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Environ Res ; 200: 111434, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34087194


BACKGROUND: Urban greenness may protect against obesity, but very few studies have assessed 'street view' (SV) greenness metrics, which may better capture people's actual exposure to greenness compared to commonly-used satellite-derived metrics. We aimed to investigate these associations further in a Chinese adult study. METHODS: Our analysis included 24,845 adults in the 33 Chinese Community Health Study in 2009. SV images from Tencent Map, segmented by machine learning algorithms, were used to determine the average proportion of green vegetation in SV images at community level in 800m road network buffer. Sensitivity analyses were performed with an alternative buffer size. Overall greenness was assessed as normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) in 800 m buffer. We used predicted PM2.5 and monitored NO2 as proxies of air pollution. Body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and hip circumference (HC) were regressed on SV greenness by generalized linear mixed models, with adjustment for covariates. Mediation analyses were performed to assess the mediation effects of air pollution. RESULTS: Each interquartile range (IQR = 3.6%) increase in street view greenness was associated with a 0.15 kg/m2 (95% CI: -0.22, -0.09) decrease in BMI and 0.23 cm (95% CI: -0.35, -0.11) reduction in HC, and was associated with 7% lower odds of overweight (OR = 0.93, 95% CI:0.90, 0.96) and 18% lower odds of obesity (OR = 0.82, 95% CI:0.76, 0.89). Similar effect estimation was observed compared with commonly-used NDVI measures. PM2.5 and NO2 mediated 15.5% and 6.1% of the effects of SV greenness with BMI, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest beneficial associations between community-level SV greenness and lower body weight in Chinese adults. The effects were observed in women but not in men. Air pollution may partially mediate the association. These findings may have implications to support efforts to promote greening in urban areas.

Poluição do Ar , Saúde Pública , Adulto , Poluição do Ar/análise , Índice de Massa Corporal , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Obesidade/epidemiologia
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(5): e2110931, 2021 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34014325


Importance: Few studies have investigated the association between the exposure window (prenatal, early postnatal, and current period) of secondhand smoke (SHS) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and subtypes in children. Objective: To evaluate the associations of prenatal, early postnatal, or current SHS exposure with ADHD symptoms and subtypes among school-aged children. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this cross-sectional study, 48 612 children aged 6 to 18 years from elementary and middle schools in Liaoning province, China, between April 2012 and January 2013 were eligible for participation. Data on SHS exposure and ADHD symptoms and subtypes for each child were collected via questionnaires administered to parents or guardians by school teachers. Data were analyzed from September 14 to December 2, 2020. Main Outcomes and Measures: The ADHD symptoms and subtypes (inattention, hyperactivity-impulsivity, and combined) were measured based on a validated tool developed from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Fourth Edition). Generalized linear mixed models were evaluated to estimate the association of SHS exposure with ADHD symptoms and subtypes. Results: A total of 45 562 participants completed the questionnaires and were included in this study (22 905 girls [50.3%]; mean [SD] age, 11.0 [2.6] years; 2170 [4.8%] with ADHD symptoms). Compared with their unexposed counterparts, children who were ever exposed (odds ratio [OR], 1.50; 95% CI, 1.36-1.66) or always exposed to SHS (OR, 2.88; 95% CI, 2.55-3.25) from pregnancy to childhood had higher odds of having ADHD symptoms and subtypes (ORs ranged from 1.46 [95% CI, 1.31-1.62] to 2.94 [95% CI, 2.09-4.13]). Compared with their unexposed counterparts, children with SHS exposure had higher odds of having ADHD symptoms when exposed in the prenatal period (OR, 2.28; 95% CI, 2.07-2.51), early postnatal period (OR, 1.47; 95% CI, 1.29-1.68), or current period (OR, 1.20; 95% CI, 1.09-1.31). Compared with their unexposed counterparts, children whose fathers smoked 10 or more cigarettes/d on both weekdays and weekends had higher odds of having ADHD symptoms and subtypes (ORs ranged from 1.48 [95% CI, 1.28-1.70] to 2.25 [95% CI, 1.29-3.93]). Conclusions and Relevance: Being exposed to SHS from pregnancy to childhood was associated with higher odds of having ADHD symptoms and subtypes among school-aged children, and the associations were somewhat stronger for SHS exposure during prenatal and early postnatal periods. Our findings highlight the important public health implications of reducing SHS exposure, which may decrease the health and economic burdens of individuals with ADHD.

Environ Pollut ; 270: 116211, 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33348139


Evidence concerning effects of ambient air pollution on homocysteine (HCY) metabolism is scarce. We aimed to explore the associations between ambient particulate matter (PM) exposure and the HCY metabolism markers and to evaluate effect modifications by folate, vitamin B12, and methylenetetrahyfrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T gene polymorphism. Between December 1, 2017 and January 5, 2018, we conducted a panel study in 88 young college students in Guangzhou, China, and received 5 rounds of health examinations. Real-time concentrations of PMs with aerodynamic diameter ≤2.5 (PM2.5), ≤1.0 (PM1.0), and ≤0.1 (PM0.1) were monitored, and the serum HCY metabolism markers (i.e., HCY, S-Adenosylhomocysteine [SAH], and S-Adenosylmethionine [SAM]) were repeatedly measured. We applied linear mixed effect models combined with a distributed lag model to evaluate the associations of PMs with the HCY metabolism markers. We also explored effect modifications of folate, vitamin B12, and the MTHFR C677T polymorphism on the associations. We observed that higher concentrations of PM2.5 and PM1.0 were associated with higher serum levels of HCY, SAH, SAM, and SAM/SAH ratio (e.g., a 10 µg/m3 increase in PM2.5 during lag 0 day and lag 5 day was significantly associated with 1.3-19.4%, 1.3-28.2%, 6.2-64.4%, and 4.8-28.2% increase in HCY, SAH, SAM, and SAM/SAH ratio, respectively). In addition, we observed that the associations of PM2.5 with the HCY metabolism markers were stronger in participants with lower B vitamins levels. This study demonstrated that short-term exposure to PM2.5 and PM1.0 was deleteriously associated with the HCY metabolism markers, especially in people with lower B vitamins levels.

Complexo Vitamínico B , China , Homocisteína , Humanos , Metilenotetra-Hidrofolato Redutase (NADPH2)/genética , Oxirredutases , Material Particulado , Polimorfismo Genético