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1.
J Cell Physiol ; 235(1): 254-266, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31237697

RESUMO

Accumulated evidence suggested the importance of the Rho/Rho-kinase (ROCK) signaling pathway in cancer proliferation and invasion. However, its role in colorectal carcinoma (CRC) is not well understood. This study evaluated the effect of ROCK signaling pathway on CRC behavior on the basis of a novel Rho/ROCK inhibitor RKI-1447. Here, we found RKI-1447 could drastically suppress HCT-8 and HCT-116 cell growth and promoted apoptosis. Our in vitro data indicated suppressed cytoskeletal dynamics induced by RKI-1447 inhibition on mitochondrial respiration, which was evidenced by basal and maximal respiration rates, and ATP production. Simultaneously, cellular basal and maximal glycolytic rates, and glycolytic capacity were also reduced in response to RKI-1447. Moreover, RKI-1447 caused excessive reactive oxygen species generation and membrane depolarization as well as activated ER-stress. We also demonstrated CHOP is essential for RKI-1447 induced cell apoptosis. Finally, we proved inhibition of ROCK by RKI-1447 could effectively inhibit CRC growth in vivo. Taken together, this study demonstrated that inhibition of ROCK signaling pathway by RKI-1447 could suppress CRC via cytoskeleton associated mitochondrial dysfunction and cellular bioenergetics disruption. Our data suggest RKI-1447 may be an attractive antitumor drug candidate for the treatment of CRC.

2.
Sci Total Environ ; 698: 133860, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31514029

RESUMO

The correlation between long-term exposure to SRF-EMR and the decline in male fertility is gradually receiving increasing attention from the medical society. While male reproductive organs are often exposed to SRF-EMR, little is currently known about the direct effects of long-term SRF-EMR exposure on the testes and its involvement in the suppression of male reproductive potential. The present study was designed to investigate this issue by using 4G SRF-EMR in rats. A unique exposure model using a 4G smartphone achieved localized exposure to the scrotum of the rats for 6 h each day (the smartphone was kept on active talk mode and received an external call for 1 min over 10 min intervals). Results showed that SRF-EMR exposure for 150 days decreased sperm quality and pup weight, accompanied by testicular injury. However, these adverse effects were not evident in rats exposed to SRF-EMR for 50 days or 100 days. Sequencing analysis and western blotting suggested Spock3 overexpression in the testes of rats exposed to SRF-EMR for 150 days. Inhibition of Spock3 overexpression improved sperm quality decline and alleviated testicular injury and BTB disorder in the exposed rats. Additionally, SRF-EMR exposure suppressed MMP2 activity, while increasing the activity of the MMP14-Spock3 complexes and decreasing MMP14-MMP2 complexes; these results were reversed by Spock3 inhibition. Thus, long-term exposure to 4G SRF-EMR diminished male fertility by directly disrupting the Spock3-MMP2-BTB axis in the testes of adult rats. To our knowledge, this is the first study to show direct toxicity of SRF-EMR on the testes emerging after long-term exposure.

3.
Toxicol Lett ; 318: 12-21, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31622651

RESUMO

Maternal smoking during pregnancy and lactation is associated with increased fat mass in the offspring, but the mechanism by which this occurs is not fully understood. Our study focused on the relationships among maternal nicotine exposure, adipose angiogenesis and adipose tissue function in female offspring. Pregnant rats were randomly assigned to nicotine or control groups. Microvascular density, lipid metabolism and α7nAChR-Egr1-FGF2 signaling pathway genes/proteins were tested in 4-, 12- and 26-week female offspring. In vitro, nicotine concentration- and time-response experiments were conducted in 3T3-L1. Lipid metabolism and α7nAChR-Egr1-FGF2 signaling pathway genes/proteins were tested. The conditioned media of differentiated 3T3-L1 treated with nicotine were used to observe tube formation in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Nicotine-exposed females presented higher adipose microvascular density. The gene expression of α7nAChR, Egr1 and FGF2 was significantly increased in gonadal white adipose tissue (gWAT) and inguinal subcutaneous WAT (igSWAT) of nicotine-exposed females at 4 weeks of age. The protein expression of α7nAChR, Egr1 and FGF2 was increased in gWAT and igSWAT of nicotine-exposed females at 4 weeks of age, and increased in gWAT at 26 weeks. In vitro, nicotine increased the expression of lipid metabolism and α7nAChR-Egr1-FGF2 signaling pathway genes/proteins in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. In the tube formation experiment, adipocytes affected by nicotine promoted HUVEC angiogenesis. Therefore, maternal nicotine exposure promoted the early angiogenesis of adipose tissue via the α7nAChR-Egr1-FGF2 signaling pathway, and this angiogenesis mechanism was associated with increased adipogenesis in adipose tissue of female offspring.


Assuntos
Adipócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Tecido Adiposo Branco/irrigação sanguínea , Neovascularização Fisiológica/efeitos dos fármacos , Nicotina/toxicidade , Agonistas Nicotínicos/toxicidade , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Células 3T3-L1 , Adipócitos/metabolismo , Animais , Proteína 1 de Resposta de Crescimento Precoce/genética , Proteína 1 de Resposta de Crescimento Precoce/metabolismo , Feminino , Fator 2 de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/genética , Fator 2 de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana/metabolismo , Humanos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Exposição Materna , Camundongos , Gravidez , Ratos Wistar , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptor Nicotínico de Acetilcolina alfa7/genética , Receptor Nicotínico de Acetilcolina alfa7/metabolismo
4.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2055: 119-132, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31502149

RESUMO

A high level of microsatellite instability (MSI-H+) is an emerging predictive and prognostic biomarker for immunotherapy response in cancer. Recently, MSI-H+ has been detected in a variety of cancer types, in addition to the classical cancers associated with Lynch Syndrome. Clinical testing for MSI-H+ is currently performed primarily through traditional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) or immunohistochemistry (IHC) assays. However, next-generation sequencing (NGS)-based approaches have been developed which have multiple advantages over traditional assays. For instance, NGS has the ability to interrogate thousands of microsatellite loci compared with just 5-7 loci that are detected by PCR. In this chapter, we detail the biochemical and computational steps to detect MSI-H+ from analysis of paired tumor and normal samples through NGS. We begin with DNA extraction, describe sequencing library preparation and quality control (QC), and outline the bioinformatics steps necessary for sequence alignment, preprocessing, and MSI-H+ detection using the software tool MANTIS. This workflow is intended to facilitate more widespread usage and adaptation of NGS-powered MSI detection, which can be eventually standardized for routine clinical testing.

5.
J Nanosci Nanotechnol ; 20(4): 2138-2143, 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31492222

RESUMO

With the higher and higher application level of medical technology, more and more genetic diseases have been diagnosed. Nucleic acid, as an important genetic material, has been found to have important functions in the storage and transmission of the genetic information in the replication and synthesis of proteins. As the first step in nucleic acid detection experiments, nucleic acid extraction performance is associated with the purity of target nucleic acid samples, which is very important for the downstream steps. In this paper, we employed the magnetic bead for extracting nucleic acids based on the platform of large liquid handling workstation and designed a matching magnetic separation module. It was shown that the temperature control block designed in this paper has reliable stability, high accuracy by using the incremental PID algorithm, with the control accuracy up to ±0.5 °C, and the control stabilization time is about 90 s, which can satisfy the experimental requirements. Besides, the average magnetic bead transfer rate of this module was further verified by mimicking the manual magnetic bead nucleic acid extraction process. The results proved that the module has an excellent performance with the average magnetic bead transfer rate greater than 95% and the magnetic bead transfer rate in each well greater than 90%, which could be consistent with the experimental indictors of nucleic acid extraction.

6.
J Nanosci Nanotechnol ; 20(4): 2165-2170, 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31492225

RESUMO

The high-throughput nucleic acid detection system provides a good solution for detecting nucleic acids more safely, rapidly and accurately, which greatly improves the detection efficiency. Highthroughput nucleic acid detection mainly includes three steps: signal acquisition, signal amplification and signal processing. Therefore, obtaining the purified nucleic acid is the primary task of the nucleic acid detection, and the quality of the nucleic acid has a significant impact on results. In this paper, we employed the magnetic nanoparticle technology for extracting nucleic acids based on the platform of large liquid handling workstation and designed a matching vibrating module. The involved steps of core method, magnetic bead nucleic acid extraction technology, are mainly concerned with the cell lysis, nucleic acid binding, nucleic acid purification and magnetic particles elution. During the extraction process, specific temperature is required for the lysis and elution. It was shown that the temperature control part designed in this paper has the reliable stability, high accuracy by using the incremental proportion-integration-differentiation (PID) algorithm, with the control accuracy up to ±0.5 °C. The temperature regulating time is about 90 s, which can meet the experimental requirements. Besides, the vibrating uniformity of this module was further verified by protein concentration test, which proved that the module has the excellent performance and can be consistent with the experimental indictors of the nucleic acid extraction.

7.
J Hazard Mater ; 383: 121099, 2020 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31518808

RESUMO

High CO2 emissions during the production process of ordinary Portland cement (OPC) promoted greener-cement development, wherein the application of magnesium oxychloride cement (MOC) can add value to waste in potash industry and reduce environmental hazards. However, its application was restricted by its inferior water resistance. It's a challenge to remarkably increase both the compressive strength and water resistance of MOC. Herein, we demonstrate that cornstarch/sodium polyacrylate (PAAS) MOC composites exhibit increased compressive strength and water resistance. Moreover, the biomineralization process encourages the growth and alignment of phase 5 crystals by a cornstarch template with hydroxyl groups, thus enhancing the compressive strength of MOC. The chelation of magnesium ions and the transformation of phase 5 crystal structure by PAAS can significantly enhance the water resistance of MOC. This composite exhibits a 21.0% increase in compressive strength, and the softening coefficient is also increased from 0.48 to 0.81 in comparison with unmodified-MOC. Meanwhile, the hydrogen bonds between cornstarch and elemental Cl obviously decrease the efflorescence phenomena of the MOC. This MOC composite with a markedly increased compressive strength and water resistance, which was prepared by a facile and green method, may have potential applications in building development and the replacement of OPC.

8.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc ; 224: 117407, 2020 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31404760

RESUMO

As expired medical products can be repackaged and sold by unscrupulous counterfeiters, it is essential to find a rapid and convenient method for distinguishing expired and unexpired drugs. Standard detection methods such as high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and thin-layer chromatography are complex, time-consuming, and require organic solvents (that are environmentally unfriendly). Additionally, the Pharmacopoeia publications do not include information about identifying expired drugs. In this study, we proposed a novel method for identifying expired medications based on Raman spectra and verified it using >20 types of expired (Old) and unexpired (New) drugs, each type from the same manufacturer. A portable Raman spectrometer was used to collect Raman spectra of all samples and the similarities between the Old and New drugs (SN-O) were evaluated. Drugs with SN-O values <0.9 were classified directly as expired drugs. For drugs with SN-O values >0.9, the content of active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) might be so low (below or around 10 wt%) that its Raman signal is largely obscured by that of the excipients. In such cases, changes in the API content are undetectable using the portable instrument. Therefore, we adopted Raman mapping technology and established a virtual imaging map to locate areas of high API content. The similarities between the Old or New spectrum and that of the API (SO-A and SN-A, respectively) were calculated after removing the signal from the excipients. Our novel methods provide a precise, rapid, convenient, and environmentally friendly way to identify expired drugs that is more effective than the standard HPLC assay.

9.
Appl Opt ; 58(27): 7552-7557, 2019 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31674407

RESUMO

Based on a parallel phase compensation scheme, we propose an efficient wavefront shaping method using a spatial light modulator (SLM) for quickly generating a series of focused spots through a multimode fiber (MMF). The compensated phase mask obtained by a two-step phase-shifting technique is loaded to the SLM for generating a focused spot at an arbitrary target position out of the fiber facet. Furthermore, the parallel algorithm we present makes it possible to obtain a series of compensated phase masks, which could be used to generate a series of focused spots at different locations. We experimentally obtained 100 tightly focused spots, with an average focused efficiency of 21.60% and an average focused diameter of 1.9240 µm, and only one-time parallel-compensated phase retrieval is required without multiple iteration optimization.

10.
Appl Opt ; 58(30): 8282-8289, 2019 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31674500

RESUMO

The paper introduces a silica-on-silicon monolithic integrated cyclic arrayed waveguide grating (AWG) with Mach-Zehnder interference (MZI) filters and arrayed vertical reflecting mirrors in silicon to realize effective and stable optical transmission between waveguides and photodiodes. The cyclic AWG acts as both multiplexer over the L-band for upstream traffic and demultiplexer over the C-band for downstream traffic. The integrated chip, including AWG, MZI filters, and arrayed reflecting mirrors, has been made successfully with a 6.0 dB insertion loss, which is less than the discrete devices. At the same time, the arrayed reflecting mirrors are more stable than separate reflectors.

11.
Fitoterapia ; : 104392, 2019 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31669961

RESUMO

Previous studies have shown that mitomycin C (MMC) can prevent scar adhesion after joint surgery, but the specific mechanism underlying this effect remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to explore the specific mechanism by which MMC promotes fibroblast apoptosis and prevents joint adhesion. The effect of MMC on fibroblasts was assessed using cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) assays, western blotting, and TUNEL staining. We used qRT-PCR to measure the expression of miR-21 in fibroblasts treated with MMC. Luciferase activity assays were used to determine the relationships between miR-21 and Programmed cell death 4 (PDCD4). The effects of miR-21 and PDCD4 on fibroblast apoptosis were assessed using flow cytometry and western blotting. HE staining was used to determine the role of miR-21 in scar tissue formation in a model of joint adhesion. The results showed that MMC induced apoptosis of fibroblasts and decreased the expression of miR-21. Moreover, miR-21 down-regulation also induced apoptosis of fibroblasts. PDCD4 was confirmed to be a direct target of miR-21 by luciferase activity assay. The results from the animal model indicated that miR-21 attenuated the effect of MMC on reducing the number of fibroblasts. Our study shows that MMC can induce fibroblast apoptosis and prevent joint adhesion by regulating the expression of miR-21 and its target PDCD4.

12.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(45): e17671, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31702619

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Injuries among children and adolescents remain a major public health problem in China. In the present study, we undertook a systematic review and meta-analysis of the published literature of epidemiological studies investigating injuries among children and adolescents in China and aimed to describe the status of injury among children and adolescents (aged 0-19 years) in China nationwide. A random-effects meta-analysis model was used to calculate the pooled prevalence of injury with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) across studies. The potential heterogeneity moderators were identified by subgroup and sensitivity analysis. A total of 775,615 children and adolescents were included in this study. Overall, the pooled injury prevalence among children and adolescents aged 0 to 19 years was 23.0% (95% CI 20.0%-27.0%) in studies using 1996 version of injury definition, and 13.0% (95% CI 10.0%-17.0%) in studies using 2004 version of injury definition. Relevant heterogeneity moderators have been identified by subgroup analysis. Sensitivity analysis yielded consistent results. CONCLUSION: Our study shows a moderately high injury prevalence among children and adolescents aged 0 to 19 years in China, more prevention policies and programs should be urgently developed to decrease the occurrence of child and adolescent injury.


Assuntos
Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Ferimentos e Lesões/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Prevalência , Saúde Pública
13.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 11(47): 44118-44123, 2019 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31682102

RESUMO

Activity and immobilization of catalysts in liquid-phase reactions seem not to coexist. We report here the excellent activity of an MoOx nanoparticle (NP) catalyst for d-glucose epimerization to d-mannose and the electrical immobilization of NPs in a flow reaction. Prior to that, a green and one-pot method to synthesize the MoOx NPs (3.05 nm) via oxidizing metal Mo by hydrogen peroxide was presented. The NPs overwhelmed the reported catalysts including epimerase for d-glucose epimerization, originating from a strong interaction between the NPs and the reactant that was demonstrated by ex situ and in situ characterizations and theoretical calculations. The electrically charged feature of NPs inspired us to find a convenient way to "immobilize" them inside an activated carbon bed, and thereby, a flow reactor was assembled. The continuous epimerization was run under 24 V for 16 days with an almost unchanged activity, and only 3.2% of total Mo was lost.

14.
Brain Res Bull ; 154: 116-126, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31738973

RESUMO

This study was designed to investigate whether calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) could induce immture white matter progenitor cells proliferation and differentiation into oligodendrocyte(OL) precursor cells after oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) in vitro. Progenitor cells of immature white matter originating from five-day-old newborn rats were divided into control, OGD, control + CaSR silencing, OGD + CaSR silencing, control + adenosine triphosphate magnesium chloride (ATP-MgCl2) and OGD + ATP-MgCl2 groups. Immunofluorescence, real-time RT-PCR, gene silencing, Hoechst 33342/propidium iodide (PI) and Flow cytometry tests were used to examine the proliferation, differentiation and survival of the white matter progenitor cells in the different treatment groups. The results showed that normal immature white matter progenitor cells have certain ability of self-proliferation and differentiation in vitro. OGD could further induce progenitor cells proliferation and differentiation into O4 + OL precursor cells by activating CaSR, but OGD also induced more necrosis and apoptosis of newborn cells and less MBP + OL formation. The addition of ATP-MgCl2 as an activating agent of CaSR further promoted cell proliferation and differentiation both under normal and OGD conditions and reduced OGD-induced apoptosis and necrosis, while CaSR silenced resulted in minimal cell proliferation, differentiation and survival. This study suggests that CaSR plays an important role in the induction of immature white matter progenitor cells proliferation and differentiation into OL precursor cells after OGD, which may provide a new angle to further study whether CaSR initiates the intrinsic repair potential of immature white matter after ischemia in vivo.

16.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(48): e17984, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31770208

RESUMO

Pediatric patients suffer from chronic pancreatitis (CP), especially those with diabetes mellitus (DM). This study aimed to identify the incidence of and risk factors for DM in pediatric CP.CP patients admitted to our center from January 2000 to December 2013 were assigned to the pediatric (<18 years old) and adult group according to their age at onset of CP. Cumulative rates of DM and risk factors for both groups were calculated and identified.The median follow-up duration for the whole cohort was 7.6 years. In these 2153 patients, 13.5% of them were pediatrics. The mean age at the onset and the diagnosis of CP in pediatrics were 11.622 and 19.727, respectively. DM was detected in 13.1% patients and 31.0% patients in the pediatric group and adult group, respectively. Age at the onset of CP, smoking history, body mass index (BMI), and etiology of CP were identified risk factors for DM in pediatrics.DM was detected in 13.1% pediatric patients. Age at the onset of CP, smoking history, BMI, and etiology of CP were identified risk factors for the development of DM in pediatric CP patients. The high-risk populations were suggested to be monitored frequently. They could also benefit from a lifestyle modification.

17.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 2019 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31682070

RESUMO

Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) causes respiratory diseases in chickens and poses an economic threat to the poultry industry worldwide. Despite vaccine use, there have been field outbreaks of IBV in Taiwan. This study aimed to characterize the emerging IBV variants circulating in Taiwan. The analysis of the structural protein genes showed that these variants emerged through frequent recombination events among Taiwan strains, China strains, Japan strains and vaccine strains. Cross-neutralization tests revealed that two of the variants exhibited novel serotypes. Clinicopathological assessment showed that two of the variants caused high fatality rates of 67% and 20% in one-day-old SPF chicks, and all the variants possessed multiorgan tropisms, including trachea, proventriculus and urogenital tissues. Furthermore, the commercial live-attenuated Mass-type vaccine conferred poor protection against these variants. This study identified novel genotypes, serotypes and pathotypes of emerging IBV variants circulating in Taiwan. There is an urgent need for effective countermeasures against these variant strains.

18.
J Org Chem ; 2019 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31702140

RESUMO

A visible light-induced cascade cyclization of thioamides with alkynes was developed to synthesize 1,3-thiozoles. The sulfur radical generated from thioamide via the single-electron transfer (SET) pathway was promoted by photocatalysis as a key intermediate in this reaction. When bromoalkynes were used as the substrate, the self-coupling products 1,1-dibromo-1-en-3-ynes were obtained in moderate yields, and an energy transfer pathway for this transformation promoted by visible-light photocatalysis was proposed.

19.
Pest Manag Sci ; 2019 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31749278

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The gene doublesex (dsx) plays pivotal roles in sex determination and controls sexually dimorphic development in certain insects. Importantly, it also displays a potential candidate target for pest management due to its sex-specific splicing. Therefore, we used CRISPR/Cas9-mediated gene disruption to investigate the function of dsx in Hyphantria cunea, an invasive forest pest. RESULT: In the present study, we identified the dsx gene from H. cunea which showed a sex-biased expression pattern that was different from other lepidopteran insects. Referring to sex-specific functional analyses in Bombyx mori, we performed a site-specific knockout of the Hcdsx gene by using a CRISPR/Cas9 system, which induced severe abnormalities in external genitalia and some incomplete sex reversal phenotypes, which in turn led to reduced sex-specific fecundity. An alternative splicing pattern of Hcdsx was altered by CRISPR/Cas9-induced mutation, and alterations in splicing affected expression of downstream genes PBP1 (encoding pheromone binding protein1), vg1 and vg2 (encoding vitellogenin), which contributed to the sex-specific sterility phenotypes in the Hcdsx mutants. CONCLUSION: The Hcdsx gene plays important roles in sexual differentiation in H. cunea. Disruption of Hcdsx induced sex-specific sterility demonstrating a potential application in control of this pest. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

20.
Transl Psychiatry ; 9(1): 303, 2019 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31745072

RESUMO

No studies have examined the relationship between endogenous polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) levels and treatment response to PUFAs. We conducted a 12-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial comparing the effects of high-dose eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 1.2 g) and placebo on cognitive function (continuous performance test) in n = 92 youth (age 6-18-years-old) with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Blood erythrocytes PUFAs were measured before and after treatment, to examine the effects of baseline endogenous EPA levels on treatment response and the effects of EPA treatment on PUFAs levels. Secondary measures included other ADHD symptoms, emotional symptoms, and levels of plasma high-sensitivity c-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Overall, EPA group improved more than placebo group on focused attention (variability, Effect size (ES) = 0.38, p = 0.041); moreover, within youth with the lowest baseline endogenous EPA levels, EPA group improved more than placebo group in another measure of focused attention (hit reaction time, HRT, ES = 0.89, p = 0.015) and in vigilance (HRT interstimulus interval changes, HRTISIC, ES = 0.83, p = 0.036). Interestingly, EPA group improved less than placebo group in impulsivity (commission errors), both overall and in youth with the highest baseline EPA levels, who also showed less improvement in other ADHD and emotional symptoms. EPA increased blood erythrocytes EPA by 1.6-fold but not DHA levels, and did not affect hs-CRP and BDNF plasma levels. In conclusion, EPA treatment improves cognitive symptoms in ADHD youth, especially if they have a low baseline endogenous EPA level, while youth with high EPA levels may be negatively affected by this treatment.

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