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1.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 18783, 2021 09 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34552105

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to examine the changes in severity of anxiety and depression symptoms, stress and sleeping quality after three months of mass quarantine for COVID-19 among undergraduate fresh students compared to their pre-COVID-19 measures. We used participants from the Chinese Undergraduate Cohort (CUC), a national prospective longitudinal study to examine the changes in anxiety and depression symptoms severity, stress and sleep quality after being under mass quarantine for three months. Wilcoxon matched pair signed-rank test was used to compare the lifestyle indicators. Severity of anxiety, depression symptoms, stress and sleep quality were compared with Wilcoxon signed-rank test. We used generalized estimating equation (GEE) to further quantify the change in mental health indicators and sleep quality after the COVID-19 mass quarantine compared to baseline. This study found that there was no deterioration in mental health status among Chinese new undergraduate students in 2020 after COVID-19 mass quarantine compared with the baseline measures in 2019. There was an improvement in sleep quality and anxiety symptoms. After adjusting for age, sex, exercise habit, time spent on mobile gadgets, and time spent outdoors, year 2020 was significantly associated with severity of depression symptoms in males (OR:1.52. 95%CI:1.05-2.20, p-value = 0.027). Year 2020 was significantly associated with the improvement of sleeping quality in total (OR:0.45, 95%CI:0.38-0.52, p < 0.001) and in all the subgroups. This longitudinal study found no deterioration in mental health status among Chinese new undergraduate students after three months of mass quarantine for COVID-19.


Assuntos
COVID-19/psicologia , Saúde Mental , Estudantes/psicologia , Adolescente , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , China , Depressão/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Quarentena/psicologia , Sono , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
2.
Environ Res ; 204(Pt A): 112004, 2021 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34499893

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Greenness exposure may lower blood pressure. However, few studies of this relationship have been conducted with children and adolescents, especially in low and middle-income countries. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate associations between greenness around schools and blood pressure among children and adolescents across China. METHODS: We recruited 61,229 Chinese citizens aged 6-18 years from 94 schools in a nationwide cross-sectional study in seven Chinese provinces/province-level municipalities. Participants' blood pressures and hypertension were assessed with standardized protocols. Greenness levels within 500 m and 1,000 m of each school were estimated with three satellite-based indices: vegetation continuous fields (VCF), normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), and soil adjusted vegetation index (SAVI). Generalized linear mixed models were used to evaluate associations between greenness and blood pressure, greenness and prevalent hypertension, using coefficient and odds ratio respectively. Stratified analyses and mediation analyses were also performed. RESULTS: One interquartile range increase in greenness was associated with a 17%-20% reduced prevalence of hypertension for all measures of greenness (odds ratios for VCF500m = 20% (95% CI:18%, 23%); for NDVI500m = 17% (95% CI:13%, 21%); and for SAVI500m = 17% (95% CI: 13%, 20%). Increases in greenness were also associated with reductions in systolic blood pressure (0.48-0.58 mmHg) and diastolic blood pressure (0.26-0.52 mmHg). Older participants, boys, and urban dwellers showed stronger associations than their counterparts. No evidence of mediation was observed for air pollution (i.e., NO2 and PM2.5) and body mass index. CONCLUSION: Higher greenness around schools may lower blood pressure levels and prevalent hypertension among Chinese children and adolescents, particularly in older subjects, boys, and those living in urban districts. Further studies, preferably longitudinal, are needed to examine causality.

3.
Lancet Planet Health ; 5(9): e599-e607, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34508681

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the context of climate change and deforestation, Brazil is facing more frequent and unprecedented wildfires. Wildfire-related PM2·5 is associated with multiple adverse health outcomes; however, the magnitude of these associations in the Brazilian context is unclear. We aimed to estimate the association between daily exposure to wildfire-related PM2·5 and cause-specific hospital admission and attributable health burden in the Brazilian population using a nationwide dataset from 2000 to 2015. METHODS: In this nationwide time-series analysis, data for daily all-cause, cardiovascular, and respiratory hospital admissions were collected through the Brazilian Unified Health System from 1814 municipalities in Brazil between Jan 1, 2000, and Dec 31, 2015. Daily concentrations of wildfire-related PM2·5 were estimated using the 3D chemical transport model GEOS-Chem at a 2·0° latitude by 2·5° longitude resolution. A time-series analysis was fitted using quasi-Poisson regression to quantify municipality-specific effect estimates, which were then pooled at the regional and national levels using random-effects meta-analyses. Analyses were stratified by sex and ten age groups. The attributable fraction and attributable cases of hospital admissions due to wildfire-related PM2·5 were also calculated. FINDINGS: At the national level, a 10 µg/m3 increase in wildfire-related PM2·5 was associated with a 1·65% (95% CI 1·51-1·80) increase in all-cause hospital admissions, a 5·09% (4·73-5·44) increase in respiratory hospital admissions, and a 1·10% (0·78-1·42) increase in cardiovascular hospital admissions, over 0-1 days after the exposure. The effect estimates for all-cause hospital admission did not vary by sex, but were particularly high in children aged 4 years or younger (4·88% [95% CI 4·47-5·28]), children aged 5-9 years (2·33% [1·77-2·90]), and people aged 80 years and older (3·70% [3·20-4·20]) compared with other age groups. We estimated that 0·53% (95% CI 0·48-0·58) of all-cause hospital admissions were attributable to wildfire-related PM2·5, corresponding to 35 cases (95% CI 32-38) per 100 000 residents annually. The attributable rate was greatest for municipalities in the north, south, and central-west regions, and lowest in the northeast region. Results were consistent for all-cause and respiratory diseases across regions, but remained inconsistent for cardiovascular diseases. INTERPRETATION: Short-term exposure to wildfire-related PM2·5 was associated with increased risks of all-cause, respiratory, and cardiovascular hospital admissions, particularly among children (0-9 years) and older people (≥80 years). Greater attention should be paid to reducing exposure to wildfire smoke, particularly for the most susceptible populations. FUNDING: Australian Research Council and Australian National Health and Medical Research Council.

4.
Lancet Planet Health ; 5(9): e579-e587, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34508679

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Many regions of the world are now facing more frequent and unprecedentedly large wildfires. However, the association between wildfire-related PM2·5 and mortality has not been well characterised. We aimed to comprehensively assess the association between short-term exposure to wildfire-related PM2·5 and mortality across various regions of the world. METHODS: For this time series study, data on daily counts of deaths for all causes, cardiovascular causes, and respiratory causes were collected from 749 cities in 43 countries and regions during 2000-16. Daily concentrations of wildfire-related PM2·5 were estimated using the three-dimensional chemical transport model GEOS-Chem at a 0·25°â€ˆ× 0·25° resolution. The association between wildfire-related PM2·5 exposure and mortality was examined using a quasi-Poisson time series model in each city considering both the current-day and lag effects, and the effect estimates were then pooled using a random-effects meta-analysis. Based on these pooled effect estimates, the population attributable fraction and relative risk (RR) of annual mortality due to acute wildfire-related PM2·5 exposure was calculated. FINDINGS: 65·6 million all-cause deaths, 15·1 million cardiovascular deaths, and 6·8 million respiratory deaths were included in our analyses. The pooled RRs of mortality associated with each 10 µg/m3 increase in the 3-day moving average (lag 0-2 days) of wildfire-related PM2·5 exposure were 1·019 (95% CI 1·016-1·022) for all-cause mortality, 1·017 (1·012-1·021) for cardiovascular mortality, and 1·019 (1·013-1·025) for respiratory mortality. Overall, 0·62% (95% CI 0·48-0·75) of all-cause deaths, 0·55% (0·43-0·67) of cardiovascular deaths, and 0·64% (0·50-0·78) of respiratory deaths were annually attributable to the acute impacts of wildfire-related PM2·5 exposure during the study period. INTERPRETATION: Short-term exposure to wildfire-related PM2·5 was associated with increased risk of mortality. Urgent action is needed to reduce health risks from the increasing wildfires. FUNDING: Australian Research Council, Australian National Health & Medical Research Council.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34342826

RESUMO

Long-term exposure to air pollutants and residential greenness related to advanced fibrosis have been sparsely studied in low- and middle-income countries. A total of 29883 participants were selected from a cross-sectional survey of the Henan Rural Cohort. Concentrations of air pollutants (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≤ 1.0 µm (PM1), ≤ 2.5 µm (PM2.5), ≤ 10 µm (PM10) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2)) for participants were predicted by using a spatiotemporal model. Residential greenness of each participant was indicated by Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). Independent and joint associations of air pollutants and residential greenness indices with prevalent advanced fibrosis reflected by fibrosis-4 score (FIB4), aspartate-to-platelet-ratio index (APRI) and ALT/AST ratio were analyzed by generalized linear mixed models and their interactive effect on prevalent advanced fibrosis were visualized by using the interplot method. Long-term exposure to PM1, PM2.5, PM10 and NO2 were positively related to FIB4 or APRI as well as prevalent intermediate-high advanced fibrosis; EVI was negatively related to FIB4 or APRI as well as prevalent intermediate-high advanced fibrosis. Negative associations of residential greenness indices (EVI or NDVI) with prevalent advanced fibrosis were decreased as increased air pollutants (PM1, PM2.5, PM10 or NO2) (P < 0.05 for all). This study indicated that residential greenness may partially attenuate negative effect of long-term exposure to air pollutants related to increased prevalent intermediate-high advanced fibrosis, implying that residential greenness may be an effective strategy to reduce the burden of prevalent hepatic fibrosis and its related disease in association with exposure high levels of air pollutants. The Henan Rural Cohort study has been registered at Chinese Clinical Trial Register (Registration number: ChiCTR-OOC-15006699, http://www.chictr.org.cn/showproj.aspx?proj=11375 ).

6.
Environ Pollut ; 286: 117582, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34438500

RESUMO

Limitations of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) potentially contributed to the inconsistent findings of greenspace exposure and childhood asthma. The aim of this study was to use a novel greenness exposure assessment method, capable of overcoming the limitation of NDVI to determine the extent to which it was associated with asthma prevalence in Chinese children. During 2009-2013, a cross-sectional study of 59,754 children aged 2-17 years was conducted in northeast China. Tencent street view images surrounding participants' schools were segmented by a deep learning model, and streetscape greenness was extracted. The green view index (GVI) was used to assign exposure and higher value indicates more green coverage. Mixed-effects logistic regression models were used to calculate the adjusted odds of asthma per interquartile range (IQR) increase of GVI for trees and grass. Participants were further stratified to investigate whether particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter <2.5 µm (PM2.5) was a modifier. An IQR increase in GVI800m for trees was associated with lower adjusted odds of doctor-diagnosed asthma (OR: 0.76; 95%CI: 0.72-0.80) and current asthma (OR: 0.82; 95%CI: 0.75-0.89). An IQR increase in GVI800m for grass was associated with higher adjusted odds of doctor-diagnosed asthma (OR: 1.04; 95%CI: 1.00-1.08) and current asthma (OR: 1.08; 95%CI: 1.02-1.14). After stratification by PM2.5 exposure level, the negative association between trees and asthma, and the positive association between grass and asthma were observed only in low PM2.5 exposure levels (≤median: 56.23 µg/m3). Our results suggest that types of vegetation may play a role in the association between greenness exposure and childhood asthma. Exposure to trees may reduce the odds of childhood asthma, whereas exposure to grass may increase the odds. Additionally, PM2.5 may modify the associations of trees and grass with childhood asthma.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Asma , Aprendizado Profundo , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Asma/epidemiologia , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Exposição Ambiental , Humanos , Material Particulado/análise , Poaceae , Prevalência , Árvores
7.
Environ Res ; 201: 111597, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34214564

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Ambient air pollution might increase the risk of obesity; however, the evidence regarding the relationship between air pollution and obesity in comparable urban and rural areas is limited. Therefore, our aim was to contrast the effect estimates of varying air pollution particulate matter on obesity between urban and rural areas. METHODS: Four obesity indicators were evaluated in this study, namely, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR). Exposure to ambient air pollution (e.g., particulate matter with aerodynamic diameters 1.0 µm [PM1], PM2.5, and PM10) was estimated using satellite-based random forest models. Linear regression and logistic regression models were used to assess the associations between air pollution particulate matter and obesity. Furthermore, the effect estimates of different air pollution particulates were contrasted between urban and rural areas. RESULTS: A total of 36,998 participants in urban areas and 31, 256 in rural areas were included. We found positive associations between long-term exposure to PM1, PM2.5, and PM10 and obesity. Of these air pollutants, PM2.5 had the strongest association. The results showed that the odds ratios (ORs) for general obesity were 1.8 (95% CI, 1.64 to 1.98) per interquartile range (IQR) µg/m3 increase in PM1, 1.89 (95% CI, 1.71 to 2.1) per IQR µg/m3 increase in PM2.5, and 1.74 (95% CI, 1.58 to 1.9) per IQR µg/m3 increase in PM10. The concentrations of air pollutants were lower in rural areas, but the effects of air pollution on obesity of rural residents were higher than those of urban residents. CONCLUSION: Long-term (3 years average) exposure to ambient air pollution was associated with an increased risk of obesity. We observed regional disparities in the effects of particulate matter exposure from air pollution on the risk of obesity, with higher effect estimates found in rural areas. Air quality interventions should be prioritized not only in urban areas but also in rural areas to reduce the risk of obesity.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , China/epidemiologia , Humanos , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Obesidade/etiologia
8.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 222: 112458, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34217118

RESUMO

Residential greenness may be beneficial for cardiovascular health, but the evidence is still scarce, especially in developing countries. This study aimed to assess the associations between exposure to residential greenness and 10-year atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) risk in a large rural Chinese adult population. This was a cross-sectional study based on 31,162 participants aged 35-74 years with complete data on predictors of the 10-year ASCVD risk from the Henan Rural Cohort Study. The satellite-derived Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) were used to quantify residential greenness in a buffer radius of 500 m, 1000 m, and 3000 m. The high 10-years ASCVD risk was defined as the estimated risk ≥10% based on prediction equations from the China-PAR Project for Chinese populations. Multivariable-adjusted logistic regression models were performed to estimate the associations of greenness exposures with high 10-year ASCVD risk, and mediation analyses were employed to the potential mediators. For per interquartile range (IQR) increase in NDVI500-m, NDVI1000-m, NDVI3000-m, EVI500-m, EVI1000-m, and EVI3000-m, the adjusted OR (95% CI) of high 10-years ASCVD risk was 0.828 (0.793-0.866), 0.850 (0.817-0.885), 0.823 (0.792-0.855), 0.848 (0.809-0.889), 0.863 (0.826-0.901), 0.843 (0.805-0.883), respectively. Strong associations of NDVI500-m and EVI500-m with high 10-years ASCVD risk were found among participants with lower education level and lower averaged monthly income. The associations of greenness exposures with high 10-year ASCVD risk were partially explained by particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≤1 µm, BMI, and physical activity. Enhancing residential greenness exposure may be beneficial for reducing the high 10-year ASCVD risk in rural Chinese adults.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Adulto , China/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Material Particulado/análise
9.
Environ Res ; 202: 111641, 2021 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34252432

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Health effects of greenness perceived by residents at eye level has received increasing attention. However, the associations between eye-level greenness and respiratory health are unknown. The aim of the study was to investigate the associations between exposure to eye-level greenness and lung function in children. METHODS: From 2012 to 2013, a total of 6740 school children in seven cities in northeast China were recruited into this cross-sectional study. Forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), peak expiratory flow rate (PEF), and maximum mid expiratory flow rate (MMEF) were measured to evaluate lung function and to define lung impairment. Eye-level greenness was extracted from segmented Tencent Map street view images, and a corresponding green view index (GVI) was calculated. Higher GVIs mean more greenness coverage. Mixed-effects logistic regressions were used to estimate the health effects on lung impairment per interquartile range (IQR) increase in GVI. Linear regressions were used to estimate the associations between GVI and lung function. The health effects of ambient air pollutants were also assessed, including particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter <1.0 µm (PM1), <2.5 µm (PM2.5), <10 µm (PM10) as well as nitrogen dioxide (NO2). RESULTS: An increase of GVI800m was associated with lung impairment in FEV1, FVC, PEF and MMEF, with ORs ranging from 0.68 (95% CI: 0.59, 0.79) to 0.83 (95% CI: 0.74, 0.93). The associations between an IQR increase of GVI800m and FEV1 (48.15 ml, 95% CI: 30.33-65.97 ml), FVC (50.57 ml, 95% CI: 30.65-70.48 ml), PEF (149.59 ml/s, 95% CI: 109.79-189.38 ml/s), and MMEF (61.18 ml/s, 95% CI: 31.07-91.29 ml/s) were significant, and PM1, PM2.5, and PM10 were found to be mediators of this relationship. CONCLUSION: More eye-level greenness was associated with better lung function and reduced impairment. However, eye-level greenness associations with lung function became non-significant once lower particulate matter air pollution exposures were considered.

10.
Sci Total Environ ; 793: 148542, 2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34174609

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Low socio-economic status (SES) and exposure to single-air pollutant relate to increased prevalent atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases (ASCVD), however, interactive effect between SES and exposure to single- or multiple-air pollutants on high 10-year ASCVD risk remains unclear. METHODS: A total of 31,162 individuals were derived from the Henan Rural Cohort Study. Concentrations of air pollutants (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≤ 1.0 µm (PM1), ≤2.5 µm (PM2.5) or ≤10 µm (PM10), nitrogen dioxide (NO2)) were assessed using a spatiotemporal model based on satellites data. Independent and joint associations of SES, single- and multiple- air pollutants with high 10-year ASCVD risk were evaluated using logistic regression models, quantile g-computation and structural equation models. The interactive effects of SES and exposure to single- or multiple air pollutants on high 10-year ASCVD risk were visualized by using Interaction plots. RESULTS: Exposure to single air pollutant (PM1, PM2.5, PM10 or NO2) related to increased high 10-year ASCVD risk among individuals with low education level or personal average monthly income, compared to the ones with high education level or personal average monthly income. Furthermore, similar results of exposure to mixture of air pollutants with high 10-year ASCVD risk were observed. Positive interactive effects between low SES and exposure to high single air pollutant or the mixture of air pollutants on high 10-year ASCVD risk were observed. CONCLUSION: Positive association of low SES with high 10-year ASCVD risk was amplified by exposure to high levels of single air pollutant or a mixture of air pollutants, implying that individuals with low SES may more susceptible to air pollution-related adverse health effect.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Status Econômico , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Humanos , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/análise
11.
Environ Res ; 200: 111399, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34077756

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Limited evidence is known about whether long-term exposures to air borne particulate matters of 2.5 µm or less (PM2.5) impact human hematologic index for women preparing for pregnancy. No study assessed the effect of PM1, which is small enough to reach the blood circulation. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether exposure to PM1 and PM2.5 is associated with blood cell count of woman preparing for pregnancy. METHOD: Based on the baseline data of a national birth cohort in China, we analysed the white blood cell (WBC), red blood cells (RBC) and thrombocyte counts of 1,203,565 women who are aged 18-45 years, being Han ethnicity, had no chronic disease and preparing for pregnancy. We matched their home addresses and examination date with daily concentrations of PM1 and PM2.5 which were estimated by a machine learning method with remote sensing, meteorological and land use information. Generalized additive mixed model to examine the associations between exposure to one-year average exposure to PMs prior to the health examination and the blood cells counts, after adjustment for potential individual variables. RESULTS: A 10 µg/m3 PM1 increment was associated with -1.49% (95%CI: 1.56%, -1.42%) difference in WBC count; with 0.33% (95%CI: 0.30%, 0.36%) difference of RBC count; and with 1.08% (95%CI: 1.01%, 1.15%) difference of thrombocyte count. For PM2.5, the corresponding difference was -0.47% (95%CI: 0.54%, -0.39%) for WBC; was 0.06% (95%CI: 0.03%, 0.09%) for RBC; and was 1.10% (95%CI: 1.02%, 1.18%) for thrombocyte. Women working as workers, being overweight and with tobacco smoking exposure had higher associations between PMs and hematologic index than their counterparts (p < 0.05 for interaction test). CONCLUSION: Long-term exposure to PMs were associated with decrement in WBC, as well as increment in RBC and thrombocytes among Han Chinese women preparing for pregnancy. Measures such as using air purifiers and wearing a mask in polluted areas should be improved to prevent women from the impact of PMs.


Assuntos
Filtros de Ar , Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Contagem de Células Sanguíneas , China , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Material Particulado/análise , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Gravidez
12.
Environ Res ; 200: 111434, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34087194

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Urban greenness may protect against obesity, but very few studies have assessed 'street view' (SV) greenness metrics, which may better capture people's actual exposure to greenness compared to commonly-used satellite-derived metrics. We aimed to investigate these associations further in a Chinese adult study. METHODS: Our analysis included 24,845 adults in the 33 Chinese Community Health Study in 2009. SV images from Tencent Map, segmented by machine learning algorithms, were used to determine the average proportion of green vegetation in SV images at community level in 800m road network buffer. Sensitivity analyses were performed with an alternative buffer size. Overall greenness was assessed as normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) in 800 m buffer. We used predicted PM2.5 and monitored NO2 as proxies of air pollution. Body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and hip circumference (HC) were regressed on SV greenness by generalized linear mixed models, with adjustment for covariates. Mediation analyses were performed to assess the mediation effects of air pollution. RESULTS: Each interquartile range (IQR = 3.6%) increase in street view greenness was associated with a 0.15 kg/m2 (95% CI: -0.22, -0.09) decrease in BMI and 0.23 cm (95% CI: -0.35, -0.11) reduction in HC, and was associated with 7% lower odds of overweight (OR = 0.93, 95% CI:0.90, 0.96) and 18% lower odds of obesity (OR = 0.82, 95% CI:0.76, 0.89). Similar effect estimation was observed compared with commonly-used NDVI measures. PM2.5 and NO2 mediated 15.5% and 6.1% of the effects of SV greenness with BMI, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest beneficial associations between community-level SV greenness and lower body weight in Chinese adults. The effects were observed in women but not in men. Air pollution may partially mediate the association. These findings may have implications to support efforts to promote greening in urban areas.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar , Saúde Pública , Adulto , Poluição do Ar/análise , Índice de Massa Corporal , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Obesidade/epidemiologia
13.
Sci Total Environ ; 792: 148197, 2021 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34144234

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Air pollution is a potential environmental risk for sleep disturbance. However, the evidence is very limited in China. On the other hand, physical activity (PA) is a preventive behavior that can improve insomnia, but whether PA mitigates the negative impact of air pollution on insomnia is unknown. METHODS: We obtained data from the baseline of China Multi-Ethnic Cohort (CMEC) survey, and examined the association between air pollution and insomnia, as well as PA's modification effect of on this association. We included 70,668 respondents and assessed insomnia by self-reported symptoms collected using electronic questionnaires. Using satellite data, we estimated the residence-specified, three-year average PM1, PM2.5, PM10 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameters of ≤1 µm, ≤2.5 µm and 10 µm, respectively), O3 (ozone), and NO2 (nitrogen dioxide) concentrations. We established the associations between air pollutants and insomnia through logistic regression. We evaluated the modification impact of total and domain-specific PA (leisure, occupation, housework, transportation) by introducing an interaction term. RESULTS: Positive associations were observed between long-term exposure to PM1, PM2.5, PM10, and O3 and insomnia symptoms, with ORs (95% CI) of 1.09 (1.03-1.16), 1.11 (1.07-1.15), 1.07 (1.05-1.10) and 1.15 (1.11-1.20), respectively. As total PA increased, the ORs of air pollution for insomnia tended to decrease and then rise. We observed varying modification effects of domain-specific PA. With an increase in leisure PA, the ORs for PM2.5 and PM10 significantly declined. However, increased ORs of air pollutants were related to insomnia among participants with higher levels of occupational and housework PA. CONCLUSION: Long-term exposure to higher concentrations of PM1, PM2.5, PM10, and O3 increases the risk of insomnia symptoms. Moderate to high levels of leisure PA alleviate the harmful effects of air pollution on insomnia, while high levels of occupation and housework PA intensify such effects.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono , Adulto , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , China/epidemiologia , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Exercício Físico , Humanos , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/análise , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/epidemiologia
14.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 10(10): e019063, 2021 05 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33942624

RESUMO

Background Although several studies have focused on the associations between particle size and constituents and blood pressure, results have been inconsistent. Methods and Results We conducted a panel study, between December 2017 and January 2018, in 88 healthy university students in Guangzhou, China. Weekly systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure were measured for each participant for 5 consecutive weeks, resulting in a total of 440 visits. Mass concentrations of particles with an aerodynamic diameter of ≤2.5 µm (PM2.5), ≤1.0 µm (PM1.0), ≤0.5 µm (PM0.5), ≤0.2 µm (PM0.2), and number concentrations of airborne particulates of diameter ≤0.1 µm were measured. Linear mixed-effect models were used to estimate the associations between blood pressure and particles and PM2.5 constituents 0 to 48 hours before blood pressure measurement. PM of all the fractions in the 0.2- to 2.5-µm range were positively associated with systolic blood pressure in the first 24 hours, with the percent changes of effect estimates ranging from 3.5% to 8.8% for an interquartile range increment of PM. PM0.2 was also positively associated with diastolic blood pressure, with an increase of 5.9% (95% CI, 1.0%-11.0%) for an interquartile range increment (5.8 µg/m3) at lag 0 to 24 hours. For PM2.5 constituents, we found positive associations between chloride and diastolic blood pressure (1.7% [95% CI, 0.1%-3.3%]), and negative associations between vanadium and diastolic blood pressure (-1.6% [95% CI, -3.0% to -0.1%]). Conclusions Both particle size and constituent exposure are significantly associated with blood pressure in the first 24 hours following exposure in healthy Chinese adults.

15.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 28(37): 51693-51701, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33988845

RESUMO

Limited epidemiological literature identified the associations between residential greenness and hypertension in low-/middle-income countries. A random sampling strategy was adopted to recruit 39,259 residents, ≥ 18 years, and from 5 counties in central China. Blood pressure was measured based on the protocol of the American Heart Association. Hypertension was defined according to the 2010 Chinese guidelines for the management of hypertension. The satellite-derived normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and enhanced vegetation index (EVI) were applied to estimate the residential greenness. Mixed logit model and mixed linear model were utilized to explore the relationships of residential greenness with hypertension and blood pressure. Higher residential greenness was associated with lower odds of hypertension and blood pressure levels. For instance, an interquartile range (IQR) increase in NDVI500m was linked with lower odds of hypertension (OR = 0.92, 95%CI 0.88 to 0.95), a decrease of -0.88 mm Hg (95% CI -1.17 to -0.58) and -0.64 mm Hg (95% CI -0.82 to -0.46) in SBP and DBP, respectively. The effect of residential greenness was more pronounced in males, smokers, and drinkers. Long-term exposure to residential greenness was linked with lower odds of hypertension. More prospective studies are needed to verify the hypothesis.


Assuntos
Hipertensão , População Rural , Pressão Sanguínea , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Masculino
17.
Sci Total Environ ; 787: 147604, 2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33992945

RESUMO

The in-utero environmental exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) might lead to adverse birth outcomes, such as low birth weight (LBW) and preterm birth (PTB), thereby increasing susceptibility to diseases in later life. However, no studies have examined the underlying mechanism through cross-omics of lipidome and adipokines profiling, as well as the possible effect modification by maternal hyperlipidemia. In total, 203 mother-newborn pairs were recruited in the birth cohort study ongoing since February 2017 in Beijing, China. Individual-level of PM2.5 exposure was estimated using a satellite data based random forest model. Cord blood lipidome and adipokines were assessed through the lipidomic approaches and antibody-based array. Multivariable logistic/linear regression models and moderation analysis were employed in this study. We observed a significantly increased risk of PTB associated with PM2.5 exposure during the second trimester, especially in pregnant women with pre-existing hyperlipidemia. 9 lipid classes and 21 adipokines were associated with PM2.5 exposure independently or significantly influenced by the interaction of maternal PM2.5 exposure and hyperlipidemia. In addition, 4 adipokines (ANGPTL4, IGFBP-2, IL-12p40, and TNF-RII) and 3 lipid classes [phosphatidylcholines (PCs), phosphatidylinositols (PIs), and triglycerides (TGs)] were related to the increased risk of PTB, indicating that inflammation, IGF/IGFBP axis, and lipolysis induced lipid homeostasis disorder of PCs, TGs, and PIs might be the possible mediators for the PM2.5-induced adverse birth outcomes. Our results substantiated the need for reducing exposure in susceptible populations.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Hiperlipidemias , Nascimento Prematuro , Adipocinas , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Pequim/epidemiologia , China , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Hiperlipidemias/epidemiologia , Recém-Nascido , Lipidômica , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/análise , Gravidez , Gestantes , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia
18.
Environ Int ; 155: 106596, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33940391

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chlorinated polyfluorinated ether sulfonic acids (Cl-PFESAs), a group of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) alternatives, can be widely observed in humans and environmental matrices. However, associations between exposure to Cl-PFESAs and serum lipid levels in adults are unknown. OBJECTIVE: To explore the relationships between Cl-PFESA levels and serum lipid levels in adults. METHODS: We analyzed 1238 adults from the Isomers of C8 Health Project, a cross-sectional study conducted in China from July 2015 to October 2016. The average age of the participants was 61.98 ± 14.40 years. We quantified two select legacy per- and perfluoroalkyl substances [perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and PFOS] and their alternatives (6:2 and 8:2 Cl-PFESAs). We also measured four serum lipids: low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), total cholesterol (TC), and triglycerides (TG). We used generalized linear models to estimate the associations between PFASs and serum lipids, with PFASs defined as either a categorical variable divided into quartiles or as a continuous variable. RESULTS: We found that 6:2 Cl-PFESA was positively associated with serum TC and LDL-C. For instance, LDL-C levels in the highest quartile of 6:2 Cl-PFESA exposure (Q4) were significantly higher than those in the lowest quartile (Q1) [ß: 0.19, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.08, 0.30]. Further analysis showed that one ln-ng/mL increase in 6:2 Cl-PFESA exposure corresponded to a 0.10 mmol/L (95% CI: 0.05, 0.16) LDL-C increase, and that exposure to 8:2 Cl-PFESA was negatively correlated with HDL-C (ß: -0.03, 95% CI: -0.05, -0.01). TC had a similar relationship with both 6:2 Cl-PFESA and legacy PFASs. Participants with a BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2 exhibited a stronger association between 6:2 Cl-PFESA and TC. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings make the novel suggestion that exposure to Cl-PFESAs are adversely associated with serum lipid levels, and that such associations are also observed in legacy PFASs. Increased investigation into the effects of Cl-PFESAs exposure on human health is warranted.


Assuntos
Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos , Fluorcarbonetos , Adulto , Idoso , China , Estudos Transversais , Fluorcarbonetos/análise , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
19.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(5): e2110931, 2021 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34014325

RESUMO

Importance: Few studies have investigated the association between the exposure window (prenatal, early postnatal, and current period) of secondhand smoke (SHS) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and subtypes in children. Objective: To evaluate the associations of prenatal, early postnatal, or current SHS exposure with ADHD symptoms and subtypes among school-aged children. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this cross-sectional study, 48 612 children aged 6 to 18 years from elementary and middle schools in Liaoning province, China, between April 2012 and January 2013 were eligible for participation. Data on SHS exposure and ADHD symptoms and subtypes for each child were collected via questionnaires administered to parents or guardians by school teachers. Data were analyzed from September 14 to December 2, 2020. Main Outcomes and Measures: The ADHD symptoms and subtypes (inattention, hyperactivity-impulsivity, and combined) were measured based on a validated tool developed from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Fourth Edition). Generalized linear mixed models were evaluated to estimate the association of SHS exposure with ADHD symptoms and subtypes. Results: A total of 45 562 participants completed the questionnaires and were included in this study (22 905 girls [50.3%]; mean [SD] age, 11.0 [2.6] years; 2170 [4.8%] with ADHD symptoms). Compared with their unexposed counterparts, children who were ever exposed (odds ratio [OR], 1.50; 95% CI, 1.36-1.66) or always exposed to SHS (OR, 2.88; 95% CI, 2.55-3.25) from pregnancy to childhood had higher odds of having ADHD symptoms and subtypes (ORs ranged from 1.46 [95% CI, 1.31-1.62] to 2.94 [95% CI, 2.09-4.13]). Compared with their unexposed counterparts, children with SHS exposure had higher odds of having ADHD symptoms when exposed in the prenatal period (OR, 2.28; 95% CI, 2.07-2.51), early postnatal period (OR, 1.47; 95% CI, 1.29-1.68), or current period (OR, 1.20; 95% CI, 1.09-1.31). Compared with their unexposed counterparts, children whose fathers smoked 10 or more cigarettes/d on both weekdays and weekends had higher odds of having ADHD symptoms and subtypes (ORs ranged from 1.48 [95% CI, 1.28-1.70] to 2.25 [95% CI, 1.29-3.93]). Conclusions and Relevance: Being exposed to SHS from pregnancy to childhood was associated with higher odds of having ADHD symptoms and subtypes among school-aged children, and the associations were somewhat stronger for SHS exposure during prenatal and early postnatal periods. Our findings highlight the important public health implications of reducing SHS exposure, which may decrease the health and economic burdens of individuals with ADHD.

20.
Environ Int ; 153: 106548, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33838617

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evidence of maternal exposure to ambient air pollution on congenital heart defects (CHD) has been mixed and are still relatively limited in developing countries. We aimed to investigate the association between maternal exposure to air pollution and CHD in China. METHOD: This longitudinal, population-based, case-control study consecutively recruited fetuses with CHD and healthy volunteers from 21 cities, Southern China, between January 2006 and December 2016. Residential address at delivery was linked to random forests models to estimate maternal exposure to particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of ≤ 1 µm (PM1), ≤2.5 µm, and ≤10 µm as well as nitrogen dioxides, in three trimesters. The CHD cases were evaluated by obstetrician, pediatrician, or cardiologist, and confirmed by cardia ultrasound. The CHD subtypes were coded using the International Classification Diseases. Adjusted logistic regression models were used to assess the associations between air pollutants and CHD and its subtypes. RESULTS: A total of 7055 isolated CHD and 6423 controls were included in the current analysis. Maternal air pollution exposures were consistently higher among cases than those among controls. Logistic regression analyses showed that maternal exposure to all air pollutants during the first trimester was associated with an increased odds of CHD (e.g., an interquartile range [13.3 µg/m3] increase in PM1 was associated with 1.09-fold ([95% confidence interval, 1.01-1.18]) greater odds of CHD). No significant associations were observed for maternal air pollution exposures during the second trimester and the third trimester. The pattern of the associations between air pollutants and different CHD subtypes was mixed. CONCLUSIONS: Maternal exposure to greater levels of air pollutants during the pregnancy, especially the first trimester, is associated with higher odds of CHD in offspring. Further longitudinal well-designed studies are warranted to confirm our findings.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Cardiopatias Congênitas , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Cardiopatias Congênitas/epidemiologia , Cardiopatias Congênitas/etiologia , Humanos , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Dióxido de Nitrogênio , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/análise , Gravidez
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