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2.
Cells ; 9(4)2020 Apr 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32290365

RESUMO

Compromised pumping function of the corneal endothelium, due to loss of endothelial cells, results in corneal edema and subsequent visual problems. Clinically and experimentally, oxidative stress may cause corneal endothelial decompensation after phacoemulsification. Additionally, in vitro and animal studies have demonstrated the protective effects of intraoperative infusion of ascorbic acid (AA). Here, we established a paraquat-induced cell damage model, in which paraquat induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and apoptosis in the B4G12 and ARPE-19 cell lines. We demonstrate that oxidative stress triggered autophagic flux blockage in corneal endothelial cells and that addition of AA ameliorated such oxidative damage. We also demonstrate the downregulation of Akt phosphorylation in response to oxidative stress. Pretreatment with ascorbic acid reduced the downregulation of Akt phosphorylation, while inhibition of the PI3K/Akt pathway attenuated the protective effects of AA. Further, we establish an in vivo rabbit model of corneal endothelial damage, in which an intracameral infusion of paraquat caused corneal opacity. Administration of AA via topical application increased its concentration in the corneal stroma and reduced oxidative stress in the corneal endothelium, thereby promoting corneal clarity. Our findings indicate a perioperative strategy of topical AA administration to prevent oxidative stress-induced damage, particularly for those with vulnerable corneal endothelia.

3.
J Cell Mol Med ; 2020 Apr 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32333497

RESUMO

The short supply of donor corneas is exacerbated by the unsuitability of donors with insufficient endothelial cell density. Few studies have investigated promoting corneal endothelial cell proliferation to increase the endothelial cell density. We hypothesize that pre-transplantation treatment of proliferative tissue-cultivated corneas may increase corneal endothelial cell density. We observed that the airlift cultures were superior to immersion cultures with respect to both transparency and thickness. In this tissue culture system, we observed that lysophosphatidic acid increased the rabbit corneal endothelial cell density, number of BrdU-positive cells and improve wound healing. We also observed an indirect effect of lysophosphatidic acid on corneal endothelial cell proliferation mediated by the stimulation of interleukin-1ß secretion from stromal cells. Human corneal tissues treated with lysophosphatidic acid or interleukin-1ß contained significantly more Ki-67-positive cells than untreated group. The lysophosphatidic acid- or interleukin-1ß-treated cultured tissue remained hexagon-shaped, with ZO-1 expression and no evidence of the endothelial-mesenchymal transition. Our novel protocol of tissue culture may be applicable for eye banks to optimize corneal grafting.

4.
Int Ophthalmol ; 2020 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32198608

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To find clinical demographics of pterygium surgery and prevalence of conjunctival intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) in pterygium specimen. METHODS: This is a retrospective, institutional study. The records of patients who had received pterygium excision from 2000 to 2014 were reviewed. Patients after complete ophthalmic "examinations", surgical procedures, and pathological reports were enrolled. Surgical procedures, pathology, external eye photography, prevalence of CIN in specimen, and demographic data were described. RESULTS: Of 1787 pterygium cases, 928 were male and 859 were female. The mean age was 65.19 ± 14.21 years. Of these 1787 cases, 1435 (80.3%) cases had primary pterygium excision, while the others (n = 352; 19.7%) had pterygium excision for recurrence. Four cases presented CIN within pterygium tissue (0.22%). The mean age of pterygium patients with CIN was 57.75 ± 7.80 years. In stratified data, our patients who received primary and secondary pterygium excision were found prevalent in the eighth (28.2%) and seventh (26.1%) decade, respectively. Twelve percent of patients who underwent secondary pterygium excision had a recurrence and required another surgery. Patients requiring amniotic membrane transplantation (AMT) during primary pterygium excision were significantly younger (median, 58 years) than those (median, 67 years) without the assistance of AMT (p < 0.001). Similarly, AMT was utilized in younger patients (median, 56 years) during secondary pterygium excision, compared to those without AMT (median, 64 years) (p = 0.001). CONCLUSION: CIN combined with pterygium is very rare. However, the possibility of the development of ocular surface squamous neoplasia in pterygium tissue should not be ignored. Meticulous pathological investigation of the surgical samples is important.

5.
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci ; 61(3): 21, 2020 Mar 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32181797

RESUMO

Purpose: To determine the association of corneal sensitivity and tear functions on the prognosis of eyes after posttraumatic recurrent corneal erosion syndrome (RCES). Methods: Patients were enrolled retrospectively and had unilateral RCES and a history of ocular surface trauma. A corneal sensitivity test and tear function test (tear break-up time and Schirmer test) were performed at three time points (month 1 to month 3, month 3 to month 6, and month 6 to month 12). Depending on the number of recurrences during the follow-up, patients were divided into group A (n > 2) or group B (n = 2). A comparison between diseased and normal fellow eyes in each patient was performed. Results: A total of 31 patients were enrolled and divided into group A (n = 14) and group B (n = 17). The mean age was 40.3 ± 12.2 years, whereas the mean follow-up was 28.0 ± 3.6 months. During the study period, corneal sensitivity, tear break-up time, and the Schirmer test results were all lower in diseased eyes than in normal fellow eyes in both groups. Compared to the first time point, recovery of corneal sensitivity and the Schirmer test values were observed in diseased eyes in group B at the second and third time points. Conclusions: Poor corneal sensitivity and tear function are associated with posttraumatic RCES. Recovery of corneal sensitivity and tear function may be associated with a reduction of recurrence in eyes with posttraumatic RCES.

6.
J Craniofac Surg ; 2020 Feb 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32097384

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Free ileocolon flap is a reliable technique allowing simultaneous restoration of swallowing and speech. The aim is to report our 6-year experience in a single center. METHODS: Thirty-seven patients treated between 2010 and 2015 were included in the study. Swallowing and speech function were evaluated in 27 patients with a 7-point and 5-point Likert scale, respectively. Moreover, 12 of them consented to voice spectrum analysis (VSA). RESULTS: Complications noted were: aspiration (3), esophagocutaneous fistula (2), and stricture (1). Seven patients experienced self-limited diarrhea. Regarding swallowing function, 77.8% scored ≥5 on Likert scale whereas speech Likert scale showed excellent results (score >12) in 74%. VSA demonstrated mean phonation time of 10.75 seconds, mean frequency of 131 Hz and mean dynamic range of 56 dB. CONCLUSION: In experienced hands, the ileocolon flap is safe and effective, particularly in patients with long-life expectancy, providing good swallowing and speech function without further procedures/prostheses.

7.
Adv Ther ; 37(3): 1034-1048, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32002810

RESUMO

PURPOSE: A recent successful clinical trial demonstrated that a less invasive cell-injection procedure is a viable medical modality for treating corneal endothelial dystrophy. This medical advance still relies on human corneal endothelial cell (HCEC) sources derived from rare cornea donations. The progenitor of the corneal endothelium, which has the characteristics of active proliferation and lineage restriction, will be an ideal cell source for expansion ex vivo. However, the distribution of progenitor-like cells in the corneal endothelial sheet has been under debate for more than a decade. METHODS: This paper re-examines the scientific evidence of the existence of human corneal endothelial progenitors (HCEPs) from the aspects of (1) the origin of cornea formation during ocular development, (2) manifestations from clinical studies, and (3) the distinctive properties of ex vivo-cultured subpopulations. RESULTS: The discrepancies regarding different types of progenitor-like cells in various locations of the cornea are based on the fact that the corneal endothelium is derived from different cell types with multiple origins during corneal formation. CONCLUSIONS: Resolving this long-standing issue in corneal biology will enable various types of progenitors to be isolated and their potencies regarding the formation of functional endothelial cells to be examined. Additionally, an effective niche system for quantitatively producing therapeutic cells can be formulated to satisfy the burning need associated with corneal endothelial dystrophy in the future.

8.
Asian J Surg ; 2020 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31959573

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Free colon flap is the preferred method of hypopharynx reconstruction when the defect is substantial, or simultaneous voice reconstruction is planned. Most of the complications in free colon flaps are located at the anastomosis between colon and thoracic esophagus due to size mismatch of the lumen. We present our experience comparing a modified anastomosis technique and a conventional anastomosis technique at the distal end of interposed colonic segment. METHODS: In this retrospective review, 94 patients, divided into two groups, underwent hypopharynx reconstruction. Group A (18 patients), conventional anastomoses between colon and thoracic esophagus was performed, while in Group B (76 patients), underwent the modified method of anastomosis. RESULTS: The average follow-up period was 46 months in group A and 54 months in group B. Fistula formation was found in 2 patients from Group A, and 1 patient from Group B. Strictures were observed in 4 patients from Group A, and 1 patient from Group B. Difference between both groups regarding complications of leakage and stricture formation was statistically significant (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Modified method for anastomosis between colon and thoracic esophagus was found to be effective in the reduction of complications associated with the use of a free colon flap for hypopharyngeal reconstruction. Further advances of this technique could gain momentum in the future.

9.
Ann Plast Surg ; 2020 Jan 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31985540

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Closure of extensive defects of posterior trunk can be challenging for reconstructive surgeons owing to the need of a large bulk of well-vascularized tissue to resurface the skin and the exposed hardware and to fill the dead spaces. We hypothesized that elevating multiple perforators flaps in various patterns would allow for reconstruction of large posterior trunk defects with tension-free primary closure and minimal donor site morbidity. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Between January 2013 and December 2016, 23 patients with large posterior trunk defects underwent reconstruction with a multiple freestyle perforator flaps approach. We experimented a freestyle perforator-based reconstruction, which consists of designing a sequence of flaps, able to adequately fit the defects, allowing for tensionless primary closure. RESULTS: The average age of patients was 60.2 years (range, 18-80 years). A total number of 62 perforator flaps was performed, with an average of 2.6 flaps per patient. We were able to successfully cover defects up to 27 × 29 cm. A single perforator was used in 58 flaps, whereas more than 1 perforator was applied in 4 flaps. In all cases, the donor sites were closed primarily, and patients healed uneventfully. Six patients underwent radiotherapy after surgery, but no complication occurred. CONCLUSIONS: In this series of extensive defects of the posterior trunk, a tension-free closure was achieved by distributing the tension to multiple freestyle perforator flaps, supplying sufficient volume of tissue and reliable vascularization. This approach can be a valid tool in facing reconstruction of large and complicated defects of the posterior trunk.

10.
Microsurgery ; 40(2): 130-136, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31489971

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Vascularized lymph node transfer (VLNT) is an emerging surgical treatment for lymphedema. However, literature-comparing outcomes of upper limb lymphedema (ULL) and lower limb lymphedema (LLL) is limited. Hence, the aim of this study is to compare the long-term clinical outcomes on ULL versus LLL in patients treated with VLNT. METHODS: A retrospective study retrieving data from patients with International Society of Lymphology (ISL) stages II-III who underwent different VLNTs from July 2010 to July 2016 in our institution was performed. Demographics preoperatively, and clinical data (limb circumference, infectious episodes, lymphoscintigraphic studies) preoperatively and postoperatively were recorded. Clinical outcomes by extremity were also analyzed. RESULTS: A total of 83 patients with lymphedema (ULL: n = 30, LLL: n = 53) were included. Mean follow-up time was 32.8 months (range 24-49 months). Mean circumference reduction was higher in patients with ULL compared to with LLL (28.6 ± 8.6 vs. 22.3 ± 10.1, p < .001), and for patients with secondary lymphedema (24.8 ± 9.6, p < .001) than for patients with primary lymphedema (18.9 ± 14, p > .05). Infectious episodes per year preoperative and postoperative showed that LLL patients had higher reduction on infection rate compared with ULL patients (2.4 ± 1.1 vs. 1.9 ± 1.2, p < .001). CONCLUSION: VLNT is a promising surgical treatment option for patients with lymphedema. This study suggests that VLNT may have a more beneficial outcome in patients with ULL and with secondary lymphedema.

11.
Microsurgery ; 40(2): 154-159, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31087574

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Free intestinal flaps for pharyngolaryngoesophagus reconstruction may require revision operations, including free flap re-inset for functional improvement. This report aimed to present our experience on vascular pedicle division at the secondary procedure of free flap re-inset for functional improvement in pharyngoesophageal reconstruction. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Eight male and seven female patients, with a mean age of 52 years old (range: 28-78 years), underwent pharyngoesophageal stricture (n = 7) and hypopharynx carcinoma reconstruction (n = 8) with three free jejunal and 12 free ileocolonic flaps. During revision procedure to shorten the flap for functional improvement, which was performed at 3 months after the initial operation, there were 11 venous and 4 arterial pedicle division cases. The intestinal flap circulation signs, such as presence of normoperistalsis, pink color, moderate secretion, and bleeding at puncture site, were observed for 1 hr. RESULTS: No venous pedicle divisions required reanastomosis. However, all arterial pedicle division cases required immediate restoration with a vein graft because of immediate intestinal changes. No postoperative complications were seen, excluding a patient with anterior wall reconstruction who had arterial division and reanastomosis. Patients were followed up for a median duration of 28 months. CONCLUSION: For revision operations involving free intestinal flaps, the arterial pedicle must be protected or repaired if transected, whereas the venous pedicle does not necessitate such a maneuver.

12.
J Surg Oncol ; 121(1): 168-174, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31168837

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: In patients with lymphedema, the disruption of the lymphatic network increases skin turgor and fibrosis of subcutaneous tissue, delays wound healing, causing recurrent ulcerations and infections. In these cases, management of ulcers can be challenging. METHODS: Between January 2016 and June 2018, patients presenting with lymphedema were enrolled at our Institution. We selected patients with severe lymphedema and ulcers of lower limbs and we performed a surgical approach, involving free gastroepiploic lymph nodes and omentum flap, harvested through laparoscopy. RESULTS: We enrolled 135 patients presenting for lymphedema. Among them, 10 eligible cases underwent excision of the ulcer and reconstruction with omentum flap. Mean age was 57.8 years and average follow-up 24.1 months. Circumferences and skin tonicity significantly decreased from the preoperative period. Lymphoscintigraphy showed improvement of the lymphatic drainage and restoration of lymphatic network. No episodes of infection were recorded in the postoperative period. CONCLUSIONS: Our combined procedure merges free flap techniques and lymphedema surgery: omentum covers the defect while providing a new source of lymph nodes, improving the lymphatic networks of the affected limb. This technique can highly increase the quality of life of the patient in a single-stage operation with fast recovery and low donor site morbidity.


Assuntos
Retalhos de Tecido Biológico/transplante , Úlcera da Perna/cirurgia , Linfonodos/transplante , Linfedema/cirurgia , Omento/transplante , Idoso , Doença Crônica , Feminino , Retalhos de Tecido Biológico/cirurgia , Humanos , Úlcera da Perna/complicações , Linfonodos/cirurgia , Linfedema/complicações , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
13.
Microsurgery ; 40(1): 19-24, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30178520

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Reconstruction of abdominal wall defects with enterocutaneous fistulas (ECF) remains challenging. The purpose of this report is to describe a single-stage approach using combined microscopic enterolysis, pedicle seromuscular bowel flaps, mesh, fasciocutaneous, and myocutaneous flaps. METHODS: Between 1990 and 2016 a retrospective review identified a total of 18 patients with an average age of 39 years (ranging 26-59 years). Thirteen cases were associated with trauma, four were complication of previous mesh repair, and one was after an aortic dissection. Average diameter of defect size was 22 cm (ranging 20-24 cm). Surgical technique involved enterolysis using microscope magnification, a pedicle seromuscular bowel flap to reinforce the bowel anastomosis, mesh, musculocutaneous, and fasciocutaneous flaps to reconstruct the abdominal wall. RESULTS: Fifteen patients required rotational flaps with an average skin paddle area of 442.7 cm2 (ranging 440 cm2 -260 cm2 ) and 10 patients required a serosal patch with an average length of 5 cm (ranging 4-6 cm). Complications included three wound dehiscence and one abdominal wall bulging. Flap survival was 100%. The majority of patients (12 out of 18) were able to resume normal activities, and the remaining (n = 6) were able to resume most activities. Functional outcome as assessed by 36-Item Short Form Survey (SF-36) physical function component questionnaire at 18-24 months follow up was 67.8% (ranging from 59 to 72%). Mean length of hospital stay was 2.2 weeks (ranging 1.4-2.7 weeks). Mean follow-up was 24 months (ranging 22-26 months) with clinical examination. CONCLUSION: Microscopically assisted intra-abdominal dissection with resection of diseased bowel, replacement with well-vascularized tissue at the anastomosis site in, and reinforcement with mesh combined with pedicle musculocutaneous and fasciocutaneous flaps may be an alternative when other local reconstructive options have failed.

14.
Ann Plast Surg ; 84(1): 68-72, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31246671

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Management after total pharyngolaryngectomy with free ileocolon flaps can be challenging. Adequate postoperative surgical guidelines are essential to avoid complications. Factors, such as agitation, hypotension, or prolonged mechanical ventilation, might compromise final outcomes. Herein, we describe our experience in the early postoperative care of patients after total pharyngolaryngectomy with immediate reconstruction using the free ileocolon flap. METHODS: This is a retrospective review of all patients who underwent total pharyngolaryngectomy and immediate reconstruction using the free Ileocolon flap. Demographics, etiology of resection, neoadjuvant therapy, surgical time, method of sedation, postoperative use of vasopressors, length of intensive care unit (ICU) stay, time of discontinuation of mechanical ventilation, and complications were recorded and analyzed. RESULTS: Between 2010 and 2015, a total of 34 patients underwent total pharyngolaryngectomy and immediate reconstruction using the free Ileocolon flap. The most common cause of total pharyngolaryngectomy was cancer. Twenty-eight patients had neoadjuvant therapy (radiation). The average surgical time was 11.5 hours (range, 8-14.5 hours), average length of ICU stay was 3 days (range, 2-15 days) with an average time for mechanical ventilation cessation of 3 days (range, 1-20 days). Midazolam and dexmedetomidine were the most common sedatives used during surgery and in the ICU period. Three patients required vasopressors due to hypotension, 2 had unplanned self-extubation from the tracheostomy site, 2 experienced postoperative bleeding, 1 had pneumonia, 4 required unplanned return to the operating room, 2 had partial flap loss, and 1 had complete flap loss. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, a majority of patients recovered well postoperatively with minimal complications and low rate of reoperation. Our research provides a foundation to develop a risk-stratified approach to determine the need for an ICU admission or early transfer to floor care.

15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31766214

RESUMO

This study investigates the development of glaucoma in subjects with surgery-indicated chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) by the use of the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan. Individuals that received the functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS) with a diagnostic code of CRS were regarded as surgery-indicated CRS and enrolled in the study group. Four non-CRS patients were age- and gender-matched to each patient in the study group. The exclusion criteria included legal blindness, ocular tumor, history of eyeball removal, and previous glaucoma. The outcome was regarded as the development of glaucoma, and conditional logistic regression was used for the statistical analysis, which involved multiple potential risk factors in the multivariate model. A total of 6506 patients with surgery-indicated CRS that received FESS and another 26,024 non-CRS individuals were enrolled after exclusion. The age and gender distributions were identical between the two groups due to matching. There were 108 and 294 glaucoma events in the study group and control group, respectively, during the follow-up period, and the study group had a significantly higher adjusted hazard ratio (1.291, 95% confidential interval: 1.031-1.615). The cumulative probability analysis also revealed a correlation between the occurrence of glaucoma and the CRS disease interval. In the subgroup analysis, the chance of developing open-angle glaucoma and normal-tension glaucoma was significantly higher in the study group than in the control group. In conclusion, the existence of surgery-indicated CRS is a significant risk factor for the development of glaucoma, which correlated with the disease interval.

16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31744259

RESUMO

To determine the comparative efficacy and safety of penetrating keratoplasty (PK) and Descemet stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty (DSAEK) in the Asian population receiving imported donor corneas, our single-center retrospective study provides analysis supporting the transition from PK to DSAEK in the Asian population using imported American donor corneas. We analyzed 259 patients with 241 and 57 cases of PK and DSAEK respectively during 2008 to 2017 using imported corneas at Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Linkou, Taiwan. In terms of long-term graft survival analysis, there was no difference between PK and DSAEK (log-rank p = 0.386, HR = 0.920, 95% CI: [0.641-1.380]). However, Cox proportional regression analysis revealed that corneal survival rate of DSAEK group in the first 100 days after transplantation was inferior than that of PK group (log-rank p < 0.001, HR = 2.733, 95% CI: [1.501-4.977])]. Despite the inferior survival rate, there were significantly less neovascularization and Descemet membrane folds in the DSAEK group. Importantly, the non-complication rate of DSAEK was much higher than that of PK with significant difference (PK, 25.7% vs DSAEK 42.0%, p = 0.022). Collectively, DSAEK is suggested as an alternative surgical modality in Asian patients using imported American donor corneas because of less complication, and no difference in long-term corneal graft survival rates between PK and DSAEK.

17.
Taiwan J Ophthalmol ; 9(3): 179-184, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31572655

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Postoperative infection is the most disastrous complication of penetrating keratoplasty (PK). Corneoscleral rim culture provided information regarding subsequent infections. Our aims were to identify the incidence of microbial contamination in donor corneas and to report the recovery of bacteria with two culture methods, i.e., conventional culture media after aerobic/anaerobic cotton swabs and blood culture media (Fastidious Antibiotic Neutralization [FAN]). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 118 patients underwent PK. Corneoscleral rim cultures were performed using aerobic/anaerobic culture cotton swabs (Transystem™, COPAN, Italia) with subsequent convention media and blood culture media (FAN bottle, BD BACTEC™, USA). The results of the different methods were reported and analyzed. RESULTS: Microorganisms were recovered from 24 in total 118 cases (20.3%, n = 118), 14 from blood culture media (FAN) (11.8%, n = 118), 9 from conventional culture media after aerobic/anaerobic cotton swabs (7.63%, n = 118), and 2 from fungus culture (1.69%, n = 118). The most commonly identified pathogen was coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (CoNS) (n = 13, 54.2%), and more isolates of CoNS and staphylococcus aureus were recovered from blood culture media (FAN) than those from conventional culture media after aerobic/anaerobic cotton swabs (13 vs. 4, P = 0.05). Conversely, more nonfermentative Gram-negative bacilli were recovered from conventional culture media after aerobic/anaerobic cotton swabs. None of the 24 cases with positive corneoscleral rim cultures reported ocular infection for the recipients in at least 6 months' follow-up. CONCLUSION: The conventional culture media after aerobic/anaerobic cotton swabs and blood culture media (FAN) did not yield identical isolates of bacteria. The blood culture media (FAN) could further yield Gram-positive bacteria in addition to those recovered from convention media. It seemed adding gentamicin and streptomycin could achieve bacteriostatic effect instead of the bactericidal effect. The administration of postoperative antibiotic in the recipient was suggested.

18.
Int Med Case Rep J ; 12: 277-283, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31616191

RESUMO

Here we reported a rare case of the implantation of a dexamethasone intravitreal implant (DEX) in which decreased retinal vessel density (VD) was found by optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA). A 74-year-old male with diabetes mellitus presented with bilateral macular edema. The best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was 0.6 in the right eye. Diabetic macular edema (DME) was diagnosed. A DEX for the right eye was planned, and the preoperative evaluation showed a superficial VD of 48.74 percent, a deep VD of 53.12 percent, and a foveal avascular zone (FAZ) 0.165 mm2 in size by OCTA. The BCVA in the right eye recovered to 0.8, and a notably lower superficial VD of 45.97 percent and a deep VD of 45.40 percent were observed with an enlarged FAZ of 0.294 mm2 one month postoperatively. Moreover, BCVA in the right eye was maintained at 0.8, while further reductions in both superficial (40.07 percent) and deep (40.91 percent) VD were noted with a FAZ measured at 0.305 mm2 two months postoperatively. In conclusion, retinal superficial and deep VD decreased, while the FAZ increased, after the implantation of the DEX in a patient with DME.

19.
PLoS One ; 14(10): e0222919, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31644539

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To evaluate the incidence of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in patients diagnosed with sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) via the application of the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted. Patients with a diagnosis of SNHL was enrolled in the study group after exclusion and a propensity score matched group without SNHL was served as the control group with a 1:2 ratio. The main outcome was regarded as the emergence of AMD diagnostic codes. Cox proportional hazard regression was applied to analyze the incidence and adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) of AMD in the multivariate model. A total of 15,686 patients with SNHL were included in the study group while another 31,372 non-SNHL patients served as the control group. After a follow-up interval up to 16 years, there were 484 AMD events occurred in the study group and 660 AMD cases in those non-SNHL patients with a significantly higher aHR compared to the control group after adjusting for multiple potential risk factors (aHR: 1.399, 95% CI: 1.244-1.574). Other prominent risk factors for AMD included older age, ischemic heart disease, hyperlipidemia, Alzheimer's disease, liver disease and kidney disease. Besides, a higher cumulative probability of AMD was observed in the study group (log-rank P <0.0001). CONCLUSION: The patients with SNHL demonstrated a higher incidence of developing AMD.

20.
Bot Stud ; 60(1): 22, 2019 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31512008

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the past two decades, biologists have been able to identify the gene signatures associated with various phenotypes through the monitoring of gene expressions with high-throughput biotechnologies. These gene signatures have in turn been successfully applied to drug development, disease prevention, crop improvement, etc. However, ignoring the interactions among genes has weakened the predictive power of gene signatures in practical applications. Gene regulatory networks, in which genes are represented by nodes and the associations between genes are represented by edges, are typically constructed to analyze and visualize such gene interactions. More specifically, the present study sought to measure gene-gene associations by using the coefficient of intrinsic dependence (CID) to capture more nonlinear as well as cause-effect gene relationships. RESULTS: A stepwise procedure using the CID along with the partial coefficient of intrinsic dependence (pCID) was demonstrated for the rebuilding of simulated networks and the well-known CBF-COR pathway under cold stress using Arabidopsis microarray data. The procedure was also applied to the construction of bHLH gene regulatory pathways under abiotic stresses using rice microarray data, in which OsbHLH104, a putative phytochrome-interacting factor (OsPIF14), and OsbHLH060, a positive regulator of iron homeostasis (OsPRI1) were inferred as the most affiliated genes. The inferred regulatory pathways were verified through literature reviews. CONCLUSIONS: The proposed method can efficiently decipher gene regulatory pathways and may assist in achieving higher predictive power in practical applications. The lack of any mention in the literature of some of the regulatory event may have been due to the high complexity of the regulatory systems in the plant transcription, a possibility which could potentially be confirmed in the near future given ongoing rapid developments in bio-technology.

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