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1.
Chemosphere ; 287(Pt 3): 132305, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34563770

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Metal exposures are suspected to associate with the risk of hyperuricemia (HUA), but the current results are still conflicting. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the associations between multiple plasma metal exposures and HUA risk. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 1406 Chinese Han adults who underwent routine physical examination in the Eighth Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-Sen University in Shenzhen. The plasma levels of 13 metals were measured by the inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Multivariable logistic, linear regression models, least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) penalized regression analysis, and restricted cubic spline (RCS) models were applied to assess the associations. RESULTS: The median plasma uric acid concentration in HUA group (434 µmol/L) was significantly higher than that in non-HUA group (305 µmol/L). The multivariate-adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) of HUA were 1.62(1.08-2.43) for magnesium, 1.61(1.05-2.47) for copper, 1.62(1.06-2.49) for zinc, 1.87(1.26-2.81) for arsenic, 1.50(1.01-2.23) for selenium, and 1.70(1.16-2.49) for thallium based on the single-metal logistic regression models, comparing the highest versus the lowest quartile of metal levels. Further multi-metal logistic, linear regression models and the LASSO analysis all indicated positive associations of zinc, arsenic with HUA risk or uric acid levels. RCS model indicated an inverted V-shaped positive association between zinc levels and HUA risk (p for non-linearity = 0.048, p for overall association = 0.022), while arsenic levels showed a positive and linear dose-response relationship with HUA risk (p for non-linearity = 0.892, p for overall association<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Higher plasma levels of zinc and arsenic might increase HUA risk and showed positive dose-response relationships. Further cohort studies in larger population are required to testify our findings.


Assuntos
Hiperuricemia , Adulto , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Hiperuricemia/epidemiologia , Metais , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ácido Úrico
2.
World J Clin Cases ; 9(26): 7772-7785, 2021 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34621827

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Several techniques of nasogastric tube (NGT) insertion have been described in the literature with different success rates. AIM: To systematically search the literature and conduct a meta-analysis comparing the success rates, insertion time and complications associated with different techniques of NGT insertion in anesthetized and intubated patients. METHODS: An electronic search of the PubMed, Scopus, CENTRAL (Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials), and Google Scholar databases were performed up to October 31, 2019. We included 17 randomized controlled trials with 2500 participants in the meta-analysis. RESULTS: As compared to the conventional method, successful insertion of the NGT on first attempt was higher with modified techniques such as the reverse Sellick's maneuver [relative risk (RR) 1.94; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.62-2.31], use of a frozen NGT (RR 1.55; 95%CI: 1.13-2.13), inserting the NGT with neck flexion and lateral neck pressure (RR 1.64; 95%CI: 1.10-2.45), endotracheal tube-assisted (RR 1.88; 95%CI: 1.52-2.32) and video-assisted placements (RR 1.60; 95%CI: 1.31-1.95). All the modified techniques also led to comparatively higher insertion success rates than the conventional technique. CONCLUSION: The use of modified techniques of NGT insertion such as the reverse Sellick's maneuver, neck flexion with lateral neck pressure, frozen NGT, endotracheal tube-guided or video-assisted methods result in a significantly better chance of successful tube insertion at first attempt as compared to the conventional technique. All modified techniques also significantly improve the overall chance of successful NGT placement as compared to the conventional method.

3.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 114(2): 462-471, 2021 08 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33963745

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dietary factors, such as consumption of preserved foods, fresh vegetables, and fruits, have been linked to the risk of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). However, little is known about associations between dietary patterns and the risk of NPC in NPC-endemic areas. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to evaluate whether dietary patterns are associated with NPC risk. METHODS: We studied 2554 newly diagnosed NPC patients aged 20-74 y living in 3 endemic regions of southern China, and 2648 population-based controls frequency-matched to case patients by age, sex, and region, between 2010 and 2014. Dietary components were derived from food frequency data in adulthood and adolescence using principal component analysis. Four dietary components were identified and highly similar in adulthood and adolescence. We used multivariable unconditional logistic regression to calculate ORs with 95% CIs for the association between dietary patterns and NPC risk. RESULTS: Compared with the lowest quartile, individuals in the highest quartile of the "plant-based factor" in adulthood had a 52% (OR: 0.48; 95% CI: 0.38, 0.59) decreased risk of NPC, and those in the highest quartile of the "animal-based factor" had a >2-fold (OR: 2.26; 95% CI: 1.85, 2.77) increased risk, with a monotonic dose-response trend (P-trend < 0.0001). Similar but weaker associations were found in adolescence. High intakes of the "preserved-food factor" were associated with increased NPC risk in both periods, although stronger associations were found in adolescence. Results from joint analysis and sensitivity analyses indicated that dietary factors in adulthood might be more stable and robust predictors of NPC risk than those in adolescence. CONCLUSIONS: Our results deliver compelling evidence that plant- and animal-based dietary factors are associated with NPC risk, and provide more insights on the associations of diets and cancer risk that may assist healthy diet recommendations.


Assuntos
Dieta/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/etiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , China/epidemiologia , Humanos , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco
4.
Cancer ; 127(15): 2724-2735, 2021 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33823062

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The potential role of occupational exposures in the development of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) remains unclear, particularly in high-incidence areas. METHODS: The authors conducted a population-based case-control study, consisting of 2514 incident NPC cases and 2586 randomly selected population controls, in southern China from 2010 to 2014. Occupational history and other covariates were self-reported using a questionnaire. Multivariate logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the risk of NPC associated with occupational exposures. Restricted cubic splines were used to evaluate potentially nonlinear duration-response relations. RESULTS: Individuals who had exposure to occupational dusts (OR, 1.45; 95% CI, 1.26-1.68), chemical vapors (OR, 1.37; 95% CI, 1.17-1.61), exhausts/smokes (OR, 1.42; 95% CI, 1.25-1.60), or acids/alkalis (OR, 1.56; 95% CI, 1.30-1.89) in the workplace had an increased NPC risk compared with those who were unexposed. Risk estimates for all 4 categories of occupational exposures appeared to linearly increase with increasing duration. Within these categories, occupational exposure to 14 subtypes of agents conferred significantly higher risks of NPC, with ORs ranging from 1.30 to 2.29, including dust from metals, textiles, cement, or coal; vapor from formaldehyde, organic solvents, or dyes; exhaust or smoke from diesel, firewood, asphalt/tar, vehicles, or welding; and sulfuric acid, hydrochloric acid, nitric acid, and concentrated alkali/ammonia. CONCLUSIONS: Occupational exposures to dusts, chemical vapors, exhausts/smokes, or acids/alkalis are associated with an excess risk of NPC. If the current results are causal, then the amelioration of workplace conditions might alleviate the burden of NPC in endemic areas. LAY SUMMARY: The role of occupational exposures in the development of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) remains unclear, particularly in high-incidence areas. The authors conducted a population-based study with 2514 incident NPC cases and 2586 population controls in southern China and observed that occupational exposures were associated with an increased risk of NPC. Duration-response trends were observed with increasing duration of exposure. These findings provide new evidence supporting an etiologic role of occupational exposures for NPC in a high-incidence region.

5.
Environ Int ; 151: 106455, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33652252

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Given the role of exposures related to residence in the development of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) has not been well explored, present study aims to investigate the magnitude and pattern of associations for NPC with lifelong residential exposures. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We carried out a multi-center, population-based case-control study with 2533 incident NPC cases and 2597 randomly selected population controls in southern China between 2010 and 2014. We performed multivariate logistic regression to estimate odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the risk of NPC associated with residential exposures. RESULTS: Compared with those living in a building over lifetime, risk of NPC was higher for individuals living in a cottage (OR: 1.56; 95% CI: 1.34-1.81) or in a boat (3.87; 2.07-7.21). NPC risk was also increased in individuals using wood (1.34; 1.03-1.75), coal (1.70; 1.17-2.47), or kerosene (3.58; 1.75-7.36) vs. using gas/electricity as cooking fuel; using well water (1.57; 1.34-1.83), river water (1.80; 1.47-2.21), or spring/pond/stream water (2.03; 1.70-2.41) vs. tap water for source of drinking water; living in houses with smaller-sized vs. larger windows in the bedroom (3.08; 2.46-3.86), hall (1.89; 1.55-2.31) or kitchen (1.67; 1.34-2.08); and increasing exposure to cooking smoke [(1.53; 1.20-1.94) for high exposure)] or burned incense [(1.59; 1.31-1.95) for daily use)]. Weighted Cox regression analysis corroborated these results. CONCLUSION: Poorer residential conditions and household air pollution are associated with an increased risk of NPC. Large-scale studies in other populations or longitudinal studies are warranted to further corroborate these findings.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas , Estudos de Casos e Controles , China/epidemiologia , Humanos , Carcinoma Nasofaríngeo/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/etiologia , Fatores de Risco
6.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 30(3): 545-553, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33303643

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The potential effect of alcohol or tea intake on the risk of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) remains controversial. METHODS: In a population-based case-control study in southern China, we assessed alcohol or tea intake from 2,441 histopathologically confirmed NPC cases and 2,546 controls. We calculated mean daily ethanol (g/day) and tea intake (mL/day). Fully adjusted ORs with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using logistic regression; potential dose-response trends were evaluated using restricted cubic spline analysis. RESULTS: Compared with nondrinkers, no significantly increased NPC risk in men was observed among current alcohol drinkers overall (OR, 1.08; 95% CI, 0.93-1.25), nor among current heavy drinkers (OR for ≥90 g/day ethanol vs. none, 1.32; 95% CI, 0.95-1.84) or former alcohol drinkers. Current tea drinking was associated with a decreased NPC risk (OR, 0.73; 95% CI, 0.64-0.84). Compared with never drinkers, those with the low first three quintiles of mean daily current intake of tea were at significantly lower NPC risk (OR, 0.53, 0.68, and 0.65, respectively), but not significant for the next two quintiles. Current daily tea intake had a significant nonlinear dose-response relation with NPC risk. CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggests no significant association between alcohol and NPC risk. Tea drinking may moderately reduce NPC risk, but the lack of a monotonic dose-response association complicates causal inference. IMPACT: Tea drinking might be a healthy habit for preventing NPC. More studies on biological mechanisms that may link tea with NPC risk are needed.

7.
Cancer ; 125(24): 4462-4470, 2019 12 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31544233

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: An association between a nonmedicinal herbal diet and nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) has often been hypothesized but never thoroughly investigated. METHODS: This study enrolled a total of 2469 patients with incident NPC and 2559 population controls from parts of Guangdong and Guangxi Provinces in southern China between 2010 and 2014. Questionnaire information was collected on the intake of traditional herbal tea and herbal soup as well as the specific herbal plants used in soups and other potentially confounding lifestyle factors. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the NPC risk in association with herbal tea and soup intake. RESULTS: Ever consumption of herbal tea was not associated with NPC risk (OR, 1.03; 95% CI, 0.91-1.17). An inverse association was observed for NPC among ever drinkers of herbal soup (OR, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.67-0.90) but without any monotonic trend with an increasing frequency or duration of herbal soup consumption. Inverse associations with NPC risk were detected with 9 herbal plants used in herbal soup, including Ziziphus jujuba, Fructus lycii, Codonopsis pilosula, Astragalus membranaceus, Semen coicis, Smilax glabra, Phaseolus calcaratus, Morinda officinalis, and Atractylodes macrocephala (OR range, 0.31-0.79). CONCLUSIONS: Consuming herbal soups including specific plants, but not herbal tea, was inversely associated with NPC. If replicated, these results might provide potential for NPC prevention in endemic areas.


Assuntos
Dieta , Carcinoma Nasofaríngeo/epidemiologia , Carcinoma Nasofaríngeo/etiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Vigilância da População , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
8.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 11(12): 4107-4124, 2019 06 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31232699

RESUMO

Mitochondria-associated oxidative stress plays a crucial role in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Grape seed proanthocyanidins (GSPs) have been reported to prevent oxidative stress. In this study, we investigated the underlying mechanisms of GSPs in protecting neurons against oxidative injury in an experimental model of sporadic AD. Primary mouse cortical neurons were subjected to streptozotocin (STZ) to mimic neuronal oxidative damage in vitro, and mice were subjected to intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection of STZ as an in vivo sporadic AD model. GSPs not only significantly ameliorated neuron loss and mitochondrial dysfunction in mouse cortical neurons pretreated of STZ, but also reduced cognitive impairments, apoptosis and mitochondrial oxidative stress in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus of sporadic AD mice. Moreover, GSPs increased phosphorylation levels of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), Akt and glycogen synthase kinase 3ß (GSK-3ß) at its Ser9. Notably, GSPs inhibited STZ-induced mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) opening via enhancing phosphorylated GSK-3ß (p-GSK-3ß) binds to adenine nucleotide translocator (ANT), thereby reducing the formation of the complex ANT-cyclophilin D (CypD). In conclusion, GSPs ameliorate neuronal oxidative damage and cognitive impairment by inhibiting GSK-3ß-dependent mPTP opening in AD. Our study provides new insights into that GSPs may be a new therapeutic candidate for treatment of AD.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/tratamento farmacológico , Glicogênio Sintase Quinase 3 beta/metabolismo , Extrato de Sementes de Uva/farmacologia , Membranas Mitocondriais/fisiologia , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Proantocianidinas/farmacologia , Doença de Alzheimer/metabolismo , Doença de Alzheimer/patologia , Animais , Córtex Cerebral/efeitos dos fármacos , Cromonas/farmacologia , Glicogênio Sintase Quinase 3 beta/genética , Hipocampo/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Infusões Intraventriculares , Camundongos , Membranas Mitocondriais/efeitos dos fármacos , Morfolinas/farmacologia , Permeabilidade , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases , Fosforilação , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt , Estreptozocina/administração & dosagem , Estreptozocina/toxicidade
9.
J Nutr ; 149(9): 1596-1605, 2019 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31127847

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chinese-style salted fish intake in early life is considered an established risk factor for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). However, results for adult intakes of salted fish and preserved foods are inconsistent. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to ascertain the relations of Chinese-style hard and soft salted fish and preserved food intakes with NPC risk. METHODS: We conducted a population-based case-control study in southern China with 2554 NPC cases identified through a rapid case ascertainment system and 2648 healthy controls, frequency-matched on age, sex, and area. Subjects (aged 20-74 y) were interviewed via a food-frequency questionnaire, including information on portion size. Data were also collected on alcohol consumption and potential confounders. Food intake was grouped into 3-5 energy-adjusted intake levels during adulthood (10 y prior) and adolescence (16-18 y). For childhood (at age 10 y), intake frequency of selected food items was collected. Multivariate-adjusted ORs with 95% CIs were estimated via logistic regression. RESULTS: We found no association between NPC and intake of hard Chinese-style salted fish during adulthood, and an increased risk at the highest level of intake during adolescence (OR: 1.19; 95% CI: 1.03, 1.39). In contrast, we found a decreased risk for the middle intake level of soft salted fish during adulthood (OR: 0.68; 95% CI: 0.57, 0.81) and adolescence (OR: 0.71; 95% CI: 0.59, 0.85). Preserved foods showed contrasting risk profiles, e.g., the highest adult intake level of salted egg (OR: 1.51; 95% CI: 1.22, 1.87) and fermented black beans (OR: 0.67; 95% CI: 0.56, 0.80). Associations with NPC were weaker than previously reported, e.g., for weekly childhood intake of salted fish (OR: 1.56; 95% CI: 1.24, 1.97). CONCLUSIONS: Hard and soft salted fish have different risk profiles. Salted fish and other preserved foods were at most weak risk factors for NPC in all periods and may play a smaller role in NPC occurrence than previously thought.


Assuntos
Produtos Pesqueiros/efeitos adversos , Alimentos em Conserva/efeitos adversos , Carcinoma Nasofaríngeo/etiologia , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/etiologia , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Risco
10.
Cancer Med ; 8(4): 1835-1844, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30793524

RESUMO

Whether the association between body size or shape and nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) risk exists or varies by age-specific body size indicators is unclear. In a population-based case-control study conducted in Southern China between 2010 and 2014, self-reported height, weight, and body shape at age 20 and 10 years before interview were collected from 2448 histopathologically confirmed NPC cases and 2534 population-based controls. Body mass index (BMI) was categorized according to the World Health Organization guidelines for Asian populations: underweight (<18.5 kg/m2 ), normal weight (18.5-22.9 kg/m2 ), overweight (23.0-27.4 kg/m2 ), and obese (≥27.5 kg/m2 ). Multivariate odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using logistic regression. Furthermore, restricted cubic spline analysis was employed to examine nonlinear effects of BMI and body shape as continuous covariates. Underweight vs normal weight at age 20 years was associated with a 22% decreased NPC risk (OR, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.67, 0.90), whereas obesity was not significantly associated with NPC risk. Associations with BMI 10 years before the interview were similar. Having the leanest body shape at age 20 years, compared with the mode was not significantly associated with NPC risk (OR, 0.85; 95% CI, 0.62, 1.16), but having a larger body shape was associated with an elevated risk (OR, 1.25; 95% CI, 1.03, 1.52). Increasing BMI revealed positive trends with NPC risk. Despite some indication of significant findings, evidence for a strong association between BMI or body shape and NPC risk is still limited.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Tamanho Corporal , Carcinoma Nasofaríngeo/etiologia , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/etiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Antropometria/métodos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Carcinoma Nasofaríngeo/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Magreza/epidemiologia
11.
Oral Oncol ; 88: 102-108, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30616779

RESUMO

OBJECTS: Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) incidence exhibits a remarkable sex disparity, with higher risk among males. Whether this pattern can be partly explained by female reproductive history is unclear. METHODS: A population-based case-control study of NPC was conducted in southern China between 2010 and 2014, including 674 histopathologically verified female NPC cases and 690 female controls randomly selected from population-based registries. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using logistic regression after adjusting for potential confounders. RESULTS: Women who had 3, 4, or ≥5 pregnancies compared with 2 pregnancies were at significantly increased risk for NPC (ORs 1.56, 1.45 and 1.88, respectively). History of deliveries was similarly associated with a greater risk of NPC. These positive associations were more prominent in women who were younger than 50 years, had less than 10 years of education, or were white-collar workers. Increasing time since menopause was associated with a diminished NPC risk (Ptrend = 0.010). Women more than 15 years after menopause had a 0.35-fold (95% CI: 0.16-0.75) NPC risk compared with those 0-3 years after menopause. CONCLUSION: Contrary to our hypothesis, a history of pregnancy or delivery increased the risk of NPC and the risk decreased with increasing time since menopause. However, the non-linear relationship and no consistent risk patterns across strata indicate that the observed associations are unlikely to be causal, and may at least partially be ascribed to residual confounding by socioeconomic factors.


Assuntos
Número de Gestações , Carcinoma Nasofaríngeo/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/epidemiologia , Paridade , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Humanos , Incidência , Modelos Logísticos , Menopausa , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Parto , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
12.
Am J Epidemiol ; 187(10): 2117-2125, 2018 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29701753

RESUMO

Because persistent inflammation may render the nasopharyngeal mucosa susceptible to carcinogenesis, chronic ear-nose-throat (ENT) disease and its treatment might influence the risk of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Existing evidence is, however, inconclusive and often based on methodologically suboptimal epidemiologic studies. In a population-based case-control study in southern China, we enrolled 2,532 persons with NPC and 2,597 controls, aged 20-74 years, from 2010 to 2014. Odds ratios were estimated for associations between NPC risk and history of ENT and related medications. Any history of chronic ENT disease was associated with a 34% increased risk of NPC. Similarly, use of nasal drops or aspirin was associated with approximately doubled risk of NPC. However, in secondary analyses restricted to chronic ENT diseases and related medication use at least 5 years prior to diagnosis/interview, most results were statistically nonsignificant, except a history of uncured ENT diseases, untreated nasal polyps, and earlier age at first diagnosis of ENT disease and first or most recent aspirin use. Overall, these findings suggest that ENT disease and related medication use are most likely early indications rather than causes of NPC, although the possibility of a modestly increased NPC risk associated with these diseases and related medications cannot be excluded.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Nasofaríngeo/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/epidemiologia , Otorrinolaringopatias/complicações , Adulto , Idoso , Aspirina/efeitos adversos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , China/epidemiologia , Doença Crônica , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa/efeitos adversos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Carcinoma Nasofaríngeo/etiologia , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/etiologia , Razão de Chances , Otorrinolaringopatias/tratamento farmacológico , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
13.
J Environ Manage ; 210: 191-200, 2018 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29353113

RESUMO

Proper management of metal-contaminated sediment plays a key role in sediment recovery and reuse. This study synthesized two kinds of stabilized nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) with starch (S-nZVI) and carboxymethyl cellulose (C-nZVI) for the in situ immobilization of Cd(II) in river sediment and investigated their transport in porous media. Experimental data showed that when the sediment sample was treated with C-nZVI for 56 days at a dosage ranging from 5 to 10 mg/g-sediment as Fe0, the TCLP (toxicity characteristic leaching procedure) leachability of Cd(II) in the sediment decreased by 93.75-96.43%, and the PBET (physiologically-based extraction test) bioaccessibility of Cd(II) decreased by 22.79-71.32%. Additionally, the acid soluble fraction of Cd(II) was partially transformed to a residual fraction, resulting in a 32.4-33.1% decrease of acid soluble Cd(II) and a 125.4-205.6% increase of the residual-Cd(II) fraction. Surface complexation with iron oxyhydroxide minerals might be the main mechanism of Cd(II) immobilization in sediment. Column experiments indicate that starch or carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) could extend the travel distance of nZVI, but inherent site physical and chemical heterogeneities still posed challenges for nanoparticle transport. Over all, this study verifies the effectiveness of stabilized nZVI for Cd(II) immobilization in sediment and discusses the potential immobilization mechanism.


Assuntos
Cádmio/química , Poluentes Ambientais/química , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Nanopartículas Metálicas , Carboximetilcelulose Sódica , Ferro , Porosidade , Rios
14.
Neurochem Res ; 43(2): 276-286, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29063347

RESUMO

Substantial evidence has shown that elevated circulating corticosteroids or chronic stress contributes to neuronal cell death, cognitive and mental disorders. However, the underlying mechanism is still unclear. Taurine is considered to protect neuronal cells from apoptotic cell death in neurodegenerative diseases and neuropsychiatric disorders. In the present study, the protective effects of taurine against corticosterone (CORT)-induced oxidative damage in SK-N-SH neuronal cells were investigated. The results showed that CORT significantly induced cell death, which was blocked by pretreatment with taurine. Similarly, pretreatment with taurine suppressed CORT-induced apoptotic cell death decreasing the levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species and improving mitochondrial function. Pretreatment with taurine increased the expression of phosphorylated extracellular regulated protein kinases (ERK) as well as the nuclear translocation of nuclear factor (erythroid 2-derived)-like 2 (Nrf2) in the CORT rich environment. Furthermore, administration of the ERK inhibitor U0126 or transient (siRNA) silencing of Nrf2 blocked the protective effects of taurine on cell viability and expression levels of Nrf2 and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in the CORT model of neuronal damage. These results suggest that the Nrf2 signaling pathway may play a role in the protection mechanism of taurine against CORT-induced neuronal oxidative damage.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Taurina/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Corticosterona/metabolismo , Corticosterona/farmacologia , Humanos , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
15.
Oncotarget ; 8(50): 87073-87085, 2017 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29152064

RESUMO

With its population of over 1.3 billion persons, China offers abundant opportunities to discover causes of disease. However, few rigorous population-based case-control studies have as yet been conducted in mainland China. We conducted a population-based case-control study of nasopharyngeal carcinoma in Guangdong Province and Guangxi Autonomous Region. We collected questionnaires and biospecimens from incident cases recruited between March 2010 and December 2013, and population-based controls between November 2010 and November 2014. Preparatory activities prior to subject enrollment required approximately 18 months. We enrolled a total of 2554 NPC cases and 2648 controls. Among all identified cases, 83.8% participated. For the participating cases, the median time between diagnosis and interview was 2 days. Among all contacted controls, 82.7% participated. From the enrolled cases, we collected 2518 blood specimens (provided by 98.6% of eligible cases), 2350 saliva specimens (92.0%), 2514 hair specimens (98.4%), and 2507 toenail/fingernail specimens (98.2%). From the enrolled controls, we collected 2416 blood specimens (91.2%), 2505 saliva specimens (94.6%), 2517 hair specimens (95.1%), and 2514 toenail/fingernail specimens (94.9%). We demonstrate that population-based epidemiologic research can successfully be conducted in southern China. The study protocols, databases, and biobank will serve as an extraordinarily valuable resource for testing future etiologic hypotheses.

16.
Am J Epidemiol ; 185(12): 1272-1280, 2017 06 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28459936

RESUMO

The magnitude and patterns of associations between smoking and risk of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) in high-incidence regions remain uncertain. Associations with active and passive tobacco smoking were estimated using multivariate logistic regression in a population-based case-control study of 2,530 NPC cases and 2,595 controls in Guangdong and Guangxi, southern China, in 2010-2014. Among men, risk of NPC was significantly higher in current smokers compared with never smokers (odds ratio (OR) = 1.32, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.14, 1.53) but not in former smokers (OR = 0.92, 95% CI: 0.73, 1.17). Risk increased with smoking intensity (per 10 cigarettes/day, OR = 1.09, 95% CI: 1.03, 1.16), smoking duration (per 10 years, OR = 1.11, 95% CI: 1.06, 1.16), and cumulative smoking (per 10 pack-years, OR = 1.08, 95% CI: 1.04, 1.12). Risk decreased with later age at smoking initiation (per year, OR = 0.97, 95% CI: 0.96, 0.98) but not greater time since smoking cessation. Exposures to passive smoking during childhood (OR = 1.24, 95% CI: 1.03, 1.48) and from a spouse during adulthood (OR = 1.30, 95% CI: 1.03, 1.63) were independently associated with increased NPC risk in never-smoking men and women, but exposure-response trends were not observed. In conclusion, active and passive tobacco smoking are associated with modestly increased risk of NPC in southern China; risk is highest among long-term smokers.


Assuntos
Carcinoma/etiologia , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/etiologia , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Idoso , Carcinoma/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Carcinoma Nasofaríngeo , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/epidemiologia , Razão de Chances , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
17.
Cancer ; 123(14): 2716-2725, 2017 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28241094

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To the authors' knowledge, no studies to date have explored familial risks of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) in detail and quantified its lifetime risk in high-incidence populations. METHODS: The authors conducted a population-based case-control study of 2499 NPC cases and 2576 controls randomly selected in southern China from 2010 through 2014. Unconditional logistic regression was used to estimate multivariable-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) associated with a family history of NPC. In addition, the authors compiled a reconstructed cohort comprising 40,781 first-degree relatives of cases and controls to calculate the lifetime cumulative risk of NPC. RESULTS: Individuals with a first-degree family history of NPC were found to be at a >4-fold risk of NPC (OR, 4.6; 95% CI, 3.5-6.1) compared with those without such a history, but had no excess risk of other malignancies. The excess risk was higher for a maternal than a paternal history and was slightly stronger for a sibling compared with a parental history, and for a sororal than a fraternal history. Among relatives of cases, the cumulative risk of NPC up to age 74 years was 3.7% (95% CI, 3.3%-4.2%), whereas that among relatives of controls was 0.9% (95% CI, 0.7%-1.2%). Cumulative risk was higher in siblings than in parents among relatives of cases, whereas no such difference was noted among relatives of controls. CONCLUSIONS: Individuals with a family history of NPC have a substantially higher risk of NPC. These relative and cumulative risk estimates can guide the development of strategies for early detection and clinical consultation in populations with a high incidence of NPC. Cancer 2017;123:2716-25. © 2017 American Cancer Society.


Assuntos
Carcinoma/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Carcinoma/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , China/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Incidência , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Anamnese , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Carcinoma Nasofaríngeo , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/genética , Razão de Chances , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Adulto Jovem
18.
Virol Sin ; 31(5): 363-379, 2016 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27822716

RESUMO

Three-dimensional (3D) culture models are physiologically relevant, as they provide reproducible results, experimental flexibility and can be adapted for high-throughput experiments. Moreover, these models bridge the gap between traditional two-dimensional (2D) monolayer cultures and animal models. 3D culture systems have significantly advanced basic cell science and tissue engineering, especially in the fields of cell biology and physiology, stem cell research, regenerative medicine, cancer research, drug discovery, and gene and protein expression studies. In addition, 3D models can provide unique insight into bacteriology, virology, parasitology and host-pathogen interactions. This review summarizes and analyzes recent progress in human virological research with 3D cell culture models. We discuss viral growth, replication, proliferation, infection, virus-host interactions and antiviral drugs in 3D culture models.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Cultura de Células/métodos , Virologia/métodos , Vírus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Técnicas de Cultura de Células/instrumentação , Humanos , Modelos Biológicos , Vírus/genética , Vírus/isolamento & purificação
19.
Redox Biol ; 10: 179-190, 2016 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27768969

RESUMO

Substantial evidence has shown that the oxidative damage to hippocampal neurons is associated with the cognitive impairment induced by adverse stimuli during gestation named prenatal stress (PS). Taurine, a conditionally essential amino acid, possesses multiple roles in the brain as a neuromodulator or antioxidant. In this study, to explore the roles of taurine in PS-induced learning and memory impairment, prenatal restraint stress was set up and Morris water maze (MWM) was employed for testing the cognitive function in the one-month-old rat offspring. The mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) level,mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), ATP and cytochrome c oxidase (CcO) activity and apoptosis-related proteins in the hippocampus were detected. The activity of the Akt-cyclic AMP response element-binding protein (CREB)-peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α (PGC1α) pathway in the hippocampus was measured. The results showed that high dosage of taurine administration in the early postnatal period attenuated impairment of spatial learning and memory induced by PS. Meanwhile, taurine administration diminished the increase in mitochondrial ROS, and recovered the reduction of MMP, ATP level and the activities of CcO, superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2) and catalase induced by PS in the hippocampus. In addition, taurine administration recovered PS-suppressed SOD2 expression level. Taurine administration blocked PS-induced decrease in the ratio of Bcl-2/Bax and increase in the ratio of cleaved caspase-3/full-length caspase-3. Notably, taurine inhibited PS-decreased phosphorylation of Akt (pAkt) and phosphorylation of CREB (pCREB), which consequently enhanced the mRNA and protein levels of PGC1α. Taken together, these results suggest that high dosage of taurine administration during the early postnatal period can significantly improve the cognitive function in prenatally stressed juvenile rats via activating the Akt-CREB-PGC1α pathway. Therefore, taurine has therapeutic potential for prenatal stressed offspring rats in future.


Assuntos
Transtornos Cognitivos/tratamento farmacológico , Proteína de Ligação ao Elemento de Resposta ao AMP Cíclico/metabolismo , Coativador 1-alfa do Receptor gama Ativado por Proliferador de Peroxissomo/metabolismo , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/tratamento farmacológico , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Estresse Psicológico/complicações , Taurina/administração & dosagem , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Transtornos Cognitivos/etiologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Aprendizagem em Labirinto/efeitos dos fármacos , Potencial da Membrana Mitocondrial/efeitos dos fármacos , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/etiologia , Ratos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Taurina/farmacologia
20.
Water Res ; 106: 15-25, 2016 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27693995

RESUMO

This paper investigated how sodium alginate (SA)-modified nanoscale zero-valent iron (NZVI), play a constructive role in the remediation of cadmium (Cd) contaminated river sediments. The changes of the fraction of Cd, enzyme activities (urease, catalase, dehydrogenase) and bacterial community structures with the treatment by SNZVI were observed. The sequential extraction experiments demonstrated that most mobile fractions of Cd were transformed into residues (the maximum residual percentage of Cd increases from 15.49% to 57.28% after 30 days of incubation at 0.1 wt% SA), with the decrease of bioavailability of Cd. Exclusive of dehydrogenase, the activities of the other two enzymes tested were enhanced with the increase of incubation time, which indicated that dehydrogenase might be inhibited by ferric ions formed from SNZVI whereas no obvious inhibition was found for other enzymes. Polymerase chain reaction denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) analyses were used for the detection of microbial community changes, and the results showed that SNZVI and NZVI could increase bacterial taxa and improve bacterial abundance. All the experimental findings of this study provide new insights into the potential consequences of SNZVI treatments on the metal Cd immobilization in contaminated river sediments.


Assuntos
Ferro/química , Rios , Cádmio , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química
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