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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34242478

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Endoscopic intervention combined with extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) is recommended as the first line therapy for large pancreatic stones, yet both can cause adverse events. The aim of the study was to identify the risk factors for post-procedural pancreatitis. METHODS: Consecutive patients with chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic stones treated with both ESWL and subsequent endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) from October 2016 to December 2019 were prospectively enrolled. Multivariate logistic analyses were performed to detect risk factors for post-ESWL and post-ERCP pancreatitis (PEP). RESULTS: A total of 714 patients (507 males, 45.60 ± 12.52 years) were included in this study. A total of 80 patients (11.2%) developed post-ESWL pancreatitis,while 33 patients (4.6%) suffered from PEP. Steatorrhea (P = .018), multiple stones (P = .043), and stones located at the head combined with the body or tail of the pancreas (P = .015) were identified as independent protective factors for post-ESWL pancreatitis. The history of acute exacerbations (P = .013), post-ESWL pancreatitis (P < .001) and stricture dilation during ERCP (P = .002) were identified as risk factors for PEP. CONCLUSIONS: More attention should be paid to patients with post-ESWL pancreatitis, as well as a history of acute exacerbations and stricture dilation during ERCP to prevent PEP. (ClincialTrials.gov number, NCT04619511).

2.
EPMA J ; : 1-18, 2021 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34306260

RESUMO

Aims: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is rapidly spreading worldwide. Drug therapy is one of the major treatments, but contradictory results of clinical trials have been reported among different individuals. Furthermore, comprehensive analysis of personalized pharmacotherapy is still lacking. In this study, analyses were performed on 47 well-characterized COVID-19 drugs used in the personalized treatment of COVID-19. Methods: Clinical trials with published results of drugs use for COVID-19 treatment were collected to evaluate drug efficacy. Drug-to-Drug Interactions (DDIs) were summarized and classified. Functional variations in actionable pharmacogenes were collected and systematically analysed. "Gene Score" and "Drug Score" were defined and calculated to systematically analyse ethnicity-based genetic differences, which are important for the safer use of COVID-19 drugs. Results: Our results indicated that four antiviral agents (ritonavir, darunavir, daclatasvir and sofosbuvir) and three immune regulators (budesonide, colchicine and prednisone) as well as heparin and enalapril could generate the highest number of DDIs with common concomitantly utilized drugs. Eight drugs (ritonavir, daclatasvir, sofosbuvir, ribavirin, interferon alpha-2b, chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) and ceftriaxone had actionable pharmacogenomics (PGx) biomarkers among all ethnic groups. Fourteen drugs (ritonavir, daclatasvir, prednisone, dexamethasone, ribavirin, HCQ, ceftriaxone, zinc, interferon beta-1a, remdesivir, levofloxacin, lopinavir, human immunoglobulin G and losartan) showed significantly different pharmacogenomic characteristics in relation to the ethnic origin of the patient. Conclusion: We recommend that particularly for patients with comorbidities to avoid serious DDIs, the predictive, preventive, and personalized medicine (PPPM, 3 PM) strategies have to be applied for COVID-19 treatment, and genetic tests should be performed for drugs with actionable pharmacogenes, especially in some ethnic groups with a higher frequency of functional variations, as our analysis showed. We also suggest that drugs associated with higher ethnic genetic differences should be given priority in future pharmacogenetic studies for COVID-19 management. To facilitate translation of our results into clinical practice, an approach conform with PPPM/3 PM principles was suggested. In summary, the proposed PPPM/3 PM attitude should be obligatory considered for the overall COVID-19 management. Supplementary Information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s13167-021-00247-0.

3.
J Control Release ; 2021 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34311025

RESUMO

Amino acid-tuned self-assembly has become an attractive strategy for constructing various functional materials. Here, a series of dibenzocyclooctyne (DIBO) functionalized amphiphilic amino acid derivatives are designed and screened as building blocks of functional supramolecular self-assembly nanoparticles for cancer immunotherapy. One top-performing supramolecular self-assembly material (named DA6C1) is identified through combinatorial screening, and spherical nanoparticles can be easily prepared by this material tuned multicomponent synergistic self-assembly of ovalbumin (OVA) and CpG oligonucleotide. DA6C1 based nanovaccine can significantly enhance the cellular uptake of OVA and CpG into the same bone marrow derived dendritic cells (BMDCs) and greatly improve the activation of DCs. Moreover, after subcutaneous injection, this nanovaccine flows rapidly to the lymph nodes and elicits strong immune responses to achieve effective prophylactic and therapeutic effect. Therefore, our work highlights the great potential of clickable amino acid derivatives as a convenient and powerful tool to construct nanovaccine for effective immunotherapy.

4.
Methods Cell Biol ; 165: 123-138, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34311861

RESUMO

Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved biological process required for the turnover of the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cell. Beyond its catabolic nature, autophagy has a plethora of pro-survival functions, thus combatting hypoxia, nutrient shortage, and unfolded protein accumulation. Here, we introduce the naturally short-lived turquoise killifish Nothobranchius furzeri as an emerging model to study autophagic function in vivo, in response to environmental challenges. We show that starvation in killifish is sufficient to increase autophagic flux in the liver, thus enhancing the lipidation of microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 (LC3) and reducing the abundance of the autophagic substrate sequestosome-1 (SQSTM1). We describe an immunoblot-based comprehensive protocol to monitor fluctuations in autophagy in this model organism.

5.
Methods Cell Biol ; 165: 59-71, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34311871

RESUMO

Imaging flow cytometry allows for the quantitative assessment of fluorescent signals at the subcellular level. Here, we describe the use of a biosensor cell line, namely, U2OS osteosarcoma cells equipped with a fusion protein comprising monomeric red fluorescent protein (mRFP), green fluorescent protein (GFP) and microtubule-associated proteins 1A/1B light chain 3B (best known as LC3), for the assessment of autophagic flux by imaging flow cytometry. We detail all analysis tools required to distinguish autophagosomes (that emit both a red and a green fluorescence) and autolysosomes (that emit a red fluorescence, yet lose the green fluorescent signal) and to quantitate autophagic flux in a convenient fashion.

6.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 32(7): 2525-2533, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34313071

RESUMO

Based on the distribution data of Tricholoma matsutake obtained from field investigation and literature, the ecological-niche factor analysis (ENFA) and the maximum entropy model (MaxEnt) were used to simulate the distribution law and suitable area of T. matsutake in the western Sichuan Plateau. The prediction was made for the future changes in the suitable area of T. matsutake by analyzing the relationship between climate factors and dynamic distribution. The results showed that the area under curve (AUC) values of both the model training set and validation set were greater than 0.90, indicating that the model prediction results were extremely accurate. The environmental variables affecting the potential distribution of T. matsutake were mainly the lowest temperature in the coldest month, the coldest season precipitation, annual temperature difference and soil type, with accumulative contribution of 90.3%. The niche parameters of suitable distribution areas of T. matsutake were as follows: the lowest temperature in the coldest month was -18.5--5.4 ℃, the coldest season precipitation was less than 15.7 mm, the annual temperature difference was 39.5-45 ℃, and soil type was semi-leached soil, including dry red soil, cinnamon soil, gray cinnamon soil, black soil and grey forest soil. The suitable areas of T. matsutake were distributed in the southwest, south, central and east of the plateau at an altitude range of 1900-3600 m. The highly suita-ble areas were mainly distributed in some towns of Yajiang, Xiangcheng, Kangding, Jiulong, Daocheng, Litang, Batang, Danba, Maerkang, Xiaojin, Jinchuan, Lixian, Maoxian, etc. The moderately and lowly suitable areas were located in some towns of Derong, Daofu, Xinlong, Luhuo, Baiyu, Luding, Rangtang, Wenchuan, Heishui, Jiuzhaigou. The highly suitable areas were discontinuously distributed according to the direction of rivers and mountains. The moderately suitable areas were connected with the highly suitable areas, while the lowly suitable areas were the extension of the highly and moderately suitable areas. Future climate change would be beneficial to the growth of T. matsutake on the western Sichuan Plateau, while the climate-suitable areas would show an overall increasing trend. Suitable areas in the low-altitude Minjiang River Basin would be more affected by climate change than those located in high-altitude areas.

7.
Exp Biol Med (Maywood) ; : 15353702211032552, 2021 Jul 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34313482

RESUMO

The pancreatic ß cells can synthesize dopamine by taking L-dihydroxyphenylalanine, but whether pancreatic acinar cells synthesize dopamine has not been confirmed. By means of immunofluorescence, the tyrosine hydroxylase -immunoreactivity and aromatic amino acid decarboxylase (AADC)- immunoreactivity were respectively observed in pancreatic acinar cells and islet ß cells. Treatment with L-dihydroxyphenylalanine, not tyrosine, caused the production of dopamine in the incubation of INS-1 cells (rat islet ß cell line) and primary isolated islets, which was blocked by AADC inhibitor NSD-1015. However, only L-dihydroxyphenylalanine, but not dopamine, was detected when AR42J cells (rat pancreatic acinar cell line) were treated with tyrosine, which was blocked by tyrosine hydroxylase inhibitor AMPT. Dopamine was detected in the coculture of INS-1 cells with AR42J cells after treatment with tyrosine. In an in vivo study, pancreatic juice contained high levels of L-dihydroxyphenylalanine and dopamine. Both L-dihydroxyphenylalanine and dopamine accompanied with pancreatic enzymes and insulin in the pancreatic juice were all significantly increased after intraperitoneal injection of bethanechol chloride and their increases were all blocked by atropine. Inhibiting TH with AMPT blocked bethanechol chloride-induced increases in L-dihydroxyphenylalanine and dopamine, while inhibiting AADC with NSD-1015 only blocked the dopamine increase. Bilateral subdiaphragmatic vagotomy of rats leads to significant decreases of L-dihydroxyphenylalanine and dopamine in pancreatic juice. These results suggested that pancreatic acinar cells could utilize tyrosine to synthesize L-dihydroxyphenylalanine, not dopamine. Islet ß cells only used L-dihydroxyphenylalanine, not tyrosine, to synthesize dopamine. Both L-dihydroxyphenylalanine and dopamine were respectively released into the pancreatic duct, which was regulated by the vagal cholinergic pathway. The present study provides important evidences for the source of L-dihydroxyphenylalanine and dopamine in the pancreas.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34314080

RESUMO

Although numerous adsorbent materials have been reported for radioactive iodine capture, demands for the development of new absorbents that are economically viable and featured with reliable synthetic protocols still exist. Herein, in this paper, a coordination-driven self-assembly strategy towards adsorbents for sequential confinement of iodine molecules is reported. It should be noticed that these adsorbents are versatile heterometallic frameworks constructed from aluminum molecular rings of varying size, flexible copper ions and conjugated carboxylate ligands. Additionally, these materials can quickly remove iodine from cyclohexane solutions with a high removal rate (98.8%) and considerable loading capacity (555.06 mg/g). Heterometallic frameworks provided distinct pore sizes and binding sites toward iodine molecules and realize crystallographic visualization concerning sequential confinement of iodine molecules. This work not only sets up a bridge between molecular rings and infinite porous networks but also reveals molecular details for the underlying host-guest binding interactions at crystallographic resolution.

9.
Molecules ; 26(14)2021 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34299453

RESUMO

Bisphenol Z (BPZ), bisphenol S (BPS), bisphenol C (BPC), and bisphenol F (BPF) had been widely used as alternatives to bisphenol A (BPA), but the toxicity data of these bisphenol analogues were very limited. In this study, the joint toxicity of BPZ, BPS, BPC, and BPF to zebrafish (Danio rerio) was investigated. The median half lethal concentrations (LC50) of BPZ, BPS, BPC, and BPF to zebrafish for 96 h were 6.9 × 105 µM, 3.9 × 107 µM, 7.1 × 105 µM, and1.6 × 106 µM, respectively. The joint toxicity effect of BPF-BPC (7.7 × 105-3.4 × 105µM) and BPZ-BPC (3.4 × 105-3.5 × 105µM) with the same toxic ratio showed a synergistic effect, which may be attributed to enzyme inhibition or induction theory. While the toxicity effect of the other two bisphenol analogue combined groups and multi-joint pairs showed an antagonistic effect due to the competition site, other causes need to be further explored. Meanwhile, the expression levels of the estrogen receptor genes (ERα, ERß1) and antioxidant enzyme genes (SOD, CAT, GPX) were analyzed using a quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction in zebrafish exposure to LC50 of BPZ, BPS, BPC, and BPF collected at 24, 48, 72, and 96 h. Relative expression of CAT, GPX, and ERß1 mRNA declined significantly compared to the blank control, which might be a major cause of oxidant injury of antioxidant systems and the disruption of the endocrine systems in zebrafish.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34300033

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Interpersonal theories of suicide suggest that the Interpersonal Needs Questionnaire (INQ) can be used to measure suicidal ideation, but few studies have focused on migrant people, a group with a high prevalence of suicidal ideation. The aim of this study was to validate the psychometric properties of the INQ-15 and its prediction of suicidal ideation among migrant industrial workers in China. METHOD: A stratified multi-stage sample of 2023 industrial workers was recruited from 16 factories in Shenzhen, China. There were 1805 nonlocal workers, which we defined as migrant workers with a mean age of 32.50 ± 8.43 years old who were 67.3% male. The structure of the Chinese version of the INQ-15 and its correlation and predictive utility for suicidal ideation were examined through factor analysis, the Item Response Theory, the M2 test, logistic regression, and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. RESULTS: Different from studies among various samples in which a two-factor solution is identified, results within this sample indicated three factors: perceived burdensomeness, thwarted belongingness, and social isolation. The model fit statistics of three-factor INQ were 0.075 for RMSEA, 0.945 for CFI, 0.932 for TLI, and 0.067 for SRMR. The model standard estimated factor loadings ranged from 0.366 to 0.869. The summed scores of INQ and perceived burdensomeness predicted suicidal ideation after controlling for sociodemographic characteristics such as age, gender, and income with AUC of 0.733 (95% CI: 0.712/0.754) and 0.786 (95% CI: 0.766/0.804). In the meantime, the comparison of the predictive ability between INQ total scores and PB scores was significant with p < 0.05. CONCLUSION: The INQ has good psychometric properties and can be used to assess how migrant workers living in the Shenzhen perceive meeting interpersonal psychological needs and shows good predictive ability of suicidal ideation. Perceived burdensomeness appears to play a role in suicide and may be a point of intervention, yet the notable deviation from previous findings and the relative weakness of two of the other factors warrant further study.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34300162

RESUMO

Population aging is creating critical issues in Taiwan, and adults are being forced to maintain productivity at work; in other words, they need to work longer. Therefore, their fitness and health warrant immediate attention. Although the association between health and anthropometric characteristics has been reported, few profiles on Taiwanese adults can be found. The purpose of this study was to provide a suitable reference on the anthropometric data of Taiwanese adults. We recruited 60,056 anthropometric measurements from a representative database. Significant differences were found in every measurement for each gender and age group. Statistically, our results indicated anthropometric differences in different ages. However, CVs showed that the dispersions are minor. This study presents a sufficient profile on Taiwanese adults from a representative database to practitioners and other potential users.

12.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 2021 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34308935

RESUMO

A light-responsive ion transport switch has been developed based on conformation-dependent azobenzene-incorporated lipophilic G-quadruplex channels, which provides a new smart approach for the selective transport of K+ ions across the lipid membrane.

13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34287088

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As a major complication of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, the incidence of hepatic sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (HSOS) is as high as 70%. Previous evidence has demonstrated that miR-511-3p was involved in HSOS, but the mechanism remains unclear. This study aims to examine the mechanism underlying miR-511-3p regulating HSOS. METHODS: Monocrotaline (MCT) was used to create an HSOS rat model and to treat liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSECs). H&E and Masson staining were used to detect pathological changes in liver tissue. The expression of miR-511-3p and Hedgehog pathway-related proteins were assessed by qRT-PCR and Western blotting. The effect of miR-511-3p in regulating HSOS was investigated by MTT, ELISA assay and flow cytometry. Finally, the interaction between miR-511-3p and Ptch1 was determined by luciferase reporter assay. RESULTS: The rats showed a typical HSOS phenotype, including LSEC damage, liver injury and fibrosis after MCT administration. miR-511-3p was upregulated in hepatic tissue of rat HSOS model and MCT-induced LSECs. miR-511-3p directly targeted patched1 (Ptch1) and suppressed Ptch1 expression while activated the Hedgehog signaling pathway. Depletion of miR-511-3p showed a protective effect against MCT-induced HSOS, as evidenced by decreased HSOS pathogenesis factors, MMP-2, MMP-9, TNF-α and IL-1ß, and decreased LSEC apoptosis rates. Nevertheless, knockdown of Ptch1 reversed the protective effect of miR-511-3p depletion against MCT-induced LSEC injury and apoptosis. CONCLUSIONS: miR-511-3p aggravates HSOS by activating the Hedgehog signaling pathway through targeting Ptch1, and miR-511-3p may develop as the potential therapy for the treatment of HSOS.

14.
J Cell Physiol ; 2021 Jul 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34289108

RESUMO

Angiopoietin-like proteins (ANGPTLs), a family of eight secreted glycoproteins termed ANGTPL1-8, are involved in angiogenesis, lipid metabolism, cancer progression, and inflammation. Their roles in regulating lipid metabolism have been intensively studied, as some ANGPTLs are promising pharmacological targets for hypertriglyceridemia and associated cardiovascular disease. Recently, the emerging roles of ANGPTLs in inflammation have attracted great attention. First, elevated levels of multiple circulating ANGPTLs in inflammatory diseases make them potential disease biomarkers. Second, multiple ANGPTLs regulate acute or chronic inflammation via various mechanisms, including triggering inflammatory signaling through their action as ligands for integrin or forming homo- /hetero-oligomers to regulate signal transduction via extra- or intracellular mechanisms. As dysregulation of the inflammatory response is a critical trigger in many diseases, understanding the roles of ANGPTLs in inflammation will aid in drug/therapy development. Here, we summarize the roles, mechanisms, and potential therapeutic values for ANGPTLs in inflammation and inflammatory diseases.

15.
Am J Transplant ; 2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34212503

RESUMO

Organ transplantation has become a mainstay of therapy for patients with end-stage organ diseases. However, long-term administration of immunosuppressive agents, a scheme for improving the survival of transplant recipients, has been compromised by severe side effects and posttransplant complications. Therapeutic delivery targeting immune organs has the potential to address these unmet medical issues. Here, through screening of a small panel of mammalian target of rapamycin complex kinase inhibitor (TORKinib) compounds, a TORKinib PP242 is identified to be able to inhibit T cell function. Further chemical derivatization of PP242 using polyunsaturated fatty acids (i.e., docosahexaenoic acid) transforms this water-insoluble hydrophobic agent into a self-assembling nanoparticle (DHA-PP242 nanoparticle [DPNP]). Surface PEGylation of DPNP with amphiphilic copolymers renders the nanoparticles aqueously soluble for preclinical studies. Systemically administered DPNP shows tropism for macrophages within peripheral immune organs. Furthermore, DPNP regulates differentiation of adoptively transferred T cells in a macrophage-dependent manner in Rag1-/- mouse model. In an experimental model of heart transplantation, DPNP significantly extends the survival of grafts through inducing immune suppression, thus reducing the inflammatory response of the recipients. These findings suggest that targeted delivery of TORKinibs exploiting prodrug-assembled nanoparticle scaffolds may provide a therapeutic option against organ rejection.

16.
Vaccine ; 39(33): 4598-4610, 2021 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34238610

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Economic evidence on how much it may cost for vaccinators to reach populations is important to plan vaccination programs. Moreover, knowing the incremental costs to reach populations that have traditionally been undervaccinated, especially those hard-to-reach who are facing supply-side barriers to vaccination, is essential to expanding immunization coverage to these populations. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review to identify estimates of costs associated with getting vaccinators to all vaccination sites. We searched PubMed and the Immunization Delivery Cost Catalogue (IDCC) in 2019 for the following costs to vaccinators: (1) training costs; (2) labor costs, per diems, and incentives; (3) identification of vaccine beneficiary location; and (4) travel costs. We assessed if any of these costs were specific to populations that are hard-to-reach for vaccination, based on a framework for examining supply-side barriers to vaccination. RESULTS: We found 19 studies describing average vaccinator training costs at $0.67/person vaccinated or targeted (SD $0.94) and $0.10/dose delivered (SD $0.07). The average cost for vaccinator labor and incentive costs across 29 studies was $2.15/dose (SD $2.08). We identified 13 studies describing intervention costs for a vaccinator to know the location of a beneficiary, with an average cost of $19.69/person (SD $26.65), and six studies describing vaccinator travel costs, with an average cost of $0.07/dose (SD $0.03). Only eight of these studies described hard-to-reach populations for vaccination; two studies examined incremental costs per dose to reach hard-to-reach populations, which were 1.3-2 times higher than the regular costs. The incremental cost to train vaccinators was $0.02/dose, and incremental labor costs for targeting hard-to-reach populations were $0.16-$1.17/dose. CONCLUSION: Additional comparative costing studies are needed to understand the potential differential costs for vaccinators reaching the vaccination sites that serve hard-to-reach populations. This will help immunization program planners and decision-makers better allocate resources to extend vaccination programs.

17.
J Integr Neurosci ; 20(2): 255-264, 2021 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34258924

RESUMO

The abnormal deposition of the extracellular amyloid-ß peptide is the typical pathological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease. Strategies to reduce the amyloid-ß deposition effectively alleviate the neuronal degeneration and cognitive deficits of Alzheimer's disease. Danggui-Shaoyao-San has been considered a useful therapeutic agent known for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. However, the mechanism of Danggui-Shaoyao-San for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease remains unclear. We investigated Danggui-Shaoyao-San's effect on amyloidosis and neuronal degeneration in an APP/PS1 mouse model. We found Danggui-Shaoyao-San alleviated the cognitive deficits in APP/PS1 mice. Additionally, Danggui-Shaoyao-San ameliorated the neuronal degeneration in these mice. Danggui-Shaoyao-San reduced the amyloidosis and amyloid-ß1-42 deposition in APP/PS1 mouse brain and down-regulated the receptor for advanced glycation end products, and up-regulated the level of low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein-1. However, the protein expression of the ß-amyloid precursor protein, ß-Secretase and presenilin-1 (PS1) in the amyloid-ß production pathway, and the expression of neprilysin and insulin-degrading enzyme in the amyloid-ß degradation pathway were not altered. Our findings collectively suggest that Danggui-Shaoyao-San could ameliorate the amyloidosis and neuronal degeneration of Alzheimer's disease, which may be associated with its up-regulation lipoprotein receptor-related protein-1 and down-regulation of the receptor for advanced glycation end products.

18.
Psychon Bull Rev ; 2021 Jul 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34254264

RESUMO

Person names, which hold within them extensive meaning, such as gender and cultural information, play an essential role in our social interaction. The intentional memory advantage of person names has been proved, but whether the automatic memory advantage of them exists remains unclear. In order to explore this question, we used a paradigm called attribute amnesia that allows us to test the automatic memory of person names in a working memory task. In Experiment 1, we adopted a classic attribute amnesia paradigm including 11 pre-surprise trials requiring participants to report the location of the target (person names or animal names) among three distractors and one surprise trial requiring them to unexpectedly report the identity of the target. The results showed that the identity report accuracy of person names in the surprise test was significantly better than that of animal names that served as a control group. Experiment 2 replicated Experiment 1 but increased the number of pre-surprise trials that could reduce the report accuracy of surprise test according to previous studies. The results revealed that the accuracy of the surprise test of person names decreased significantly, and showed no significant difference from that of animal names. These results suggest that there exists an automatic memory advantage of person names in working memory; however, such an automatic memory advantage effect could be reduced after participants learn to stop automatically encoding the attended but no-need-to-report person names through experiencing sufficient trials.

19.
Molecules ; 26(12)2021 Jun 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34204643

RESUMO

Plant-derived protein hydrolysates have potential applications in nutrition. Rice protein hydrolysates (RPHs), an excellent source of proteins, have attracted attention for the development of cosmeceuticals. However, few studies have reported the potential application of RPH in analysis, and this study examined their antioxidant activities and the inhibitory activities of skin aging enzymes. The results indicated that the total phenolic and flavonoid concentrations were 2.06 ± 0.13 mg gallic acid equivalent/g RPHs and 25.96 ± 0.52 µg quercetin equivalent/g RPHs, respectively. RPHs demonstrated dose-dependent activity for scavenging free radicals from 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl [half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) = 42.58 ± 2.1 mg/g RPHs] and 2,2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (IC50 = 2.11 ± 0.88 mg/g RPHs), dose-dependent reduction capacity (6.95 ± 1.40 mg vitamin C equivalent/g RPHs) and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (473 µmol Trolox equivalent/g RPHs). The concentrations of the RPH solution required to achieve 50% inhibition of hyaluronidase and tyrosinase activities were determined to be 8.91 and 107.6 mg/mL, respectively. This study demonstrated that RPHs have antioxidant, antihyaluronidase, and antityrosinase activities for future cosmetic applications.


Assuntos
Hidrolisados de Proteína/química , Hidrolisados de Proteína/farmacologia , Envelhecimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Compostos de Bifenilo/química , Compostos de Bifenilo/farmacologia , Clareadores/química , Clareadores/metabolismo , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Sequestradores de Radicais Livres/química , Ácido Gálico/farmacologia , Camundongos , Oryza/química , Oryza/enzimologia , Oryza/metabolismo , Oxirredução , Fenóis/farmacologia , Picratos/química , Picratos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Quercetina/farmacologia , Células RAW 264.7 , Ácidos Sulfônicos/química , Ácidos Sulfônicos/farmacologia , Tiazóis/química , Tiazóis/farmacologia
20.
Vaccine ; 39(32): 4437-4449, 2021 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34218959

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Understanding the costs to increase vaccination demand among under-vaccinated populations, as well as costs incurred by beneficiaries and caregivers for reaching vaccination sites, is essential to improving vaccination coverage. However, there have not been systematic analyses documenting such costs for beneficiaries and caregivers seeking vaccination. METHODS: We searched PubMed, Scopus, and the Immunization Delivery Cost Catalogue (IDCC) in 2019 for the costs for beneficiaries and caregivers to 1) seek and know how to access vaccination (i.e., costs to immunization programs for social mobilization and interventions to increase vaccination demand), 2) take time off from work, chores, or school for vaccination (i.e., productivity costs), and 3) travel to vaccination sites. We assessed if these costs were specific to populations that faced other non-cost barriers, based on a framework for defining hard-to-reach and hard-to-vaccinate populations for vaccination. RESULTS: We found 57 studies describing information, education, and communication (IEC) costs, social mobilization costs, and the costs of interventions to increase vaccination demand, with mean costs per dose at $0.41 (standard deviation (SD) $0.83), $18.86 (SD $50.65) and $28.23 (SD $76.09) in low-, middle-, and high-income countries, respectively. Five studies described productivity losses incurred by beneficiaries and caregivers seeking vaccination ($38.33 per person; SD $14.72; n = 3). We identified six studies on travel costs incurred by beneficiaries and caregivers attending vaccination sites ($11.25 per person; SD $9.54; n = 4). Two studies reported social mobilization costs per dose specific to hard-to-reach populations, which were 2-3.5 times higher than costs for the general population. Eight studies described barriers to vaccination among hard-to-reach populations. CONCLUSION: Social mobilization/IEC costs are well-characterized, but evidence is limited on costs incurred by beneficiaries and caregivers getting to vaccination sites. Understanding the potential incremental costs for populations facing barriers to reach vaccination sites is essential to improving vaccine program financing and planning.

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