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1.
Parasit Vectors ; 14(1): 406, 2021 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34399821

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Aedes albopictus is the primary vector of dengue fever in China. This mosquito species has a wide distribution range in China and can be found in the tropical climate zones of southern provinces through to temperate climate zones of northern provinces. Insecticides are an important control method, especially during outbreaks of dengue fever, but increasing insecticide resistance raises the risk of failure to control vector-borne diseases. Knockdown resistance (kdr) caused by point mutations in the voltage-gated sodium channel (VGSC) gene is a key mechanism that confers resistance to pyrethroids. In this study we explored the characteristics and possible evolutionary trend of kdr mutation in Ae. albopictus based on analysis of the kdr mutations in field populations of mosquitoes in China. METHODS: A total of 1549 adult Ae. albopictus were collected from 18 sites in China from 2017 to 2019 and 50 individuals from three sites in the 1990s. A fragment of approximately 350 bp from part of the S6 segment in the VGSC gene domain III was amplified and sequenced. Using TCS software version 1.21A, we constructed haplotypes of the VGSC gene network and calculated outgroup probability of the haplotypes. Data of annual average temperatures (AAT) of the collection sites were acquired from the national database. The correlation between AAT of the collection site and the kdr mutation rate was analyzed by Pearson correlation using SPSS software version 21.0. RESULTS: The overall frequency of mutant allele F1534 was 45.6%. Nine mutant alleles were detected at codon 1534 in 15 field populations, namely TCC/TCG (S) (38.9%), TTG/CTG/CTC/TTA (L) (3.7%), TGC (C) (2.9%), CGC (R) (0.3%) and TGG (W) (0.1%). Only one mutant allele, ACC (T), was found at codon 1532, with a frequency of 6.4% in ten field populations. Moreover, multiple mutations at alleles I1532 and F1534 in a sample appeared in five populations. The 1534 mutation rate was significantly positively related to AAT (Pearson correlation: r(18) = 0.624, P = 0.0056), while the 1532 mutation rate was significantly negatively related to AAT (Pearson correlation: r(18) = - 0.645, P = 0.0038). Thirteen haplotypes were inferred, in which six mutant haplotypes were formed by one step, and one additional mutation formed the other six haplotypes. In the samples from the 1990s, no mutant allele was detected at codon 1532 of the VGSC gene. However, F1534S/TCC was found in HNHK94 with an unexpected frequency of 100%. CONCLUSIONS: Kdr mutations are widespread in the field populations of Ae. albopictus in China. Two novel mutant alleles, F1534W/TGG and F1534R/CGC, were detected in this study. The 1534 kdr mutation appeared in the population of Ae. albopictus no later than the 1990s. The F1534 mutation rate was positively correlated with AAT, while the I1532 mutation rate was negatively correlated with AAT. These results indicate that iInsecticide usage should be carefully managed to slow down the spread of highly resistant Ae. albopictus populations, especially in the areas with higher AAT.


Assuntos
Aedes/genética , Proteínas de Insetos/genética , Resistência a Inseticidas/genética , Mutação , Temperatura , Canais de Sódio Disparados por Voltagem/genética , Aedes/efeitos dos fármacos , Alelos , Animais , China , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Inseticidas/farmacologia
2.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 28(39): 55140-55153, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34128171

RESUMO

Copper (Cu) is a heavy metal which is being used widely in the industry and agriculture. However, the overuse of Cu makes it a common environmental pollutant. In order to investigate the testicular toxicity of Cu, the pigs were divided into three groups and were given Cu at 10 (control), 125, and 250 mg/kg body weight, respectively. The feeding period was 80 days. Serum hormone results showed that Cu exposure decreased the concentrations of follicular stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) and increased the concentration of thyroxine (T4). Meanwhile, Cu exposure upregulated the expression of Cu transporter mRNA (Slc31a1, ATP7A, and ATP7B) in the testis, leading to increase in testicular Cu and led to spermatogenesis disorder. The Cu exposure led to an increased expression of antioxidant-related mRNA (Gpx4, TRX, HO-1, SOD1, SOD2, SOD3, CAT), along with increase in the MDA concentration in the testis. In LG group, the ROS in the testis was significantly increased. Furthermore, the apoptotic-related mRNA (Caspase3, Caspase8, Caspase9, Bax, Cytc, Bak1, APAF1, p53) and protein (Active Caspase3) and the autophagy-related mRNA (Beclin1, ATG5, LC3, and LC3B) expression increased after Cu exposure. The mitochondrial membrane potential in the testicular tissue decreased, while the number of apoptotic cells increased, as a result of oxidative stress. Overall, our study indicated that the Cu exposure promotes testicular apoptosis and autophagy by mediating oxidative stress, which is considered as the key mechanism causing testicular degeneration as well as dysfunction.


Assuntos
Cobre , Testículo , Animais , Apoptose , Autofagia , Cobre/toxicidade , Masculino , Estresse Oxidativo , Suínos
3.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 8871328, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33532499

RESUMO

Acetyl-L-carnitine (ALC) is an effective substrate for mitochondrial energy metabolism and is known to prevent neurodegeneration and attenuate heavy metal-induced injury. In this study, we investigated the function of ALC in the recovery of mouse spermatogonia cells (GC-1 cells) after heat stress (HS). The cells were randomly divided into three groups: control group, HS group (incubated at 42°C for 90 min), and HS + ALC group (treatment of 150 µM ALC after incubated at 42°C for 90 min). After heat stress, all of the cells were recovered at 37°C for 6 h. In this study, the content of intracellular lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in the cell supernatant and the malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, catalase (CAT) levels, and total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) were significantly increased in the HS group compared to the CON group. In addition, the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) was markedly decreased, while the apoptosis rate and the expression of apoptosis-related genes (Bcl-2, Bax, and caspase3) were significantly increased in the HS group compared to the CON group. Furthermore, the number of autophagosomes and the expression of autophagy-related genes (Atg5, Beclin1, and LC3II) and protein levels of p62 were increased, but the expression of LAMP1 was decreased in the HS group compared to the CON group. However, treatment with ALC remarkably improved cell survival and decreased cell oxidative stress. It was unexpected that levels of autophagy were markedly increased in the HS + ALC group compared to the HS group. Taken together, our present study evidenced that ALC could alleviate oxidative stress and improve the level of autophagy to accelerate the recovery of GC-1 cells after heat stress.


Assuntos
Acetilcarnitina/farmacologia , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Resposta ao Choque Térmico/efeitos dos fármacos , Espermatogônias/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular , Masculino , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Potencial da Membrana Mitocondrial/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Espermatogônias/citologia
4.
Chemosphere ; 272: 129572, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33485040

RESUMO

Atrazine (ATR), a bio accumulative herbicide is frequently used in agriculture to control unwanted weeds. Due to continuous application, atrazine persists in the environment and causes deleterious impacts including neurotoxicity, hepatotoxicity, and gut microbiota disorders. Therefore, this study for the first time reports the variation in the gut microbiota, induction of process of apoptosis and autophagy in mice induced by ATR. Results indicated that TUNEL-positive hepatocytes suggestive of apoptosis were increased in livers of different experimental mice. Results on metabolic analysis in liver tissues indicated an overall change in seventy-six metabolites particularly Uridine 5'-diphosphate, Propenoylcarnitine and Chinenoside V resulting in generation of energy-related metabolic disorders and imbalance of oxidation/autoxidation status. Results on gut microbiome inquisition showed that ATR changed the richness and diversity of gut microbiota of mice and number of Firmicutes. Moreover, results also revealed that ATR induced apoptosis via disruption of apoptotic (Bax, Bcl2, and Casp3) and autophagy (LC3/Map1lc3a, Beclin 1/Becn1 and P62/Sqstm1) genes. Results of our experimental study confirmed that changes in gut microbiota play a significant role in process of gut immune regulation and inflammation via different metabolites. In conclusion, the findings of our study provide a new idea for the involvement of mechanisms of detoxification in liver and inquisition of gut microbiota plays crucial role in regulation of physiological activities through liver-gut axis to mitigate toxic effects in animals.


Assuntos
Atrazina , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Herbicidas , Animais , Atrazina/toxicidade , Autofagia , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/etiologia , Camundongos
5.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 9(1): 125, 2020 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32867841

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) was one of the most important parasitic diseases in China, caused by Leishmania protozoans and transmitted by sand flies. Recently VL cases have reappeared in China, including the extension region of the Loess Plateau. The purpose of this study was to collect fundamental data on the host-vector VL system in the Loess Plateau to assist in the development of prevention and control measures. METHODS: Sand flies were collected by light traps from rural areas in Shanxian, Henan, China in 2015, as well as in Wuxiang and Yangquan, Shanxi, China in 2017. The blood sources of sand flies were analyzed by PCR detecting the host-specific mitochondrial cytochrome b (mtDNA cyt b) gene fragments. Leishmania infection in sand flies was detected by amplifying and sequencing ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1). The Leishmania specific antibodies in the sera of local dogs were detected by ELISA kit. RESULTS: Blood sources showed diversity in the extension region of the Loess Plateau, including human, chicken, dog, cattle, pig and goat. Multiple blood sources within a sand fly were observed in samples from Yangquan (17/118, 14.4%) and Wuxiang (12/108, 11.1%). Leishmania DNA was detected in sand flies collected from Yangquan with minimum infection rate of 1.00%. The ITS1 sequences were conserved with the Leishmania donovani complex. The positive rate of Leishmania specific antibodies in dogs was 5.97%. CONCLUSIONS: This study detected the blood sources and Leishmania parasites infection of sand flies by molecular methods in the extension region of Loess Plateau, China. A high epidemic risk of leishmaniasis is currently indicated by the results as the infection of Leishmania in sand flies, the extensive blood sources of sand flies including humans, and positive antibody of Leishmania in local dog sera. Given the recent increase of VL cases, asymptomatic patients, dogs and other potential infected animals should be screened and treated. Furthermore, the density of sand flies needs to be controlled and personal protection should be strengthened.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Leishmania donovani/isolamento & purificação , Leishmaniose Visceral/diagnóstico , Psychodidae/parasitologia , Animais , Bovinos , Galinhas/sangue , China , Citocromos b/genética , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Cães , Feminino , Cabras/sangue , Humanos , Insetos Vetores/parasitologia , Leishmania donovani/genética , Leishmania donovani/imunologia , Leishmaniose Visceral/sangue , Leishmaniose Visceral/imunologia , Masculino , Psychodidae/imunologia , Especificidade da Espécie , Suínos/sangue
6.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 12(33): 36996-37005, 2020 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32697566

RESUMO

Encapsulating nanoparticles/biomolecules into metal-organic freamworks (MOFs) has proven to be highly effective in creating new functions during their applications. However, it is highly desirable yet remains challenging to achieve the synergy of specific functions between the MOF host and guest species. Herein, inspired by the natural multienzyme system, a novel MOF composite biomimetic structure based on the coencapsulation of glucose oxidase (GOx) and l-arginine (l-Arg) into Cu-MOFs (CuBDC) with Fenton-like catalytic activity is designed for achieving the synergistic antibacterial effect. Once activated by GOx-catalyzed glucose oxidation, a large amount of oxygen radicals, toxic ONOO-, and NO are rapidly produced over this well-designed l-Arg/GOx@CuBDC through a double-cascade reaction. Thanks to the synergy of highly reactive species, outstanding antibacterial effects (bacterial inactivation ≥97%) are observed at very low doses (38 µg mL-1 for Escherichia coli and 3.8 µg mL-1 for Staphylococcus aureus). In addition, the in vivo experiment in mice demonstrated that the as-prepared l-Arg/GOx@CuBDC has good biocompatibility, indicating its good potential in practical applications. Such a biomimetic multienzyme system proposes a new design idea for highly efficient antibiosis as well as even therapy for tumors.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/química , Arginina/química , Materiais Biomiméticos/química , Portadores de Fármacos/química , Glucose Oxidase/química , Estruturas Metalorgânicas/química , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Catálise , Contenção de Riscos Biológicos , Liberação Controlada de Fármacos , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Glucose Oxidase/farmacologia , Humanos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/química , Estruturas Metalorgânicas/farmacologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Óxidos de Nitrogênio/química , Óxidos de Nitrogênio/farmacologia , Compostos Organometálicos/química , Oxirredução , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/química , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/farmacologia , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos
7.
Chemosphere ; 256: 126974, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32470726

RESUMO

Copper is a widespread heavy metal in environment and has toxic effects when exposed. However, study of copper-induced male reproductive toxicity is still insufficient to report, and the underlying mechanisms are unknown. Keeping in view, RNA-Seq and metabolomic were performed to identify metabolic pathways that were distressed in mouse spermatogonia with the effect of copper sulfate, and the integrated analysis of the mechanism of copper administered GC-1 cells from metabolomic and transcriptomic data. Our results demonstrated that many genes and metabolites were regulated in the copper sulfate-treated cells. The differential metabolites analysis showed that 49 and 127 metabolites were significantly different in ESI+ and ESI- mode, respectively. Meanwhile, a total of 2813 genes were up-regulated and 2488 genes were down-regulated in the treatment groups compared to those in the control groups. Interestingly, ophthalmic acid and gamma glutamylleucine were markedly increased by copper treatment in two modes. By integrating with transcriptomic and metabolomic data, we revealed that 37 and 22 most related pathways were over-enriched in ESI+ and ESI- mode, respectively. Whereas, amino acid biosynthesis and metabolism play essential role in the potential relationship between DEGs and metabolites, which suggests that amino acid biosynthesis and metabolism may be the major metabolic pathways disturbed by copper in GC-1 cells. This study provides important clues and evidence for understanding the mechanisms responsible for copper-induced male spermatogenesis toxicity, and useful biomarkers indicative of copper exposure could be discovered from present study.


Assuntos
Cobre/toxicidade , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Espermatogônias/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Sulfato de Cobre/farmacologia , Regulação para Baixo/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Redes e Vias Metabólicas , Metabolômica , Camundongos , Transcriptoma/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação para Cima/efeitos dos fármacos
8.
Nanoscale ; 12(4): 2603-2612, 2020 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31939951

RESUMO

The selective hydrogenation of phenolics to cyclohexanones is an important process in both industrial application and utilization of fossil and renewable feedstocks. However this process remains a challenge in achieving high conversion of phenolics and high selectivity of ketones under mild reaction conditions. In this work, TiO2 nanowires (TNWs) are successfully synthesized by using an integrated method and the ultra-small Pd clusters were then deposited onto the TNWs by photoreduction. The obtained Pd/TNW catalyst shows superior catalytic performances in the hydrogenation of phenolic derivatives to the corresponding cyclohexanones. In particular, a nearly full conversion of phenol with high selectivity (>99.0%) to cyclohexanone can be achieved at 50 °C and 5.0 bar H2 in water. A series of characterization studies by means of XRD, XPS, EPR, FTIR, TPD, STEM, and kinetic studies indicate that abundant exposed Lewis acid and basic sites on the surface of TNWs play important roles in the activation of phenolics and desorption of cyclohexanones, while the Pd clusters by photodeposition can attain a hybrid of Pd0 and Pd2+ species to facilitate the activation of dihydrogenation. A plausible catalytic pathway with synergistic effects of TNWs and Pd species is then proposed.

9.
Biol Trace Elem Res ; 195(2): 472-480, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31444770

RESUMO

Chronic copper exposure impaired spermatogenesis in adult male mice. The aim of this study was to determine whether chronic copper exposure can induce apoptosis of testicular cell and hypospermatogenesis via disturbing testosterone synthesis in adult male mice. In the present study, sixty CD-1 male mice were randomly divided into four groups, and were continuously administered for 8 weeks by oral gavage with copper sulfate at a dose of 0, 25, 100, and 150 mg/kg/day, respectively. We determined the content of serum and testicular copper, testicular coefficient, testicular histopathology, sperm count and motility, the mRNA and protein levels of Caspase-3, Bax, and Bcl-2, Leydig cell count, testosterone content, testosterone synthetase, and testosterone synthesis-related genes. The results showed that the copper levels in serum increased in a dose-dependent manner, and the copper levels in testes were significantly related to serum copper levels. Male mice given copper sulfate 100 and 150 dosage groups showed significant decreased in sperm motility and sperm number as well as increased in testes damage, and there was no significant change in testicular coefficient in the four groups. The mRNA levels of Bcl-2 decreased and Caspase-3 increased in 150 dosage group, and Bax increased in two higher dosage groups. Meanwhile, Caspase-3 and Bax proteins increased in 150 dosage group, and Bcl-2 protein decreased in three copper treatment groups. Nevertheless, there were no differences on the levels of testosterone content and testosterone synthetase of 3ß-HSD, 17ß-HSD, 17α-Hyd, and 20α-Hyd, mRNA levels of Cyp11a1, Cyp17a1, and Star, and quantity of Leydig cells in four groups. Overall, these data showed that chronic copper exposure led to copper residues in the testes, and the doses of 100 and 150 mg/kg/day copper sulfate may induce hypospermatogenesis by increasing apoptosis without affecting testosterone secretion.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Sulfato de Cobre/farmacologia , Espermatogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Testículo/efeitos dos fármacos , Testosterona/metabolismo , Administração Oral , Animais , Sulfato de Cobre/administração & dosagem , Sulfato de Cobre/análise , Masculino , Camundongos , Testículo/metabolismo , Testículo/patologia , Testosterona/sangue
10.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 190: 110063, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31846860

RESUMO

Arsenic is a toxic metalloid that can cause male reproductive malfunctions and is widely distributed in the environment. The aim of this study was to investigate the cytotoxicity of arsenic trioxide (ATO) induced GC-1 spermatogonial (spg) cells. Our results found that ATO increased the levels of catalase (CAT) and malonaldehyde (MDA) and reactive oxygen species (ROS), while decreasing glutathione (GSH) and the total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC). Therefore, ATO triggered oxidative stress in GC-1 spg cells. In addition, ATO also caused severe mitochondrial dysfunction that included an increase in residual oxygen consumption (ROX), and decreased the routine respiration, maximal and ATP-linked respiration (ATP-L-R), as well as spare respiratory capacity (SRC), and respiratory control rate (RCR); ATO also damaged the mitochondrial structure, including mitochondrial cristae disordered and dissolved, mitochondrial vacuolar degeneration. Moreover, degradation of p62, LC3 conversion, increasing the number of acidic vesicle organelles (AVOs) and autophagosomes and autolysosomes are demonstrated that the cytotoxicity of ATO may be associated with autophagy. Meanwhile, the metabolomics analysis results showed that 20 metabolites (10 increased and 10 decreased) were significantly altered with the ATO exposure, suggesting that maybe there are the perturbations in amino acid metabolism, lipid metabolism, glycan biosynthesis and metabolism, metabolism of cofactors and vitamins. We concluded that ATO was toxic to GC-1 spg cells via inducing oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction and autophagy as well as the disruption of normal metabolism. This study will aid our understanding of the mechanisms behind ATO-induced spermatogenic toxicity.


Assuntos
Trióxido de Arsênio/toxicidade , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Espermatogônias/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Glutationa/metabolismo , Lisossomos/metabolismo , Masculino , Metabolômica , Camundongos , Mitocôndrias/ultraestrutura , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Espermatogônias/enzimologia , Espermatogônias/metabolismo
11.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 8(1): 91, 2019 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31647031

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Species of the Anopheles hyrcanus group are widely distributed in Palearctic and Oriental regions and some of them are important malaria vectors. The cryptic species of An. hyrcanus group was almost impossible to identify based only on their morphology. The phylogenetic relationship of An. hyrcanus group was also not clear. METHODS: Five members of An. hyrcanus group were identified by rDNA ITS2 sequencing as An. yatsushiroensis, An. belenrae, An. kleini, An. lesteri and An. sineroides. The mitochondrial genome fragments were sequenced and annotated using the mitochondrial genome of An. sinensis as reference. Based on the four segments and Joint Data sequences of these species, and other four anopheline species downloaded from GenBank, intraspecific as well as interspecific genetic distances were calculated and the phylogenetic trees were reconstructed by the methods of neighbor joining, maximum parsimony, minimum evolution and maximum likelihood. FINDINGS: Four parts of mitochondrial genomes, which were partial fragments COI + tRNA + COII (F5), ATP6 + COIII(F7 + F8), ND1(F19) and lrRNA (F21), were obtained. All fragments were connected as one sequence (referred as Joint Data), which had a total length of 3393 bp. All fragment sequences were highly conservative within species, with the maximum p distance (0.026) calculated by F19 of An. belenrae. The pairwise interspecific p distance calculated by each fragment showed minor or even no difference among An. sinensis, An. kleini and An. belenrae. However, interspecific p distances calculated by the Joint Data sequence ranged from 0.004 (An. belenrae vs An. kleini) to 0.089 (An. sineroides vs An. minimus), and the p distances of the six members of An. hyrcanus group were all less than 0.029. The phylogenetic tree showed two major clades: all subgenus Anopheles species (including six members of An. hyrcanus group, An. atroparvus and An. quadrimaculatus A) and subgenus Cellia (including An. dirus and An. minimus). The An. hyrcanus group was divided into two clusters as ((An. lesteri, An. sineroides) An. yatsushiroensis) and ((An. belenrae, An. sinensis) An. kleini)). CONCLUSIONS: The An. hyrcanus group in this study could be divided into two clusters, in one of which An. belenrae, An. sinensis and An. kleini were most closely related. More molecular markers would make greater contribution to phylogenetic analysis.


Assuntos
Anopheles/classificação , Genoma Mitocondrial , Mosquitos Vetores/classificação , Filogenia , Animais , Anopheles/genética , China , Mosquitos Vetores/genética
12.
Toxicol In Vitro ; 61: 104639, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31491480

RESUMO

Excess copper reduces sperm number and motility but the causes are unclear. We investigated the toxic effects of copper exposure on the immortalized male germ cell line GC-1. Copper addition to cells altered viability and morphology in a dose-dependent manner. Copper addition resulted in increased levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), malonaldehyde (MDA) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) while catalase (CAT) activity and glutathione (GSH) declined. The mitochondrial transmembrane potential and ATP levels decreased in response to copper as did mitochondria fission that led to mitochondrial dysfunction. The apoptosis rate was also proportional to the level of copper in the growth medium. Copper also down-regulated Bcl2 and up-regulated Bax, Casp8 and Casp3 linking the effects of copper to increased apoptosis. The levels of mRNA for the autophagy-related genes (Atg3, Atg5, p62, Lc3b/Lc3a) and proteins (Lc3b/Lc3a, BECN1, Atg5, p62) all increased in copper-treated cells as were levels Lc3 determined by fluorescence microscopy. These results indicated that copper induces apoptosis and autophagy through oxidative stress-mediated mitochondrial dysfunction.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Cobre/toxicidade , Células Germinativas/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose/genética , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular , Células Germinativas/metabolismo , Células Germinativas/fisiologia , Masculino , Potencial da Membrana Mitocondrial/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/fisiologia , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
13.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 7(1): 86, 2018 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30176907

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Arboviral disease transmitted by Aedes albopictus such as dengue fever is an important threat to human health. Pyrethroid resistance raises a great challenge for mosquito control. A systematic assessment of Ae. albopictus resistance status in China is urgently needed, and the study of correlation between pyrethroid resistance and knockdown resistance (kdr) mutations would provide information to guide the control of the Ae. albopictus vector. METHODS: Five field populations of Ae. albopictus were collected from Jinan (JN), Hangzhou (HZ), Baoshan (BS), Yangpu (YP) and Haikou (HK), China in 2017. Insecticide-impregnated papers were prepared with four pyrethroid chemicals, deltamethrin, permethrin, beta-cypermethrin and lambda-cyhalothrin. The susceptibility of Ae. albopictus to pyrethroids was tested by the WHO tube assay. Kdr mutations were identified by PCR and sequencing. Moreover, the correlation analysis between kdr alleles and pyrethroid resistance was performed. RESULTS: All five populations of Ae. albopictus showed resistance to four pyrethroid insecticides. One kdr mutant allele at codon 1532 and three at 1534 were detected with frequency of 5.33% (I1532T), 44.20% (F1534S), 1.83% (F1534 L) and 0.87% (F1534C), respectively. Both 1532 and 1534 mutation mosquitoes were found in the BS and YP populations. Allele I1532T was negatively correlated with deltamethrin resistance phenotype (OR < 1), while F1534S mutation was positively correlated with deltamethrin and permethrin resistance (OR > 1). CONCLUSIONS: The five field populations of Ae. albopictus adults were all resistant to deltamethrin, permethrin, beta-cypermethrin and lambda-cyhalothrin. Mutant F1534S was clearly associated with pyrethroid resistance phenotype in Ae. albopictus and this could be developed as a molecular marker to monitor the pyrethroid resistance problem in China.


Assuntos
Aedes/efeitos dos fármacos , Aedes/genética , Proteínas de Insetos/genética , Resistência a Inseticidas , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Mosquitos Vetores/genética , Piretrinas/farmacologia , Aedes/metabolismo , Animais , China , Feminino , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Proteínas de Insetos/metabolismo , Masculino , Controle de Mosquitos , Mosquitos Vetores/efeitos dos fármacos , Mosquitos Vetores/metabolismo , Mutação
14.
Sci Rep ; 7(1): 10169, 2017 08 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28860632

RESUMO

In this paper, the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) is employed to simulate wave propagation in viscous media. LBM is a kind of microscopic method for modelling waves through tracking the evolution states of a large number of discrete particles. By choosing different relaxation times in LBM experiments and using spectrum ratio method, we can reveal the relationship between the quality factor Q and the parameter τ in LBM. A two-dimensional (2D) homogeneous model and a two-layered model are tested in the numerical experiments, and the LBM results are compared against the reference solution of the viscoacoustic equations based on the Kelvin-Voigt model calculated by finite difference method (FDM). The wavefields and amplitude spectra obtained by LBM coincide with those by FDM, which demonstrates the capability of the LBM with one relaxation time. The new scheme is relatively simple and efficient to implement compared with the traditional lattice methods. In addition, through a mass of experiments, we find that the relaxation time of LBM has a quantitative relationship with Q. Such a novel scheme offers an alternative forward modelling kernel for seismic inversion and a new model to describe the underground media.

15.
Eur J Appl Physiol ; 112(6): 2205-12, 2012 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21989519

RESUMO

The frequent use of the computer mouse was reported to be associated with the development of the musculoskeletal disorders in the wrist, forearm, and shoulder regions. This study was to examine the effect of the mouse weights and operation speeds on the wrist motion and muscle activity. 25 subjects (20 males and 5 females) were instructed to repetitively point-and-click the mouse between two targets displaced in the monitor with five different weighted mice (weights around 70, 100, 130, 160, and 190 g) at the fast (50 repetition/min) and slow (25 repetition/min) operation speeds. Surface electromyographic activity of the extensor carpi radialis, extensor carpi ulnaris, extensor digitorum, and upper trapezius muscles were recorded, and the electrogoniometer was used to register the wrist motions. The results showed that the maximal ulnar deviation was not significantly different among the examined conditions. The wrist movement range and the forearm muscle activities showed a V-shape tendency with the lowest value in the mouse weight of 130 g. This tendency was diminished during the slow speed tasks. The results suggested that the proper mouse weight could benefit the users in terms of increasing the movement efficiency and decreasing the muscular costs.


Assuntos
Periféricos de Computador , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Articulação do Punho/fisiologia , Punho/fisiologia , Adulto , Computadores , Eletromiografia/métodos , Feminino , Antebraço/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Movimento (Física) , Doenças Musculoesqueléticas/etiologia , Ombro/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
16.
Injury ; 42(7): 638-42, 2011 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20709317

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (Akt) is known to be an endogenous negative feedback or compensatory mechanism that serves to limit pro-inflammatory and chemotactic events in response to injury. The aim of this study is to elucidate whether Akt plays any role in 17ß-estradiol (E2)-mediated attenuation of lung injury after acute pancreatitis (AP). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent cerulein-induced AP. Rats were treated with vehicle (cyclodextrin), E2 (1 mg/kg body weight [BW]), or E2 plus PI3K/Akt inhibitor Wortmannin (100 µg/kg BW) 1h after the onset of AP. At 8 h after sham operation or AP, various parameters were measured. RESULTS: AP led to a significant decrease in lung Akt phosphorylation, which was associated with increased lung tissue myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, wet-to-dry weight ratios, interleukin (IL)-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant (CINC)-1, and CINC-3 levels. Administration of E2 after AP restored the AP-induced decrease in Akt phosphorylation and attenuated the increase in lung injury markers (MPO activity and wet-to dry weight ratios) and pro-inflammatory mediator production. The effects of E2 on the lung were abolished by co-administration of Wortmannin. CONCLUSIONS: These results collectively suggest evidences that the Akt pathway seems to be required for E2-mediated protection of lung injury after AP.


Assuntos
Estradiol/farmacologia , Lesão Pulmonar/metabolismo , Pancreatite/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Androstadienos/farmacologia , Animais , Western Blotting , Ceruletídeo , Quimiocina CXCL1/metabolismo , Quimiocina CXCL2/metabolismo , Ciclodextrinas/farmacologia , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Lesão Pulmonar/induzido quimicamente , Lesão Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Pancreatite/induzido quimicamente , Pancreatite/tratamento farmacológico , Peroxidase/metabolismo , Fosforilação , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/antagonistas & inibidores , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo , Wortmanina
17.
Surg Laparosc Endosc Percutan Tech ; 19(4): 317-20, 2009 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19692880

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Several reports have shown that laparoscopic ultrasound (LUS) examination of the bile duct is promising and suggest it as a primary method for bile duct imaging during laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC). This study was designed to evaluate the feasibility of LUS during LC, and the occurrence rate of common bile duct (CBD) stones during LC. MATERIALS AND METHODS: One hundred and fifteen consecutive patients with gallstones were enrolled into this study. LUS was used to assess the CBD routinely during LC, which was successfully performed in 112 cases. Choledocholithiasis was rated before LC as being of low, intermediate, or high probability on the basis of clinical, laboratory, and/or imaging findings (Cotton criteria). Duct calculi were defined as echogenic material within the CBD, which cast discrete acoustic shadows. Sludge was defined as mobile or floating low-amplitude echogenic material without discrete acoustic shadowing. RESULTS: The CBD could be evaluated in 112 of 115 LC (97.4%) patients (72 females and 40 males). The mean age was 54+/-16 years old. The occurrence rate of CBD stones in the low-risk group was 7%, that in the intermediate group was 36.4%, and the high-risk group was 78.9%. The overall incidence of CBD stones was 25.0%. CONCLUSIONS: With increasing experience, LUS can become the routine method for evaluating the bile duct during LC. A more aggressive preoperative evaluation of CBD is mandated in the intermediate and high-risk groups of patients suspected of having CBD stones.


Assuntos
Colecistectomia Laparoscópica/métodos , Ducto Colédoco/diagnóstico por imagem , Endossonografia , Cálculos Biliares/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
18.
Dig Surg ; 25(5): 369-75, 2008.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19005255

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIMS: We report a study in patients with mucinous and non-mucinous appendiceal adenocarcinoma treated surgically whose records were examined to elucidate their clinicopathologic features and prognostic factors for survival. METHODS: The medical records of 34 patients with mucinous and non-mucinous appendiceal adenocarcinoma (1991-2005) were retrospectively reviewed. RESULTS: There was no significant difference between mucinous and non-mucinous tumors in patient demographics, clinicopathologic features, type of operation and outcome. Non-mucinous tumors had a higher incidence of leukocytosis than mucinous ones. The overall 5-year survival rate for 34 patients with appendiceal adenocarcinoma was 35.8%. In the univariate analysis, predictors of survival were the type of operation, resectability, carcinomatosis and tumor stage. Tumor stage significantly influenced patient survival in the multivariate analysis. CONCLUSION: Mucinous appendiceal adenocarcinoma had clinicopathologic characteristics and a prognosis similar to non-mucinous, except that there was more leukocytosis in non-mucinous tumors. Tumor stage is an independent predictor for survival among patients with appendiceal adenocarcinoma.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma Mucinoso/patologia , Neoplasias do Apêndice/patologia , Adenocarcinoma/patologia , Adenocarcinoma Mucinoso/diagnóstico , Adenocarcinoma Mucinoso/tratamento farmacológico , Adenocarcinoma Mucinoso/mortalidade , Adenocarcinoma Mucinoso/cirurgia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Análise de Variância , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Apendicectomia/métodos , Neoplasias do Apêndice/diagnóstico , Neoplasias do Apêndice/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias do Apêndice/mortalidade , Neoplasias do Apêndice/cirurgia , Biópsia , Quimioterapia Adjuvante , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Registros Médicos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Cuidados Pós-Operatórios , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Análise de Sobrevida
19.
World J Surg Oncol ; 6: 95, 2008 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18764955

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pancreatic adenosquamous carcinoma (ASC) is a rare pancreatic malignancy subtype. We investigated the clinicopathological features and outcome of pancreatic ASC patients after surgery. METHODS: The medical records of 12 patients with pancreatic ASC undergoing surgical treatment (1993 to 2006) were retrospectively reviewed. Survival data of patients with stage IIB pancreatic adenocarcinoma and ASC undergoing surgical resection were compared. RESULTS: Symptoms included abdominal pain (91.7%), body weight loss (83.3%), anorexia (41.7%) and jaundice (25.0%). Tumors were located at pancreatic head in 5 (41.7%) patients, tail in 5 (41.7%), and body in 4 (33.3%). Median tumor size was 6.3 cm. Surgical resection was performed on 7 patients, bypass surgery on 3, and exploratory laparotomy with biopsy on 2. No surgical mortality was identified. Seven (58.3%) and 11 (91.7%) patients died within 6 and 12 months of operation, respectively. Median survival of 12 patients was 4.41 months. Seven patients receiving surgical resection had median survival of 6.51 months. Patients with stage IIB pancreatic ASC had shorter median survival compared to those with adenocarcinoma. CONCLUSION: Aggressive surgical management does not appear effective in treating pancreatic ASC patients. Strategies involving non-surgical treatment such as chemotherapy, radiotherapy or target agents should be tested.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/patologia , Adenocarcinoma/cirurgia , Carcinoma Adenoescamoso/patologia , Carcinoma Adenoescamoso/cirurgia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/cirurgia , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pancreatectomia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Análise de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
Chang Gung Med J ; 31(1): 107-11, 2008.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18419060

RESUMO

Gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) is an uncommon malignant tumor that has recently been drawn to the attention of clinicians because of the protean clinical spectrum, endocrinological pathogenesis, aggressive metastatic features, poor prognosis, oncogenic tyrosine kinase receptor mutation and its brilliant revolutionized inhibitor imatinib. However, very few cases of GIST and hypoglycemia have been reported worldwide and they are usually associated with normal or low insulin levels. Here, we report on a rare case of GIST with postabsorptive hypoglycemia, extraordinary hyperinsulinemia and low insulinlike growth factor I (IGF-I). Its unusual neurological presentation made its diagnosis very difficult. After a complete resection, the symptoms diminished. We point out the unusual endogenous hyperinsulinism, clinical features and postulate possible mechanisms.


Assuntos
Tumores do Estroma Gastrointestinal/complicações , Hiperinsulinismo/etiologia , Hipoglicemia/etiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Humanos , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/análise , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like II/análise , Masculino
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