biosynthesis, glutathione metabolism, and phenylalanine metabolism. Meanwhile, the results showed that the expression of arginase I and NO level were elevated in CFA group than that of in Control group, while the protein of argininosuccinate synthetase and argininosuccinatelyase were not significantly different between CFA group and Control group. These findings demonstrated that metabolic changes of spinal cord may implicate in neurotransmitter release and pain conductivity following CFA administration.

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