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1.
Food Chem ; 305: 125435, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31494497

RESUMO

Soluble dietary fibre (SDF) of micronized and non-micronized powders of lotus root nodes were investigated based on its adsorption and activity inhibition of pancreatic lipase (PL) by using circular dichroism, fluorescence spectroscopy and modification. Results showed that SDF2 (SDF from micronized powders of lotus root nodes) had stronger PL adsorption and enzyme activity inhibition than SDF1 (SDF from non-micronized powders of lotus root nodes). Specifically, SDF2 showed more binding sites than SDF1 in PL. There were hydrogen bonds and van der Waals interactions between SDF and PL, with Trp on PL probably serving as the main binding site. Carboxyl groups exhibited a stronger inhibition on PL by carboxymethyl and hydroxypropyl modification. The common mechanisms between SDF1 and SDF2 can be attributed to the combination between Trp and carboxyl groups, while the differences may be generated by the variations in structures or chemical groups induced by micronization.

2.
J Mater Chem B ; 7(47): 7525-7539, 2019 Dec 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31720683

RESUMO

Transplantation of tissue-engineered neural scaffolds bears great potential for reconstructing neural circuits after spinal cord injury (SCI). In this study, a 3D porous silk fibrous scaffold (3D-SF) with biomimetic interconnected micro- to nanofibrous structure and good biocompatibility is fabricated. Then, a small-molecule combination CFLSSVY (CHIR99021, Forskolin, LDN193189, SB431542, SP600125, VPA, and Y27632) that efficiently reprograms rat dermal fibroblasts into neurons is screened, and these chemically induced neurons (CiNs) are shown to readily communicate on the 3D-SF and form neural scaffolds. After transplantation of these silk-based neural scaffolds into the stumps of transected spinal cords in rats, the damaged tissue is repaired significantly, as indicated by the reduced cavity areas, decreased GFAP expression, and improved axonal regeneration and myelination in the injury site. Moreover, the hindlimb movement and motor-nerve conductivity are greatly improved as indicated by the elevated BBB score, the alternate movement of two hindlimbs during the 45° inclined grid test, and the shortened latency and enhanced amplitude in cMEP detection. Together, these results demonstrate that transplantation of neural scaffolds consisting of 3D-SF and dermal fibroblast-reprogrammed neurons leads to significant nerve regeneration and functional recovery, providing a promising therapeutic strategy for SCI.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31725396

RESUMO

The probabilistic classification vector machine (PCVM) synthesizes the advantages of both the support vector machine and the relevant vector machine, delivering a sparse Bayesian solution to classification problems. However, the PCVM is currently only applicable to binary cases. Extending the PCVM to multiclass cases via heuristic voting strategies such as one-vs-rest or one-vs-one often results in a dilemma where classifiers make contradictory predictions, and those strategies might lose the benefits of probabilistic outputs. To overcome this problem, we extend the PCVM and propose a multiclass PCVM (mPCVM). Two learning algorithms, i.e., one top-down algorithm and one bottom-up algorithm, have been implemented in the mPCVM. The top-down algorithm obtains the maximum ita posteriori (MAP) point estimates of the parameters based on an expectation-maximization algorithm, and the bottom-up algorithm is an incremental paradigm by maximizing the marginal likelihood. The superior performance of the mPCVMs, especially when the investigated problem has a large number of classes, is extensively evaluated on the synthetic and benchmark data sets.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31714240

RESUMO

Ensemble pruning, selecting a subset of individual learners from an original ensemble, alleviates the deficiencies of ensemble learning on the cost of time and space. Accuracy and diversity serve as two crucial factors, while they usually conflict with each other. To balance both of them, we formalize the ensemble pruning problem as an objection maximization problem based on information entropy. Then we propose an ensemble pruning method, including a centralized version and a distributed version, in which the latter is to speed up the former. Finally, we extract a general distributed framework for ensemble pruning, which can be widely suitable for most of the existing ensemble pruning methods and achieve less time-consuming without much accuracy degradation. Experimental results validate the efficiency of our framework and methods, particularly concerning a remarkable improvement of the execution speed, accompanied by gratifying accuracy performance.

5.
IEEE Trans Cybern ; 2019 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31634853

RESUMO

Causal feature selection has achieved much attention in recent years, which discovers a Markov boundary (MB) of the class attribute. The MB of the class attribute implies local causal relations between the class attribute and the features, thus leading to more interpretable and robust prediction models than the features selected by the traditional feature selection algorithms. Many causal feature selection methods have been proposed, and almost all of them employ conditional independence (CI) tests to identify MBs. However, many datasets from real-world applications may suffer from incorrect CI tests due to noise or small-sized samples, resulting in lower MB discovery accuracy for these existing algorithms. To tackle this issue, in this article, we first introduce a new concept of PCMasking to explain a type of incorrect CI tests in the MB discovery, then propose a cross-check and complement MB discovery (CCMB) algorithm to repair this type of incorrect CI tests for accurate MB discovery. To improve the efficiency of CCMB, we further design a pipeline machine-based CCMB (PM-CCMB) algorithm. Using benchmark Bayesian network datasets, the experiments demonstrate that both CCMB and PM-CCMB achieve significant improvements on the MB discovery accuracy compared with the existing methods, and PM-CCMB further improves the computational efficiency. The empirical study in the real-world datasets validates the effectiveness of CCMB and PM-CCMB against the state-of-the-art causal and traditional feature selection algorithms.

6.
Cryobiology ; 90: 41-46, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31513810

RESUMO

Oocyte vitrification has extensively been applied in the field of embryo engineering and in the preservation of genetic resources of fine livestock. Following our previous work in oocyte vitrification and the level change of DNA methylation, here we further explored the dynamic change of three active demethylation proteins: Ten-Eleven-Translocation 1/2/3(TET1/2/3), 5-methylcytosine (5 mC) and 5-hydroxymethycytosine (5hmC) after vitrification and warming. In order to observe the active demethylation in vitrified oocytes, two small molecular regulators, i.e. Vitamin C (VC) and dimethyloxaloylglycine (DMOG) were used to adjust activity and level of the TET 3 protein. The results showed that the levels of 5 mC and 5hmC were significantly decreased after 2 h of vitrification (P < 0.01). Moreover, the level of TET3 protein was significantly increased after 2 h warming (P < 0.01). And the relative gene expression of TET2/3 did not change in the first 2 h, but significantly increased after 2 h (P < 0.01). When VC was added to vitrification and recovery medium, it could not significantly improve the level of TET3 gene expression, and affect 5 mC and 5hmC expression (P > 0.05). When the DMOG was added to the solutions of vitrification, the level of 5hmC showed significantly increase (P < 0.01). In conclusion, the oocyte vitrification procedure reduced DNA methylation and hydroxymethylation in MII oocytes, but adding VC and DMOG to vitrification medium can prevent the reduction of DNA hydroxymethylation by increasing activity of TET3 methylation protein after vitrification and warming.

7.
Mol Reprod Dev ; 86(11): 1603-1614, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31408251

RESUMO

As an assisted reproduction technology, vitrification has been widely used for oocyte and embryo cryopreservation. Many studies have indicated that vitrification affects ultrastructure, gene expression, and epigenetic status. However, it is still controversial whether oocyte vitrification could induce DNA damage in metaphase II (MII) oocytes and the resulting early embryos. This study determined whether mouse oocytes vitrification induce DNA damage in MII oocytes and the resulting preimplantation embryos, and causes for vitrification-induced DNA damage. The effects of oocyte vitrification on reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, γ-H2AX accumulation, apoptosis, early embryonic development, and the expression of DNA damage-related genes in early embryos derived by in vitro fertilization were examined. The results indicated that vitrification significantly increased the number of γ-H2AX foci in zygotes and two-cell embryos. Trp53bp1 was upregulated in zygotes, two-cell embryos and four-cell embryos in the vitrified group, and Brca1 was increased in two-cell embryos after vitrification. Vitrification also increased the ROS levels in MII oocytes, zygotes, and two-cell embryos and the apoptotic rate in blastocysts. Resveratrol (3,5,4'-trihydroxystilbene) treatment decreased the ROS levels and the accumulation of γ-H2AX foci in zygotes and two-cell embryos and the apoptotic rate in blastocysts after vitrification. Overall, vitrification-induced abnormal ROS generation, γ-H2AX accumulation, an increase in the apoptotic rate and the disruption of early embryonic development. Resveratrol treatment could decrease ROS levels, γ-H2AX accumulation, and the apoptotic rate and improve early embryonic development. Vitrification-associated γ-H2AX accumulation is at least partially due to abnormal ROS generation.

8.
J Invest Dermatol ; 2019 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31421124

RESUMO

Both systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and systemic sclerosis (SSc) are autoimmune diseases sharing similar genetic backgrounds. Genome-wide association studies have constantly disclosed numerous genetic variants conferring to both disease risks at 7q32.1, but the functional mechanisms underlying them are still largely unknown. Through a series of bioinformatics and functional analyses, we prioritized a potential independent functional single-nucleotide polymorphism (rs13239597) within TNPO3 promoter region, residing in a putative enhancer element and validated that IRF5 is the distal target gene (∼118 kb) of rs13239597, which is a key regulator involved in pathogenic autoantibody dysregulation, increasing risk of both SLE and SSc. We experimentally validated the long-range chromatin interactions between rs13239597 and IRF5 using chromosome conformation capture assay. We further demonstrated that rs13239597-A acted as an allele-specific enhancer regulating IRF5 expression, independently of TNPO3 by using dual-luciferase reporter assays and CRISPR-Cas9. Particularly, the transcription factor EVI1 could preferentially bind to rs13239597-A allele and increase the enhancer activity to regulate IRF5 expression. Taken together, our results uncovered a mechanistic insight of a noncoding functional variant acting as an allele-specific distal enhancer to directly modulate IRF5 expression, which might obligate in understanding of complex genetic architectures of SLE and SSc pathogenesis.

9.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(29): 30188-30205, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31422532

RESUMO

Seedlings of 'Shatian pummelo' (Citrus grandis) and 'Xuegan' (Citrus sinensis) were supplied daily with nutrient solution at a concentration of 0.5 (control), 100, 200, 300, 400, or 500 µM CuCl2 for 6 months. Thereafter, seedling growth; leaf, root, and stem levels of nutrients; leaf gas exchange; levels of pigments; chlorophyll a fluorescence (OJIP) transients and related parameters; leaf and root relative water content; levels of nonstructural carbohydrates; H2O2 production rate; and electrolyte leakage were comprehensively examined (a) to test the hypothesis that Cu directly damages root growth and function, thus impairing water and nutrient uptake and hence inhibiting shoot growth; (b) to establish whether the Cu-induced preferential accumulation of Cu in the roots is involved in Cu tolerance of Citrus; and (c) to elucidate the possible causes for the Cu-induced decrease in photosynthesis. Most of the growth and physiological parameters were greatly altered only at 300-500 µM (excess) Cu-treated seedlings. Cu supply increased the level of Cu in the roots, stems, and leaves, with a greater increase in the roots than that in the stems and leaves. Many of the fibrous roots became rotten and died under excess Cu. These findings support the hypothesis that Cu directly damages root growth and function, thus impairing water and nutrient uptake and hence inhibiting shoot growth, and the conclusion that the preferential accumulation of Cu in the roots under excess Cu is involved in the tolerance of Citrus to Cu toxicity. The lower CO2 assimilation in excess Cu-treated leaves was caused mainly by nonstomatal factors, including structural damage to thylakoids, feedback inhibition due to increased accumulation of nonstructural carbohydrates, decreased uptake of water and nutrients, increased production of reactive oxygen species, and impaired photosynthetic electron transport chain. Also, we discussed the possible causes for the excess Cu-induced decrease in leaf pigments and accumulation of nonstructural carbohydrates in the roots and leaves.

10.
Curr HIV Res ; 17(2): 85-93, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31269884

RESUMO

The aim of this review is to describe long-term HIV epidemiology and prevention trends in Guangxi, a provincial-level region located along a major drug trafficking corridor in southwestern China. Between 1996 and 2006, HIV transmission in Guangxi was primarily fueled by Injection Drug Use (IDU). Since 2006, heterosexual sex has become the dominant mode of HIV transmission, followed by drug injection. Moreover, older, heterosexual adults appear to be at increased risk for HIV. The vast majority of new HIV cases are attributed to local HIV subtypes already circulating within Guangxi (93%), though imported subtypes are associated with younger age groups. Since 2011, HIV incidence in Guangxi has stabilized, due in part to HIV prevention efforts that include expanded HIV testing, antiretroviral treatment, and other intervention measures. Between 1996 and 2017, Guangxi, China experienced dramatic changes in the primary HIV transmission mode and at-risk age group. Due in part to local and National AIDS control and prevention campaigns, HIV incidence trends in Guangxi no longer appear to be increasing.

11.
J Nanosci Nanotechnol ; 19(12): 7714-7720, 2019 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31196280

RESUMO

The formation of nanocrystals with a controlled composition and desirable nanostructure is a prominent challenge in many science and technology fields. In this study, rutile TiO2 nanorods coexisting with anatase TiO2 nanoparticles were fabricated via a mild one-pot hydrothermal process. Results indicate an interesting phenomenon wherein adding an appropriate amount of oxalic acid can realize proportional regulation of anatase and the rutile phase. An increasing quantity of oxalic acid changes the crystalline phase from rutile to anatase accompanied by morphological changes from TiO2 nanorods to nanoparticles. The optimized anatase/rutile crystalline phase and TiO2 nanorods/nanoparticles morphology enhance the light-scattering and electron transfer ability. When the percentage of anatase phase increased to 67%, the composite architecture grew by 60% in photoelectric conversion efficiency and 0.1 V in open-circuit voltage. This study opens a door to the fabrication of the controllable mixed crystal composition and the designed micro-nano structure for the improvement on the photovoltaic performance.

13.
Med Sci Monit ; 25: 4811-4818, 2019 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31253757

RESUMO

BACKGROUND We aimed to investigate the role of PDCD4-mediated Akt signaling pathway in vascular endothelial cell injury caused by ischemia-reperfusion in the lower extremities. MATERIAL AND METHODS Ten rats were used as control, while 50 rats were used for creating disease models and were assigned to 5 groups: model group (no injection), NC group (injected with vectors containing PDCD negative control sequence), sh-PDCD4 group (injected with vectors containing sh-PDCD4 sequence), IGF-1 group (injected with IGF-1), and sh-PDCD4+IGF-1 group (injected with IGF-1 and vectors containing sh-PDCD4 sequence). RESULTS Compared with the control group, the expression levels of PDCD4 mRNA and protein, as well as levels of circulating endothelial cells, von Willebrand factor, thrombomodulin, and malondialdehyde, increased in the other 5 groups, while the mRNA and protein expression levels of Akt and eNOS, the protein expression levels of p-Akt and p-eNOS, and superoxide dismutase content decreased in these groups (all P<0.05). Compared with the model group, the sh-PDCD4 and sh-PDCD4+1GF-1 groups had lower mRNA and protein expressions of PDCD4 (all P<0.05), whereas the IGF-1 group had similar levels (all P>0.05). These 3 groups had lower levels of circulating endothelial cells, von Willebrand factor, thrombomodulin, and malondialdehyde, and higher mRNA and protein expressions of Akt and eNOS, protein expressions of p-Akt and p-eNOS, and superoxide dismutase content (all P<0.05). The NC group did not differ from the model group (all P>0.05). CONCLUSIONS PDCD4 gene silencing can activate the Akt signaling pathway and attenuate vascular endothelial cell injury caused by ischemia-reperfusion in the lower extremities in rats.

14.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(11)2019 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31142052

RESUMO

Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) is a very powerful technique used to produce genetically identical or modified animals. However, the cloning efficiency in mammals remains low. In this study, we aimed to explore the effects of vitamin C (Vc)-treated donor cells on cloned embryos. As a result, Vc treatment relaxed the chromatin of donor cells and improved cloned embryo development. RNA sequencing was adopted to investigate the changes in the transcriptional profiles in early embryos. We found that Vc treatment increased the expression of genes involved in the cell-substrate adherens junction. Gene ontology (GO) analysis revealed that Vc treatment facilitated the activation of autophagy, which was deficient in cloned two-cell embryos. Rapamycin, an effective autophagy activator, increased the formation of cloned blastocysts (36.0% vs. 25.6%, p < 0.05). Abnormal expression of some coding genes and long non-coding RNAs in cloned embryos was restored by Vc treatment, including the zinc-finger protein 641 (ZNF641). ZNF641 compensation by means of mRNA microinjection improved the developmental potential of cloned embryos. Moreover, Vc treatment rescued some deficient RNA-editing sites in cloned two-cell embryos. Collectively, Vc-treated donor cells improved the development of the cloned embryo by affecting embryonic transcription. This study provided useful resources for future work to promote the reprogramming process in SCNT embryos.


Assuntos
Ácido Ascórbico/farmacologia , Blastocisto/efeitos dos fármacos , Clonagem de Organismos/métodos , Oócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Transcriptoma , Vitaminas/farmacologia , Animais , Autofagia , Blastocisto/metabolismo , Bovinos/genética , Células Cultivadas , Feminino , Masculino , Técnicas de Transferência Nuclear , Oócitos/metabolismo
15.
Mol Reprod Dev ; 86(7): 862-870, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31066155

RESUMO

Resveratrol (Res) has been reported to be able to improve oocyte vitrification because of its antioxidative properties. The objective of this study was to further assess the positive effect of Res addition on the developmental potential of vitrified mouse oocytes from the perspective of epigenetic alterations. First, 2 µM Res was chosen as the optimal concentration on the basis of its effects on survival and its antioxidative properties. We found that Res addition significantly promoted fertilization (63.8% vs. 42.9%) and blastocyst formation (68.3% vs. 50.2%) after oocyte vitrification. The quality of the derived blastocysts was also higher after Res treatment. Regarding epigenetic aspects, the expression of the important deacetylase SIRT1 was found to decrease significantly upon vitrification, but it was rescued by Res. The abnormal levels of H3K9 acetylation and DNA methylation in vitrified oocytes were restored by Res addition. Moreover, the expression of several imprinted genes was affected by oocyte vitrification. Among them, abnormal Gtl2 and Peg3 expression levels were restored by Res addition. Therefore, the methylation of their imprinted control regions (ICRs) was examined. Surprisingly, the abnormal patterns of Gtl2 and Peg3 methylation in blastocysts developed from vitrified oocytes were both restored by Res addition. Finally, the full-term embryonic development showed that the birth rate was improved significantly by Res addition (56.2% vs. 38.1%). Collectively, Res was beneficial for the pre- and postimplantation embryonic development. Except for the antioxidative activity, Res also played a role in the correction of some abnormal epigenetic modifications caused by oocyte vitrification.

16.
Chemistry ; 25(36): 8543-8549, 2019 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31050058

RESUMO

The photoinduced dynamic behavior of flexible materials has received considerable attention for potential applications, such as in data storage or as smart optical devices and molecular mechanical actuators. Until now, precisely controlling expansion and contraction with light has remained a challenge. Unraveling the detailed mechanisms of photoinduced structural transformations remains a critical step necessary to understand the molecular architecture necessary for the design of sensitive photomechanical actuators. Herein, a two-dimensional flexible metal-organic framework [Zn2 (bdc)2 (3-CH3 -spy)2 ]⋅H2 O (Zn2 -1; H2 bdc=1,4-benzenedicaboxylic acid; 3-CH3 -spy=3-methylstyrylpyridine) with a positive volumetric thermal expansion coefficient of +78.78×10-6  K-1 is reported. Upon light irradiation at different wavelengths, the MOF underwent a [2+2] cycloaddition, which afforded a family of isomeric, three-dimensional MOFs (Zn2 -2 n, n=a-d) in a single-crystal-to-single-crystal (SCSC) manner. An unprecedented phenomenon, that is, photoinduced nonlinear contraction (PINC), was observed during this conversion. The PINC is caused by conformational changes in the 3-CH3 -spy and bdc2- ligands, the bending of metal-ligand bonds, and the local distortion of the paddle-wheel SBUs. The formation of a "wrinkle morphology" on the crystal surface after the photoreaction was observed by AFM. This PINC behavior can broaden the studies on materials expansion and offer a photodriven approach for the future design of supersensitive photomechanical actuators.

17.
BMJ Open ; 9(3): e025666, 2019 03 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30928945

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: China has continued to expand antiretroviral therapy (ART) services and optimise ART guidelines in an effort to significantly reduce and prevent mortality and transmission rates among HIV patients. However, no study to date has compared treatment outcomes of initial differential antiretroviral regimens among HIV patients in a real-world setting in China. This study aimed to compare the effects of different ART regimens on treatment outcomes among adults. DESIGN: Observational retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Data from 2011 to 2013 in Guangxi, China. PARTICIPANTS: Patients aged ≥18 years (n=25 732) were selected. RESULTS: A total of 25 732 patients were included in this study. The average mortality and attrition rate were 2.64 and 4.98, respectively, per 100 person-years. Using Cox proportional hazard models, zidovudine-based (AZT-based) regimen versus stavudine-based (D4T-based) regimen had an adjusted HR (AHR) for death of 0.65 (95% CI 0.58 to 0.73); the AHR of tenofovir-based (TDF-based) versus D4T-based regimens was 0.81 (95% CI 0.71 to 0.92), and of lopinavir-ritonavir-based (LPV/r-based) versus D4T-based regimens, 1.19 (95% CI 1.04 to 1.37). AZT-based versus D4T-based regimens had an AHR for dropout of 0.89 (95% CI 0.81 to 0.97); this ratio for TDF-based versus D4T-based regimens was 0.88 (95% CI 0.80 to 0.98), and for LPV/r-based versus D4T-based regimens, 1.42 (95% CI 1.27 to 1.58). AZT-based and TDF-based regimens had a lower risk compared with D4T-based regimens, while LPV/r-based regimens had a higher risk. High gastrointestinal reactions and poor adherence were observed among HIV patients whose initial ART regimen was LPV/r-based. CONCLUSIONS: Our study found that the treatment outcomes of initial ART regimens that were AZT-based or TDF-based were significantly better than D4T-based or LPV/r-based regimens. This finding could be related to the higher rates of gastrointestinal reactions and poorer adherence associated with the LPV/r-based regimens compared with other initial ART regimens.

18.
Arch Toxicol ; 93(6): 1639-1648, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31020377

RESUMO

2,3',4,4',5-Pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB118) has been shown to cause thyroidal ultrastructure lesions, but the underlying mechanism remains elusive. This study aimed to elucidate the mechanism by which PCB118 induces the abnormalities of the thyrocytes. Wistar rats were injected intraperitoneally with PCB118 (0, 10, 100 and 1000 µg/kg/d) for 13 weeks, and FRTL-5 cells were treated with PCB118 (0, 0.25, 2.5 and 25 nM). Transmission electron microscopy showed typical autophagosomes in the thyroid of PCB118-treated rats. Immunofluorescence staining showed dose-dependent increase of autophagy in FRTL-5 cells exposed to PCB118. In vivo and vitro studies found that Tubulin beta 3 class III (Tubb3) mRNA and protein levels decreased significantly, while Death-associated protein kinase 2 (DAPK2) increased after PCB118 exposure, and the binding between Tubb3 and DAPK2 was enhanced by PCB118 in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, PCB118 resulted in the upregulation of Protein kinase D (PKD) and downregulation of Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (VPS34) in mRNA levels, and the activation of PKD and VPS34 phosphorylation. Additionally, Tubb3 small interfering RNA (siTubb3) suppressed DAPK2 protein expression and PKD phosphorylation in FRTL-5 cells, while VPS34 phosphorylation was inhibited by siPKD. Furthermore, DAPK2, PKD and VPS34 were upregulated by Tubb3 overexpression following PCB118 exposure. Our results demonstrate that low concentrations of PCB118 could promote thyroid autophagy formation and cause the abnormalities in thyroidal ultrastructure, and these effects are likely to be mediated by DAPK2/PKD/VPS34 dependent pathway.

19.
Sex Transm Dis ; 46(4): 234-239, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30870324

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Increasing risk of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) heterosexual transmission can raise the potential for a more diffuse and generalized epidemic. In response to the paucity of data on HIV incidence among heterosexuals in China, we conducted a large-scale, population-based cohort study located in rural southwest China. METHODS: Baseline enrollment for the study was conducted from 2013 to 2014 and follow-up at 12 months was from 2014 to 2015 among adults 20 years or older in 3 rural counties of Southwest China. Study participants were informed of the study by brochures and leaflets distributed in outreach activities. Interviews and blood collection were conducted in private rooms. Blood samples were tested for HIV infection. RESULTS: The HIV prevalence of the sample was 0.29% (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.27-0.30) (2063 of 722,795) among the total adult population of 1,090,296 potential participants 20 years or older at baseline. Of the 720,732 individuals who tested HIV-negative at baseline, 493,990 (69%) completed the follow-up. Overall HIV incidence was 2.73 (95% CI, 2.38-3.08) per 10,000 person-years (PY) (235 of 860,627 PY). Human immunodeficiency virus incidence was associated with males, older age, less than secondary schooling and not currently being married. Human immunodeficiency virus incidence was 71.28 (95% CI, 35.21-107.35) per 10,000 PY among males aged 50 to 69 years who had less than secondary schooling and were divorced or widowed. Heterosexual sex was the dominant transmission mode for HIV seroconversions (99.0%). CONCLUSIONS: Older heterosexual males were at disproportionate risk of HIV infection. Health authorities in China need to develop and implement innovative interventions suitable for the broader population of older heterosexuals.

20.
Eur Radiol ; 29(10): 5607-5616, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30888479

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of microwave ablation (MWA) with the assistance of continuous cool saline injection (CCSI) in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT). METHODS: Between November 1, 2014, and February 29, 2016, 22 patients with PHPT were enrolled and treated with ultrasound-guided MWA assisted by CCSI. The levels of parathyroid hormone (PTH) and serum calcium were recorded before and after the MWA. Patients were divided into two groups (normalized and unnormalized groups) according to treatment efficacy. Fisher's exact test and the Mann-Whitney test were used to compare data between the two groups. Timing differences in serum PTH and calcium levels were analyzed with repeated measures analysis of variance. RESULTS: Normalized outcomes for both PTH and calcium levels were achieved in 19 of 22 (86.36%) patients with PHPT. In the normalized group, PTH levels remained normal for 12 months after MWA. PTH levels in the unnormalized group were outside the reference range at six of seven follow-ups within 12 months following MWA. By contrast, serum calcium levels gradually decreased in all patients in both groups. The mean serum PTH and mean calcium levels at 6 months after therapy were significantly lower than those before MWA (both p < 0.05). A transient voice change developed in eight patients. One patient experienced hypocalcaemia, which was corrected by oral calcium supplementation within 2 months. CONCLUSIONS: US-guided MWA assisted by CCSI is safe and effective for destroying parathyroid gland tissue and may serve as a therapeutic alternative for patients with PHPT. KEY POINTS: • Microwave ablation is a new option for patients with hypercalcemic or normocalcemic primary hyperparathyroidism. • Microwave ablation can decrease PTH and calcium levels with sustained efficacy in most patients. • Treatment is safe and causes only transient side effects.

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