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1.
J Biol Chem ; : 100683, 2021 Apr 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33887325

RESUMO

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a devastating pathogen in the swine industry worldwide. MicroRNAs are reported to be involved in virus-host interaction. Here, we used high-throughput sequencing and microRNAs inhibitors to screen possible microRNAs that can inhibit PRRSV infection on its target cell, porcine alveolar macrophages. We observed that miR-218 was downregulated upon virus infection, and knockdown of miR-218 significantly enhanced PRRSV replication. Overexpression of miR-218 resulted in a decrease in PRRSV replication, and this overexpression did not alter viral genomic RNA levels, but rather increased antiviral interferon signaling. Further analysis revealed that that miR-218 regulated PRRSV replication by directly targeting porcine suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3), a JAK2 kinase inhibitor. Knockdown of the endogenous SOCS3 expression led to augmentation of type I interferon genes and resulted in decreased PRRSV replication, and vice versa. During PRRSV infection in vivo and in vitro, cellular miR-218 expression was downregulated and SOCS3 expression was upregulated, further supporting the inverse correlation between miR-218 and SOCS3 expression. The data on SOCS3 depletion in combination with miR-218 inhibition suggested that the antiviral activity of miR-218 required the SOCS3-mediated signaling pathway. Similarly, miR-218 negatively regulated PRRSV replication in Marc-145 cells, as well as the replication of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus and transmissible gastroenteritis virus in Vero and ST cells respectively. Taken together, these results demonstrate that PRRSV-induced miR-218 downregulation serves to inhibit the type I interferon response, and may provide a novel therapeutic target for treatment of PRRSV and other viral infections.

2.
ACS Biomater Sci Eng ; 7(4): 1428-1437, 2021 04 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33797213

RESUMO

Endowing dental composites with excellent interfacial bonding through filler surface modification is pivotal to improve the physical-mechanical property and prolong the life of composite fillings. In this study, methacrylate-polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (MA-POSS) acts as a "molecular bridge" between the commonly used SiO2 particles and the methacrylate-based resin matrix via a thiol-ene click reaction to construct MA-POSS/SiO2 (p-SiO2) hybrid particles. Synthesized p-SiO2 exhibited the roughest surface morphology and had more polymerizable groups, in comparison with SiO2 and silanized SiO2. Furthermore, the p-SiO2 particles were used as a reinforcement to fabricate bisphenol A glycerolate dimethacrylate/tri(ethyleneglycol) dimethacrylate-based dental composites, where the SiO2- and silanized SiO2-filled composites served as the control groups, and the filler loading was fixed at 65 wt %. Results of the mechanical properties indicated that the hybrid p-SiO2 particles significantly improved the flexural strength, flexural modulus, compressive strength, and work of fracture of dental composites, giving improvements of 251.2, 17.89, 122.3, and 1094%, respectively, over the SiO2-filled composites due to the strong interfacial interaction between the resin matrix and p-SiO2. Additionally, this optimal p-SiO2-loaded composite also presented better polymerization shrinkage, acceptable degree of conversion, curing depth, and cell viability. Grafting of MA-POSS onto a filler surface is a promising filler surface modification to improve the resin matrix/filler interfacial interaction, leading to the enhanced overall performance of composites.

3.
PLoS Pathog ; 17(3): e1009347, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33647067

RESUMO

In the field, many insect-borne crop viral diseases are more suitable for maintenance and spread in hot-temperature areas, but the mechanism remains poorly understood. The epidemic of a planthopper (Sogatella furcifera)-transmitted rice reovirus (southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus, SRBSDV) is geographically restricted to southern China and northern Vietnam with year-round hot temperatures. Here, we reported that two factors of endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation (ERAD) machinery, the heat shock protein DnaJB11 and ER membrane protein BAP31, were activated by viral infection to mediate the adaptation of S. furcifera to high temperatures. Infection and transmission efficiencies of SRBSDV by S. furcifera increased with the elevated temperatures. We observed that high temperature (35°C) was beneficial for the assembly of virus-containing tubular structures formed by nonstructural protein P7-1 of SRBSDV, which facilitates efficient viral transmission by S. furcifera. Both DnaJB11 and BAP31 competed to directly bind to the tubule protein P7-1 of SRBSDV; however, DnaJB11 promoted whereas BAP31 inhibited P7-1 tubule assembly at the ER membrane. Furthermore, the binding affinity of DnaJB11 with P7-1 was stronger than that of BAP31 with P7-1. We also revealed that BAP31 negatively regulated DnaJB11 expression through their direct interaction. High temperatures could significantly upregulate DnaJB11 expression but inhibit BAP31 expression, thereby strongly facilitating the assembly of abundant P7-1 tubules. Taken together, we showed that a new temperature-dependent protein quality control pathway in the ERAD machinery has evolved for strong activation of DnaJB11 for benefiting P7-1 tubules assembly to support efficient transmission of SRBSDV in high temperatures. We thus deduced that ERAD machinery has been hitchhiked by insect-borne crop viruses to enhance their transmission in tropical climates.

4.
BMC Genomics ; 22(1): 177, 2021 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33711920

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) is highly associated with inflammatory response and virus-induced interferon production. By far the majority of studies have focused on the immune-related lncRNAs of mice and humans, but the function of lncRNAs in porcine immune cells are poorly understood. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) impairs local immune responses in the lungs of nursery and growing pigs, whereas the virus triggers the inflammatory responses. Porcine alveolar macrophage (PAM) is the primary target cell of PRRSV, thus PRRSV is used as an in vitro model of inflammation. Here, we profiled lncRNA and mRNA repertories from PRRSV-infected PAMs to explore the underlying mechanism of porcine lncRNAs in regulating host immune responses. RESULTS: In this study, a total of 350 annotated lncRNAs and 1792 novel lncRNAs in PAMs were identified through RNA-seq analysis. Among them 86 differentially expressed (DE) lncRNAs and 406 DE protein-coding mRNAs were identified upon PRRSV incubation. GO category and KEGG pathway enrichment analyses revealed that these DE lncRNAs and mRNAs were mainly involved in inflammation- and pathogen infection-induced pathways. The results of dynamic correlated expression networks between lncRNAs and their predicted target genes uncovered that numerous lncRNAs, such as XLOC-022175, XLOC-019295, and XLOC-017089, were correlated with innate immune genes. Further analysis validated that these three lncRNAs were positively correlated with their predicted target genes including CXCL2, IFI6, and CD163. This study suggests that porcine lncRNAs affect immune responses against PRRSV infection through regulating their target genes in PAMs. CONCLUSION: This study provides both transcriptomic and epigenetic status of porcine macrophages. In response to PRRSV infection, comprehensive DE lncRNAs and mRNAs were profiled from PAMs. Co-expression analysis demonstrated that lncRNAs are emerging as the important modulators of immune gene activities through their critical influence upon PRRSV infection in porcine macrophages.

5.
Dent Mater ; 2021 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33714621

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Porous materials, especially porous silica particles are of great interest in different areas, and have applied in dental composites as inorganic fillers, due to their potential in constructing micromechanical interlocking at the filler-resin matrix interfaces. However, the facile and precise synthesis of hierarchical porous silica with graded sizes is still a great challenge. METHODS: Here, we synthesized dendritic porous silica (DPS) with center-radial hierarchical pores and controllable size ranging from 75 to 1000nm by varying simultaneously the amounts of silica precursor and template in the microemulsion. A plausible nucleation-growth mechanism for the structural formation and the size tunability of the DPS particles was further put forward. These DPS particles were then formulated with Bis-GMA/TEGDMA resin. RESULTS: The particle size and morphology influenced the mechanical properties of dental composites. Particularly, DPS-500 particles (average size: 500nm) exhibited the superior reinforcing effect, giving large improvements of 32.0, 96.7, 51.9, and 225.6% for flexural strength (SF), flexural modulus (EY), compressive strength (SC), and work of fracture (WOF), respectively, over the DPS-75 filled composite. All DPS filler sized exhibited similar degree of conversions and curing depths. Furthermore, the DPS-500 filled composite presented better cytocompatibility than commercial Z250 XT. SIGNIFICANCE: The facile synthesis of DPS particles developed here and the understanding of the influence of the filler size and morphology on the composite properties provide a shortcut to design porous silica with precise size control and dental composites with superior performance. These DPS particles could also have promising applications in biomedicine, catalysis, adsorption, and cancer therapy.

6.
Nanotechnology ; 32(27)2021 Apr 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33740776

RESUMO

The growth of hetero-epitaxial ZnO-AlN core-shell nanowires (NWs) and single crystalline AlN films on non-polar ZnO substrate at temperature of 380 °C by atomic layer deposition (ALD) was investigated. Structural characterization shows that the AlN shells have excellent single-crystal properties. The epitaxial relationship of [0002]ZnO//[0002]AlN, and [10-10]ZnO//[10-10]AlNbetween ZnO core and AlN shell has been obtained. The ZnO NW templates were subsequently removed by annealing treatment in forming gas, resulting in ordered arrays of AlN single-crystal nanotubes. The impact factors on the epitaxial growth of AlN films are thoroughly investigated. It turned out that the growth parameters including lattice mismatch between substrate and AlN, growth temperature, and the polarity of ZnO substrate play important roles on the growth of single-crystal AlN films by ALD. Finally, non-polar AlN films with single-crystalline structure have been successfully grown onm-plane ZnO (10-10) single-crystal substrates. The as-grown hollow AlN nanotubes arrays and non-polar AlN films with single-crystalline structures are suggested to be highly promising for applications in nanoscale devices. Our research has developed a potential method to obtain other inorganic nanostructures and films with single-crystalline structure at fairly low temperature.

7.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 552: 157-163, 2021 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33744764

RESUMO

ß-Thalassemia is an autosomal recessive genetic disease caused by defects in the production of adult hemoglobin (HbA, α2ß2), which leads to an imbalance between α- and non-α-globin chains. Reactivation of γ-globin expression is an effective strategy to treat ß-thalassemia patients. Previously, it was demonstrated that hemoglobin subunit beta pseudogene 1 (HBBP1) is associated with elevated fetal hemoglobin (HbF, α2γ2) in ß-thalassemia patients. However, the mechanism underlying HBBP1-mediated HbF production is unknown. In this study, using bioinformatics analysis, we found that HBBP1 is involved in γ-globin production, and then preliminarily confirmed this finding in K562 cells. When HBBP1 was overexpressed, γ-globin expression was increased at the transcript and protein levels in HUDEP-2 cells. Next, we found that ETS transcription factor ELK1 (ELK1) binds to the HBBP1 proximal promoter and significantly promotes its activity. Moreover, the synthesis of γ-globin was enhanced when ELK1 was overexpressed in HUDEP-2 cells. Surprisingly, ELK1 also directly bound to and activated the γ-globin proximal promoter. Furthermore, we found that HBBP1 and ELK1 can interact with each other in HUDEP-2 cells. Collectively, these findings suggest that HBBP1 can induce γ-globin by enhancing ELK1 expression, providing some clues for γ-globin reactivation in ß-thalassemia.

8.
Vet Clin Pathol ; 50(1): 76-80, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33550680

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hematologic and biochemical reference intervals (RIs) provide valuable data for the nutritional status and clinical diagnosis of animals. However, the specific hematologic and biochemical RIs for specific-pathogen-free (SPF) Landrace pigs has not been determined. OBJECTIVE: The present study was designed to establish the hematologic and biochemical RIs for SPF 1-month-old Landrace pigs. METHODS: Blood samples were collected from the jugular vein of 105 SPF 1-month-old Landrace pigs (50 males and 55 females), and complete blood counts and biochemical examinations were performed. The mean, RI, and 90% confidence interval were calculated for each variable, and gender differences were analyzed. RESULTS: Reference intervals for SPF 1-month-old Landrace pigs were generated. The results revealed that there was generally no significant difference between male and female hematologic and serum biochemical variables (P > .05). However, a significant difference was noted in serum triglyceride concentrations between male and female pigs (P < .05). CONCLUSIONS: This study provides hematologic and biochemical RIs for SPF 1-month-old Landrace pigs and provides basic data for the research and application of SPF Landrace pigs as a laboratory animal.

9.
J Exp Bot ; 72(8): 3137-3154, 2021 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33543285

RESUMO

Chromoplast-specific lycopene ß-cyclase (LCYb2) is a critical carotenogenic enzyme, which controls the massive accumulation of downstream carotenoids, especially provitamin A carotenoids, in citrus. Its regulatory metabolism is largely unknown. Here, we identified a group I ethylene response factor, CsERF061, in citrus by yeast one-hybrid screen with the promoter of LCYb2. The expression of CsERF061 was induced by ethylene. Transcript and protein levels of CsERF061 were increased during fruit development and coloration. CsERF061 is a nucleus-localized transcriptional activator, which directly binds to the promoter of LCYb2 and activates its expression. Overexpression of CsERF061 in citrus calli and tomato fruits enhanced carotenoid accumulation by increasing the expression of key carotenoid pathway genes, and increased the number of chromoplasts needed to sequester the elevated concentrations of carotenoids, which was accompanied by changes in the concentrations of abscisic acid and gibberellin. Electrophoretic mobility shift and dual-luciferase assays verified that CsERF061 activates the promoters of nine other key carotenoid pathway genes, PSY1, PDS, CRTISO, LCYb1, BCH, ZEP, NCED3, CCD1, and CCD4, revealing the multitargeted regulation of CsERF061. Collectively, our findings decipher a novel regulatory network of carotenoid enhancement by CsERF061, induced by ethylene, which will be useful for manipulating carotenoid accumulation in citrus and other plants.

10.
Virus Res ; 295: 198320, 2021 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33549641

RESUMO

To better understand the pathogenicity of duck plague virus (DPV). The DPV Chinese standard challenge strain (DPV CSC) was continuously passaged 20 times in duck embryo fibroblasts (DEFs). DPV F1 was lethal for 2-week-ducks, but DPV F10 and F20 were not lethal for 2-week ducks, the 528 bp in UL2 region of DPV F1-F20 was deleted, which suggested that the deletion in UL2 region was not related with the virulence of DPV. Compared with DPV F20 infected ducks, IL-8 in DPV F1 infected ducks was significantly upregulated, but IL-1, IL-2,IFNγ and MHC-II were significantly downregulated. ISKNV copies in DPV F10 and F20 infected ducks were lower than the DPV F1 infected ducks. These results showed that massive viruses replication, upregulation of IL-8 expresssion, repression of IL-1, IL-2, IFNγ and MHC-II expression resulted in serious lesions and high mortality. This study provided a in-depth understanding of the immune-related genes expression in the different virulence of DPV.

11.
Mol Cancer ; 20(1): 36, 2021 02 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33608029

RESUMO

Early detection is crucial to improve breast cancer (BC) patients' outcomes and survival. Mammogram and ultrasound adopting the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) categorization are widely used for BC early detection, while suffering high false-positive rate leading to unnecessary biopsy, especially in BI-RADS category-4 patients. Plasma cell-free DNA (cfDNA) carrying on DNA methylation information has emerged as a non-invasive approach for cancer detection. Here we present a prospective multi-center study with whole-genome bisulfite sequencing data to address the clinical utility of cfDNA methylation markers from 203 female patients with breast lesions suspected for malignancy. The cfDNA is enriched with hypo-methylated genomic regions. A practical computational framework was devised to excavate optimal cfDNA-rich DNA methylation markers, which significantly improved the early diagnosis of BI-RADS category-4 patients (AUC from 0.78-0.79 to 0.93-0.94). As a proof-of-concept study, we performed the first blood-based whole-genome DNA methylation study for detecting early-stage breast cancer from benign tumors at single-base resolution, which suggests that combining the liquid biopsy with the traditional diagnostic imaging can improve the current clinical practice, by reducing the false-positive rate and avoiding unnecessary harms.

12.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 4649, 2021 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33633317

RESUMO

Aleutian mink disease (AMD), which is caused by Aleutian mink disease virus (AMDV), is an important contagious disease for which no effective vaccine is yet available. AMD causes major economic losses for mink farmers globally and threatens some carnivores such as skunks, genets, foxes and raccoons. Aptamers have exciting potential for the diagnosis and/or treatment of infectious viral diseases, including AMD. Using a magnetic beads-based systemic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX) approach, we have developed aptamers with activity against AMDV after 10 rounds of selection. After incubation with the ADVa012 aptamer (4 µM) for 48 h, the concentration of AMDV in the supernatant of infected cells was 47% lower than in the supernatant of untreated cells, whereas a random library of aptamers has no effect. The half-life of ADVa012 was ~ 32 h, which is significantly longer than that of other aptamers. Sequences and three dimensions structural modeling of selected aptamers indicated that they fold into similar stem-loop structures, which may be a preferred structure for binding to the target protein. The ADVa012 aptamer was shown to have an effective and long-lasting inhibitory effect on viral production in vitro.

13.
Br J Pharmacol ; 2021 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33434946

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is the most prevalent chronic paediatric lung disease and is linked to the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. MicroRNA-based regulation of type II alveolar epithelial cell (T2AEC) proliferation and apoptosis is an important factor in the pathogenesis of BPD and warrants further investigation. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Two murine models of hyperoxic lung injury (with or without miR-342-5p or Sprouty-related, EVH1 domain-containing protein 3 [Spred3] modulation) were employed: a hyperoxia-induced acute lung injury model (100% O2 on postnatal days 1-7) and the BPD model (100% O2 on postnatal days 1-4, followed by room air for 10 days). Tracheal aspirate pellets from healthy control and moderate/severe BPD neonates were randomly selected for clinical miR-342-5p analysis. KEY RESULTS: Hyperoxia decreased miR-342-5p levels in primary T2AECs, MLE12 cells and neonatal mouse lungs. Transgenic miR-342 overexpression in neonatal mice ameliorated survival rates and improved the BPD phenotype and BPD-associated pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). T2AEC-specific miR-342 transgenic overexpression, as well as miR-342-5p mimic therapy, also ameliorated the BPD phenotype and associated PAH. miR-342-5p targets the 3'UTR of the Raf1 regulator Spred3, inhibiting Spred3 expression. Treatment with recombinant Spred3 exacerbated the BPD phenotype and associated PAH. Notably, miR-342-5p inhibition under room air conditions did not mimic the BPD phenotype. Moderate/severe BPD tracheal aspirate pellets exhibited decreased miR-342-5p levels relative to healthy control pellets. CONCLUSION AND IMPLICATIONS: These findings suggest that miR-342-5p mimic therapy may show promise in the treatment or prevention of BPD.

14.
J Nanobiotechnology ; 19(1): 22, 2021 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33436002

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Breast cancer (BC) is the most frequently diagnosed cancer and the leading cause of cancer-associated deaths in women. Recent studies have indicated that microRNA (miRNA) regulation in genomic instability (GI) is associated with disease risk and clinical outcome. Herein, we aimed to identify the GI-derived miRNA signature in extracellular vesicles (EVs) as a minimally invasive biomarker for early diagnosis and prognostic risk stratification. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Integrative analysis of miRNA expression and somatic mutation profiles was performed to identify GI-associated miRNAs. Then, we constructed a discovery and validation study with multicenter prospective cohorts. The GI-derived miRNA signature (miGISig) was developed in the TCGA discovery cohort (n = 261), and was subsequently independently validated in internal TCGA validation (n = 261) and GSE22220 (n = 210) cohorts for prognosis prediction, and in GSE73002 (n = 3966), GSE41922 (n = 54), and in-house clinical exosome (n = 30) cohorts for diagnostic performance. RESULTS: We identified a GI-derived three miRNA signature (MIR421, MIR128-1 and MIR128-2) in the serum extracellular vesicles of BC patients, which was significantly associated with poor prognosis in all the cohorts tested and remained as an independent prognostic factor using multivariate analyses. When integrated with the clinical characteristics, the composite miRNA-clinical prognostic indicator showed improved prognostic performance. The miGISig also showed high accuracy in differentiating BC from healthy controls with the area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (ROC) with 0.915, 0.794 and 0.772 in GSE73002, GSE41922 and TCGA cohorts, respectively. Furthermore, circulating EVs from BC patients in the in-house cohort harbored elevated levels of miGISig, with effective diagnostic accuracy. CONCLUSIONS: We report a novel GI-derived three miRNA signature in EVs, as an excellent minimally invasive biomarker for the early diagnosis and unfavorable prognosis in BC.

15.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 8851888, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33511214

RESUMO

Poultries including chickens, ducks, geese, and pigeons are widely used in the biological and medical research in many aspects. The genetic quality of experimental poultries directly affects the results of the research. In this study, following electrophoresis analysis and short tandem repeat (STR) scanning, we screened out the microsatellite loci for determining the genetic characteristics of Chinese experimental chickens, ducks, geese, and pigeons. The panels of loci selected in our research provide a good choice for genetic monitoring of the population genetic diversity of Chinese native experimental chickens, ducks, geese, and ducks.

16.
J Mater Chem B ; 9(3): 783-792, 2021 01 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33333547

RESUMO

Pesticides play a very important role in pest control and plant protection. However, they can be limited by a tendency to cause ecological system damage due to significant losses into the environment. To increase pesticide utilization efficiency, we developed highly leaf-adhesive avermectin nanocapsules (Av-pH-cat@CS) with pH-responsive controlled release properties. The Av-pH-cat@CS nanocapsules displayed good thermal stability and photostability in response to UV light irradiation. The Av-pH-cat@CS nanocapsules could be disrupted at low pH and they exhibited excellent controlled release in response to pH, which improved the release of avermectins. In addition, the Av-pH-cat@CS nanocapsules were highly adhesive to crop leaves as a result of strong hydrogen bonding, which prolonged the retention time on crop leaves. The Av-pH-cat@CS nanocapsules with pH-responsive release and strong leaf adhesion improved the control efficacy and enhanced the utilization efficiency. Our findings offer a promising approach to prolonging pesticide duration on crop leaves and improving the utilization efficiency.


Assuntos
Adesivos/química , Antiprotozoários/química , Ivermectina/análogos & derivados , Nanocápsulas/química , Praguicidas/química , Adesivos/síntese química , Antiprotozoários/síntese química , Liberação Controlada de Fármacos , Ligação de Hidrogênio , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Ivermectina/síntese química , Ivermectina/química , Estrutura Molecular , Tamanho da Partícula , Praguicidas/síntese química , Folhas de Planta/química , Propriedades de Superfície , Fatores de Tempo , Zea mays/química
17.
Comput Methods Programs Biomed ; 200: 105797, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33317871

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Brain tumors are life-threatening, and their early detection is crucial for improving survival rates. Conventionally, brain tumors are detected by radiologists based on their clinical experience. However, this process is inefficient. This paper proposes a machine learning-based method to 1) determine the presence of a tumor, 2) automatically segment the tumor, and 3) classify it as benign or malignant. METHODS: We implemented an Extended Kalman Filter with Support Vector Machine (EKF-SVM), an image analysis platform based on an SVM for automated brain tumor detection. A development dataset of 120 patients which supported by Tiantan Hospital was used for algorithm training. Our machine learning algorithm has 5 components as follows. Firstly, image standardization is applied to all the images. This is followed by noise removal with a non-local means filter, and contrast enhancement with improved dynamic histogram equalization. Secondly, a gray-level co-occurrence matrix is utilized for feature extraction to get the image features. Thirdly, the extracted features are fed into a SVM for classify the MRI initially, and an EKF is used to classify brain tumors in the brain MRIs. Fourthly, cross-validation is used to verify the accuracy of the classifier. Finally, an automatic segmentation method based on the combination of k-means clustering and region growth is used for detecting brain tumors. RESULTS: With regard to the diagnostic performance, the EKF-SVM had a 96.05% accuracy for automatically classifying brain tumors. Segmentation based on k-means clustering was capable of identifying the tumor boundaries and extracting the whole tumor. CONCLUSION: The proposed EKF-SVM based method has better classification performance for positive brain tumor images, which was mainly due to the dearth of negative examples in our dataset. Therefore, future work should obtain more negative examples and investigate the performance of deep learning algorithms such as the convolutional neural networks for automatic diagnosis and segmentation of brain tumors.

18.
Entropy (Basel) ; 22(8)2020 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33286630

RESUMO

In order to clarify ultra-low-frequency (ULF) seismomagnetic phenomena, a sensitive geomagnetic network was installed in Kanto, Japan since 2000. In previous studies, we have verified the correlation between ULF magnetic anomalies and local sizeable earthquakes. In this study, we use Molchan's error diagram to evaluate the potential earthquake precursory information in the magnetic data recorded in Kanto, Japan during 2000-2010. We introduce the probability gain (PG') and the probability difference (D') to quantify the forecasting performance and to explore the optimal prediction parameters for a given ULF magnetic station. The results show that the earthquake predictions based on magnetic anomalies are significantly better than random guesses, indicating the magnetic data contain potential useful precursory information. Further investigations suggest that the prediction performance depends on the choices of the distance (R) and size of the target earthquake events (Es). Optimal R and Es are about (100 km, 108.75) and (180 km, 108.75) for Seikoshi (SKS) station in Izu and Kiyosumi (KYS) station in Boso, respectively.

19.
Entropy (Basel) ; 22(11)2020 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33287039

RESUMO

In order to find out whether the geomagnetic storms and large-mega earthquakes are correlated or not, statistical studies based on Superposed Epoch Analysis (SEA), significance analysis, and Z test have been applied to the Dst index data and M ≥ 7.0 global earthquakes during 1957-2020. The results indicate that before M ≥ 7.0 global earthquakes, there are clearly higher probabilities of geomagnetic storms than after them. Geomagnetic storms are more likely to be related with shallow earthquakes rather than deep ones. Further statistical investigations of the results based on cumulative storm hours show consistency with those based on storm days, suggesting that the high probability of geomagnetic storms prior to large-mega earthquakes is significant and robust. Some possible mechanisms such as a reverse piezoelectric effect and/or electroosmotic flow are discussed to explain the statistical correlation. The result might open new perspectives in the complex process of earthquakes and the Lithosphere-Atmosphere-Ionosphere (LAI) coupling.

20.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33272734

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is an aberrant lipid metabolism disease. Hypoxia inducible factor-1 (HIF-1α) is a transcription factor which plays an important part in adapting lower oxygen condition. Here, we aimed to clarify the relationship between HIF-1α and NAFLD. METHODS: HepG2 cells was stimulated by oleic acid (OA) and palmitic acid (PA) to establish in vitro model of NAFLD. The expression of lipid metabolism-related genes, the binding of PPARα to HIF-1α promoter, the lipid deposition, and oxidative stress were detected by qRT-PCR, western blot, Chip assay, Oil Red O staining and ELISA assays, respectively. RESULTS: HIF-1α silence promoted lipid accumulation in NAFLD cells, accompanying by the significantly increased contents of TG (triglyceride) and ApoB (apolipoprotein B). In HepG2 cells treated with OA/PA, the expression of lipid metabolism-related genes and proteins, including APOE, A2m, TNFRSF11B, LDLr, and SREBP2, and the intracellular lipid deposition were up-regulated and further aggravated after silencing HIF-1α. In addition, the loss of HIF-1α could remarkably elevate MDA contents while inhibit the activities of beneficial antioxidant enzymes SOD and GSH-Px to activate oxidative stress, and promote the secretion of pro-inflammatory IL-6 and TNF-α to aggravate inflammation in NDFLD cells. PPARα positively bound to HIF-1α promoter. The silence of PPARα aggravated lipid deposition under normal or hypoxic environment in NAFLD cells. In addition, PPAR-α silence could decrease the expression of HIF-1α and ANGPTL4 in NAFLD cell model; moreover, the expression of APOE, A2m and TNFRSF11B and the production of TG and MDA were increased by PPAR-α suppression. CONCLUSION: HIF-1α plays a crucial role in the regulation of lipid metabolism through activating PPAR-α/ANGPTL4 signaling pathway in NAFLD.

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