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1.
Chemosphere ; 287(Pt 1): 132120, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34523462

RESUMO

Water environmental pollution caused by spent batteries is a nonignorable environmental issue. In this study, the early life stage of zebrafish was employed to assess the environmental risk of spent batteries after exposure to 0, 1%, 2%, 5% and 10% spent battery extract for 120 h. Our results clearly indicated that spent battery extract can significantly decrease the survival rate, hatching rate and body length and increase heart rate. Moreover, spent battery extract exposure-induced zebrafish larvae generate oxidative stress and inhibit the mRNA transcriptional levels of heat shock protein (HSP70) and metallothionein (MT) genes. These results showed that the spent batteries not only affected the survival and development performance of zebrafish at an early life stage but also caused oxidative stress and interfered with the detoxification of zebrafish. This study provided novel insight into spent battery induced toxicity in the early life stage of fish.


Assuntos
Poluentes Químicos da Água , Peixe-Zebra , Animais , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Embrião não Mamífero/metabolismo , Larva , Estresse Oxidativo , Extratos Vegetais , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
2.
PLoS Genet ; 17(2): e1009312, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33561165

RESUMO

Wing polymorphism is an evolutionary feature found in a wide variety of insects, which offers a model system for studying the evolutionary significance of dispersal. In the wing-dimorphic planthopper Nilaparvata lugens, the insulin/insulin-like growth factor signaling (IIS) pathway acts as a 'master signal' that directs the development of either long-winged (LW) or short-winged (SW) morphs via regulation of the activity of Forkhead transcription factor subgroup O (NlFoxO). However, downstream effectors of the IIS-FoxO signaling cascade that mediate alternative wing morphs are unclear. Here we found that vestigial (Nlvg), a key wing-patterning gene, is selectively and temporally regulated by the IIS-FoxO signaling cascade during the wing-morph decision stage (fifth-instar stage). RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated silencing of Nlfoxo increase Nlvg expression in the fifth-instar stage (the last nymphal stage), thereby inducing LW development. Conversely, silencing of Nlvg can antagonize the effects of IIS activity on LW development, redirecting wing commitment from LW to the morph with intermediate wing size. In vitro and in vivo binding assays indicated that NlFoxO protein may suppress Nlvg expression by directly binding to the first intron region of the Nlvg locus. Our findings provide a first glimpse of the link connecting the IIS pathway to the wing-patterning network on the developmental plasticity of wings in insects, and help us understanding how phenotypic diversity is generated by the modification of a common set of pattern elements.


Assuntos
Proteína Forkhead Box O1/metabolismo , Hemípteros/metabolismo , Proteínas de Insetos/metabolismo , Somatomedinas/metabolismo , Asas de Animais/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Proteína Forkhead Box O1/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento/genética , Técnicas de Inativação de Genes , Ontologia Genética , Inativação Gênica , Hemípteros/genética , Hemípteros/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Proteínas de Insetos/genética , Íntrons , Fenótipo , Ligação Proteica , Interferência de RNA , Somatomedinas/genética , Análise Espaço-Temporal , Asas de Animais/metabolismo
3.
Front Genet ; 11: 585320, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33240330

RESUMO

Nuclear factor Y (NF-Y) is a heterotrimeric transcription factor with the ability to bind to a CCAAT box in nearly all eukaryotes. However, the function of NF-Y in the life-history traits of insects is unclear. Here, we identified three NF-Y subunits, NlNF-YA, NlNF-YB, and NlNF-YC, in the wing-dimorphic brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens. Spatio-temporal analysis indicated that NlNF-YA, NlNF-YB, and NlNF-YC distributed extensively in various body parts of fourth-instar nymphs, and were highly expressed at the egg stage. RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated silencing showed that knockdown of NlNF-YA, NlNF-YB, or NlNF-YC in third-instar nymphs significantly extended the fifth-instar duration, and decreased nymph-adult molting rate. The addition of 20-hydroxyecdysone could specifically rescue the defect in adult molting caused by NlNF-YA RNAi, indicating that NlNF-Y might modulate the ecdysone signaling pathway in the BPH. In addition, NlNF-YA RNAi, NlNF-YB RNAi, or NlNF-YC RNAi led to small and moderately malformed forewings and hindwings, and impaired the normal assembly of indirect flight muscles. Adult BPHs treated with NlNF-YA RNAi, NlNF-YB RNAi, or NlNF-YC RNAi produced fewer eggs, and eggs laid by these BPHs had arrested embryogenesis. These findings deepen our understanding of NF-Y function in hemipteran insects.

4.
Biomed Res Int ; 2020: 7650354, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32337276

RESUMO

Transplantation of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (hUC-MSCs) into spinal cord injury (SCI) may alleviate neuropathic pain and promote functional recovery. The underlying mechanism likely involves activation of glial cells and regulation of inflammatory factors but requires further validation. SCI was induced in 16 ICR mice using an SCI compression model, followed by injection of lentiviral vector-mediated green fluorescent protein- (GFP-) labeled hUC-MSCs 1 week later. Behavioral tests, histological evaluation, and inflammatory factor detection were performed in the treatment (SCI+hUC-MSCs) and model (SCI) groups. Histological evaluation revealed GFP expression in the spinal cord tissue of the treatment group, implying that the injected MSCs successfully migrated to the SCI. The Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan (BBB) scores showed that motor function gradually recovered over time in both groups, but recovery speed was significantly higher in the treatment group than in the model group. The pain threshold in mice decreased after SCI but gradually increased over time owing to the self-repair function of the body. The corresponding pain threshold of the treatment group was significantly higher than that of the model group, indicating the therapeutic and analgesic effects of hUC-MSCs. Expression of IL-6 and TNF-α in the spinal cord tissue of the treated group decreased, whereas glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) expression along with ED1 expression increased compared with those in the model group, suggesting that SCI activated ED1 inflammatory macrophages/microglia, which were subsequently reduced by hUC-MSC transplantation. hUC-MSCs are speculated to enhance the repair of the injured spinal cord tissue and exert an analgesic effect by reducing the secretion of inflammatory factors IL-6 and TNF-α and upregulating the expression of GDNF.


Assuntos
Analgésicos/farmacologia , Transplante de Células-Tronco Mesenquimais , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/terapia , Cordão Umbilical/citologia , Animais , Ectodisplasinas/metabolismo , Fator Neurotrófico Derivado de Linhagem de Célula Glial/metabolismo , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Masculino , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/citologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica/fisiologia , Medula Espinal/metabolismo , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/fisiopatologia , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
5.
Gene ; 737: 144446, 2020 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32035241

RESUMO

The homeotic complex (Hox) gene Ultrabithorax (Ubx) plays pivotal roles in modifying specific morphological differences among the second (T2), the third thoracic (T3), and the first abdomen (A1) segment in several insects. Whether Ubx regulates wing dimorphism and other morphological traits in the delphacid family (order Hemiptera) remains elusive. In this study, we cloned a full-length Ubx ortholog (NlUbx) from the wing-dimorphic planthopper Nilaparvata lugens, and identified two NlUbx isoforms. RNA-interference (RNAi)-mediated silencing of NlUbx in short-winged BPH nymphs significantly induced the development of wing-like appendages from T3 wingbuds, and this effect is likely mediated by the insulin/insulin-like signaling pathway. RNAi knockdown of NlUbx in long-winged BPH nymphs led to a transformation from hindwings to forewings. Additionally, silencing of NlUbx not only dramatically changed the T3 morphology, but also led to jumping defect of T3 legs. First-instar nymphs derived from parental RNAi had an additional leg-like appendages on A1. These results suggest that Ubx plays a role in determining some morphological traits in delphacid planthoppers, and thus help in understanding evolution of morphological characteristics in arthropods.


Assuntos
Hemípteros/genética , Proteínas de Insetos/genética , Asas de Animais/metabolismo , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Clonagem Molecular , Feminino , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Hemípteros/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas de Insetos/química , Masculino , Alinhamento de Sequência , Asas de Animais/crescimento & desenvolvimento
6.
Mol Med Rep ; 18(1): 532-540, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29749518

RESUMO

Premature ovarian failure (POF) results from a number of disorders. The POF model is primarily based on chemotherapeutic injury, and hence is not suitable for assessing the effects of chronic stress on ovarian function. Therefore, improved animal models are required to analyze the effects of chronic stress on ovarian reserve. The feasibility of the chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) method for establishing a model of POF was examined. The depressive behavior exhibited by rats was evaluated with the open field and sucrose preference tests. Vaginal smears were obtained for assessment of the estrous cycle. The ovarian reserve of the animals was evaluated using the estrous cycle, ovarian histology and serum levels of gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH), follicle­stimulating hormone (FSH), estradiol (E2), and anti­Müllerian hormone (AMH). Compared with the control group, body weight, time spent in the center, horizontal movement, vertical frequency, consumption of sucrose, sucrose preference, number of small follicles from the rats, and serum E2, AMH and GnRH levels were significantly decreased in the CUMS group (all P<0.05). However, the estrous cycle was prolonged significantly (P<0.05) and serum FSH levels were increased significantly (P<0.01). These results suggested that the CUMS model rats exhibited depression­like behaviors. CUMS may induce psychological stress and decrease ovarian reserve in female rats. Thus, the CUMS model may be used to assess the effects of chronic stress on female reproductive function.


Assuntos
Depressão , Ovário/patologia , Insuficiência Ovariana Primária/etiologia , Estresse Psicológico/complicações , Animais , Hormônio Antimülleriano/sangue , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Estradiol/sangue , Feminino , Hormônio Liberador de Gonadotropina/sangue , Reserva Ovariana , Insuficiência Ovariana Primária/patologia , Insuficiência Ovariana Primária/psicologia , Ratos
7.
Open Biol ; 8(12): 180158, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30977704

RESUMO

Histone acetylation is a specific type of chromatin modification that serves as a key regulatory mechanism for many cellular processes in mammals. However, little is known about its biological function in invertebrates. Here, we identified 12 members of histone deacetylases (NlHDACs) in the brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens. RNAi-mediated silencing assay showed that NlHdac1, NlHdac3 and NlHdac4 played critical roles in female fertility via regulating ovary maturation or ovipositor development. Silencing of NlHdac1 substantially increased acetylation level of histones H3 and H4 in ovaries, indicating NlHDAC1 is the main histone deacetylase in ovaries of BPH. RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) analysis showed that knockdown of NlHdac1 impaired ovary development via multiple signalling pathways including the TOR pathway. Acoustic recording showed that males with NlHdac1 knockdown failed to make courtship songs, and thus were unacceptable to wild-type females, resulting in unfertilized eggs. Competition mating assay showed that wild-type females overwhelmingly preferred to mate with control males over NlHdac1-knockdown males. These findings improve our understanding of reproductive strategies controlled by HDACs in insects and provide a potential target for pest control.


Assuntos
Hemípteros/fisiologia , Histona Desacetilases/genética , Histona Desacetilases/metabolismo , Análise de Sequência de RNA/métodos , Acetilação , Animais , Corte , Feminino , Fertilidade , Inativação Gênica , Hemípteros/genética , Histonas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Insetos/metabolismo , Masculino , Família Multigênica , Ovário , Transdução de Sinais
8.
Insect Biochem Mol Biol ; 93: 19-26, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29241845

RESUMO

The brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens is one of the most destructive insect pests in Asia, demonstrating high fertility and causing huge crop losses by sucking sap of rice as well as transmitting viruses. However, functional genomic studies on N. lugens are seriously constrained by lack of genetic tools. Here, we employed two eye pigmentation genes to generate germ-line mutations in N. lugens using the CRISPR/Cas9 (clustered regularly interspaced palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated) system. We showed that injection of single guide RNA of the cinnabar gene of N. lugens (Nl-cn) into pre-blastoderm eggs induced insertion and deletion (indels) in the founder generation (G0), which were heritably transmitted to the following G1 generation, leading to bright red compound eyes and ocelli. Mutations of N. lugens white (Nl-w) generated a high mutant rate of up to 27.3%, resulting in mosaic eyes consisting of white and lightly pigmented ommatidia in both G0 and G1 individuals. The specificity of CRISPR/Cas9-mediated mutagenesis was further bolstered by PCR and RNA interference-based knockdown analysis. These results show that CRISPR/Cas9-mediated gene editing is achievable in a hemipteran insect, offering a valuable tool for the study of functional genomics and pest management in this planthopper species.


Assuntos
Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Olho Composto de Artrópodes/fisiologia , Hemípteros/fisiologia , Proteínas de Insetos/genética , Pigmentação , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Cor de Olho/genética , Feminino , Técnicas de Inativação de Genes , Hemípteros/genética , Proteínas de Insetos/metabolismo , Masculino
9.
Neural Regen Res ; 10(9): 1427-32, 2015 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26604903

RESUMO

Post-stroke depression is associated with reduced expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). In this study, we evaluated whether BDNF overexpression affects depression-like behavior in a rat model of post-stroke depression. The middle cerebral artery was occluded to produce a model of focal cerebral ischemia. These rats were then subjected to isolation-housing combined with chronic unpredictable mild stress to generate a model of post-stroke depression. A BDNF gene lentiviral vector was injected into the hippocampus. At 7 days after injection, western blot assay and real-time quantitative PCR revealed that BDNF expression in the hippocampus was increased in depressive rats injected with BDNF lentivirus compared with depressive rats injected with control vector. Furthermore, sucrose solution consumption was higher, and horizontal and vertical movement scores were increased in the open field test in these rats as well. These findings suggest that BDNF overexpression in the hippocampus of post-stroke depressive rats alleviates depression-like behaviors.

10.
Zhejiang Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 39(3): 272-7, 2010 May.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20544989

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of formaldehyde inhalation on the morphological damage, and Glu, GABA and NOS contents in olfactory bulb and hippocampus of rats. METHODS: Twenty SD rats were equally divided into two groups: rats in the control group inhaled fresh air, while the animals in experimental group were exposed to the air containing formaldehyde (12.5 mg/m(3), 4 h/d) for 7 days. Then rats were sacrificed and frozen sections of olfactory bulb and hippocampus were prepared. The morphological changes were examined and the Glu, GABA and NOS contents were detected using Nissl-staining, immunohistochemistry and Western blot, respectively. RESULT: Compared with the control group, there was a significant confusion and shrink of neuron morphology in experimental group, the number and staining intensity of Glu and NOS positive cells and protein contents were reduced. The protein expression of GABA was also decreased in the formaldehyde group. CONCLUSION: Formaldehyde inhalation can cause a severe morphological damage of olfactory bulb and hippocampus in SD rats,which may further impair memory and learning ability through the reduction of Glu, GABA and NOS expression.


Assuntos
Formaldeído/toxicidade , Hipocampo/patologia , Neurônios/patologia , Bulbo Olfatório/patologia , Animais , Ácido Glutâmico/metabolismo , Hipocampo/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Exposição por Inalação , Aprendizagem/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurônios/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico Sintase/metabolismo , Bulbo Olfatório/efeitos dos fármacos , Bulbo Olfatório/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Ácido gama-Aminobutírico/metabolismo
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