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1.
Eur J Nutr ; 2022 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34997266

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM), a common complication of diabetes mellitus and is characterized by myocardial hypertrophy and myocardial fibrosis. Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ), a natural nutrient, exerts strong protection against various myocardial diseases. Pyroptosis, a type of inflammation-related programmed cell death, is vital to the development of DCM. However, the protective effects of PQQ against DCM and the associated mechanisms are not clear. This study aimed to investigate whether PQQ protected against DCM and to determine the underlying molecular mechanism. METHODS: Diabetes was induced in mice by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin, after which the mice were administered PQQ orally (10, 20, or 40 mg/kg body weight/day) for 12 weeks. AC16 human myocardial cells were divided into the following groups and treated accordingly: control (5.5 mmol/L glucose), high glucose (35 mmol/L glucose), and HG + PQQ groups (1 and 10 nmol/L PQQ). Cells were treated for 24 h. RESULTS: PQQ reduced myocardial hypertrophy and the area of myocardial fibrosis, which was accompanied by an increase in antioxidant function and a decrease in inflammatory cytokine levels. Moreover, myocardial hypertrophy-(ANP and BNP), myocardial fibrosis-(collagen I and TGF-ß1), and pyroptosis-related protein levels decreased in the PQQ treatment groups. Furthermore, PQQ abolished mitochondrial dysfunction and the activation of NF-κB/IκB, and decreased NLRP3 inflammation-mediated pyroptosis in AC16 cells under high-glucose conditions. CONCLUSION: PQQ improved DCM in diabetic mice by inhibiting NF-κB/NLRP3 inflammasome-mediated cell pyroptosis. Long-term dietary supplementation with PQQ may be greatly beneficial for the treatment of DCM. Diagram of the underlying mechanism of the effects of PQQ on DCM. PQQ inhibits ROS generation and NF-κB activation, which stimulates activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome and regulates the expression of caspase-1, IL-1ß, and IL-18. The up-regulated inflammatory cytokines trigger myocardial hypertrophy and cardiac fibrosis and promote the pathological process of DCM.

2.
J Hepatocell Carcinoma ; 8: 1023-1034, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34513745

RESUMO

Background and Aims: To explore the long-term trend of liver cancer survival, based on the real-world data (RWD) in the past 45 years from a population-based cancer registry, in Qidong, China. Methods: A number of 32,556 patients with liver cancer were registered during the period of 1972 to 2016. Mixed methods by active and passive follow-up were performed. Life table method was employed for survival analysis by SPSS22 software. Wilcoxon (Gehan) statistics was considered as a significant test. Relative survival was calculated by using SURV software, and its annual percent change (APC) was estimated by the Joinpoint Regression Program. Results: The overall observed survival (OS) rates of 1-, 5-, 10-, and 20-year rates from the data series were 18.51%, 6.28%, 4.03%, and 2.84%, and their relative survival (RS) rates were 18.88%, 6.95%, 4.96%, and 4.49%, respectively. For 24,338 male cases, the 5-year OS and RS rates were 5.93% and 6.54%, and for 8218 female cases, 7.34% and 8.15%, respectively, with P values less than 0.01. Survival rates of liver cancer from three 15-year periods of 1972-1986, 1987-2001, and 2002-2016 have increased significantly, with 5-year OS rates of 2.02%, 4.40%, and 10.76%, 5-year RS rates of 2.18%, 4.83%, and 12.18%; 10-year OS and RS rates of 0.95%, 3.00%, and 7.02%, vs 1.13%, 3.65%, and 8.96%, respectively, showing a very significant upward trend (P<0.01). There are significant differences among age groups (P<0.01): those aged 55-64 demonstrated the best OS and RS rates of 5-year, being 8.44% and 9.09%, respectively. Conclusion: There are significant gender and age differences in the survival rate of liver cancer in Qidong. RWD indicates the relative lower survival rate of liver cancer in this area, but great improvement has been achieved over the past decades.

3.
Neurobiol Stress ; 15: 100390, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34527794

RESUMO

Emerging evidence has shown that stress responsivity and psychiatric diseases are associated with alterations in N6-methyladenosine (m6A) mRNA epigenetic modifications. Fat mass and obesity-associated protein (FTO) is an m6A demethylase that has been linked to increased body mass and obesity. Here, we show that tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) with weight-gain side effects, such as imipramine and amitriptyline, directly increased FTO expression and activated its epigenetic function in the ventral tegmental area (VTA). VTA-specific genetic disruption of FTO increased stress vulnerability and abolished the antidepressant activity of TCAs, whereas erasing m6A modification in the VTA by FTO overexpression or cycloleucine led to significant antidepressant activity. Mechanistically, both transcriptome sequencing and quantitative PCR revealed that overexpression of FTO in the VTA decreased the transcription of stress-related neuropeptides, such as cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript peptide and urocortin, in the social defeat model, which was mimicked by imipramine, suggesting an m6A-dependent transcription mechanism of stress-related neuropeptides may underlie the responses to antidepressant. Collectively, our results demonstrate that inhibiting m6A-dependent transcription of stress-related genes may work as a novel antidepressant strategy and highlight a previously unrecognized activator of FTO-dependent epigenetic function that may be used for the treatment of other neurological diseases.

4.
Neurochem Int ; 149: 105122, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34284076

RESUMO

As a double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) sensor, the PYHIN family member absent in melanoma 2 (AIM2) is an essential component of the inflammasome families. Activation of AIM2 by dsDNA leads to the assembly of cytosolic multimolecular complexes termed the AIM2 inflammasome, resulting in activation of caspase-1, the maturation and secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1ß and IL-18, and pyroptosis. Multiple central nervous system (CNS) diseases are accompanied by immune responses and inflammatory cascade. As the resident macrophage cells, microglia cells act as the first and main form of active immune defense in the CNS. AIM2 is highly expressed in microglia as well as astrocytes and neurons and is essential in neurodevelopment. In this review, we highlight the recent progress on the role of AIM2 inflammasome in CNS disorders, including cerebral stroke, brain injury, neuropsychiatric disease, neurodegenerative diseases, and glioblastoma.

5.
BMJ Open ; 11(5): e044039, 2021 05 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33980521

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The association between ABO blood group and risk of liver cancer is unclear, although few studies have reported positive results. This study examined the relationship between ABO blood group and liver cancer in hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)-positive individuals. DESIGN: A high-risk population-based cohort study. SETTING: The study was started in 2007 and closed in 2019; the number of observed person-years as obtained by ABO blood group. PARTICIPANTS: The study included 3663 individuals with positive HBsAg, including men aged 30-70 and women aged 40-70. OUTCOME MEASURES: The frequencies of ABO group in the cohort population and patients with liver cancer were calculated, respectively. χ2 test was used to compare differences, and the relative risk (95% CI) for development of liver cancer was evaluated. RESULTS: The frequency distribution of blood types A, B, O and AB was 1118 (30.52%), 1073 (29.29%), 1104 (30.14%) and 368 (10.05%), respectively, among 3663 cohort individuals. In the cohort, patients with liver cancer (n=336) were of the following frequencies: type A: 104 (30.95%); type B: 97 (28.87%); type O: 95 (28.27%); and type AB: 40 (11.90%). No significant difference was found between patients with liver cancer and other individuals. The annual incidence rate of liver cancer was 906.34 per 100 000 person-years, and for blood type A, B, O and AB the rates were 917.76, 893.78, 846.02 and 1093.43 per 100 000 person-years, respectively. The relative risk (95% CI) was 0.97 (0.74 to 1.29), 0.92 (0.70 to 1.22) and 1.19 (0.82 to 1.72) for blood types B, O and AB, respectively, compared with blood type A. CONCLUSION: There were no significant differences in the frequency distribution of ABO blood groups in patients with liver cancer within this high-risk cohort, which demonstrates lack of positive association between ABO blood group and risk of liver cancer.


Assuntos
Sistema ABO de Grupos Sanguíneos , Neoplasias Hepáticas , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/epidemiologia , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
6.
Chem Res Toxicol ; 34(4): 1183-1196, 2021 04 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33793228

RESUMO

Outdoor air pollution, a spatially and temporally complex mixture, is a human carcinogen. However, ambient measurements may not reflect subject-level exposures, personal monitors do not assess internal dose, and spot assessments of urinary biomarkers may not recapitulate chronic exposures. Nucleophilic sites in serum albumin-particularly the free thiol at Cys34-form adducts with electrophiles. Due to the 4-week lifetime of albumin in circulation, accumulating adducts can serve as intermediate- to long-residence biomarkers of chronic exposure and implicate potential biological effects. Employing nanoflow liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry (nLC-HRMS) and parallel reaction monitoring (PRM), we have developed and validated a novel targeted albumin adductomics platform capable of simultaneously monitoring dozens of Cys34 adducts per sample in only 2.5 µL of serum, with on-column limits of detection in the low-femtomolar range. Using this platform, we characterized the magnitude and impact of ambient outdoor air pollution exposures with three repeated measurements over 84 days in n = 26 nonsmoking women (n = 78 total samples) from Qidong, China, an area with a rising burden of lung cancer incidence. In concordance with seasonally rising ambient concentrations of NO2, SO2, and PM10 measured at stationary monitors, we observed elevations in concentrations of Cys34 adducts of benzoquinone (p < 0.05), benzene diol epoxide (BDE; p < 0.05), crotonaldehyde (p < 0.01), and oxidation (p < 0.001). Regression analysis revealed significant elevations in oxidation and BDE adduct concentrations of 300% to nearly 700% per doubling of ambient airborne pollutant levels (p < 0.05). Notably, the ratio of irreversibly oxidized to reduced Cys34 rose more than 3-fold during the 84-day period, revealing a dramatic perturbation of serum redox balance and potentially serving as a portent of increased pollution-related mortality risk. Our targeted albumin adductomics assay represents a novel and flexible approach for sensitive and multiplexed internal dosimetry of environmental exposures, providing a new strategy for personalized biomonitoring and prevention.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Monitoramento Biológico , Carcinógenos/análise , Albumina Sérica/análise , Humanos , Estrutura Molecular
7.
Acta Pharmacol Sin ; 2021 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33927360

RESUMO

Individual differences in the development of uncontrollable fear in response to traumatic stressors have been observed in clinic, but the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. In the present study we first conducted a meta-analysis of published clinical data and found that malondialdehyde, an oxidative stress biomarker, was significantly elevated in the blood of patients with fear-related anxiety disorders. We then carried out experimental study in rats subjected to fear conditioning. We showed that reestablishing redox homeostasis in basolateral amygdale (BLA) after exposure to fear stressors determined the capacity of learned fear inhibition. Intra-BLA infusion of buthionine sulfoximine (BSO) to deplete the most important endogenous antioxidant glutathione (GSH) blocked fear extinction, whereas intra-BLA infusion of dithiothreitol or N-acetylcysteine (a precursor of GSH) facilitated extinction. In electrophysiological studies conducted on transverse slices, we showed that fear stressors induced redox-dependent inhibition of NMDAR-mediated synaptic function, which was rescued by extinction learning or reducing agents. Our results reveal a novel pharmacological strategy for reversing impaired fear inhibition and highlight the role of GSH in the treatment of psychiatric disorders.

8.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 1903, 2021 03 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33771994

RESUMO

Aberrant regulation of microRNAs (miRNAs) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD), but most abnormally expressed miRNAs found in AD are not regulated by synaptic activity. Here we report that dysfunction of miR-135a-5p/Rock2/Add1 results in memory/synaptic disorder in a mouse model of AD. miR-135a-5p levels are significantly reduced in excitatory hippocampal neurons of AD model mice. This decrease is tau dependent and mediated by Foxd3. Inhibition of miR-135a-5p leads to synaptic disorder and memory impairments. Furthermore, excess Rock2 levels caused by loss of miR-135a-5p plays an important role in the synaptic disorder of AD via phosphorylation of Ser726 on adducin 1 (Add1). Blocking the phosphorylation of Ser726 on Add1 with a membrane-permeable peptide effectively rescues the memory impairments in AD mice. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that synaptic-related miR-135a-5p mediates synaptic/memory deficits in AD via the Rock2/Add1 signaling pathway, illuminating a potential therapeutic strategy for AD.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/genética , Proteínas do Citoesqueleto/genética , Transtornos da Memória/genética , MicroRNAs/genética , Sinapses/metabolismo , Quinases Associadas a rho/genética , Doença de Alzheimer/metabolismo , Doença de Alzheimer/fisiopatologia , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Proteínas do Citoesqueleto/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Hipocampo/citologia , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Masculino , Aprendizagem em Labirinto/fisiologia , Transtornos da Memória/metabolismo , Transtornos da Memória/fisiopatologia , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Camundongos Transgênicos , Neurônios/metabolismo , Neurônios/fisiologia , Fosforilação , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia , Sinapses/fisiologia , Quinases Associadas a rho/metabolismo , Proteínas tau/genética , Proteínas tau/metabolismo
9.
PeerJ ; 9: e10600, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33604165

RESUMO

Background and aims: Liver cancer is one of the most dominant malignant tumors in the world. The trends of liver cancer mortality over the past six decades have been tracked in the epidemic region of Qidong, China. Using epidemiological tools, we explore the dynamic changes in age-standardized rates to characterize important aspects of liver cancer etiology and prevention. Methods: Mortality data of liver cancer in Qidong from 1958 to 1971 (death retrospective survey) and from 1972 to 2017 (cancer registration) were tabulated for the crude rate (CR), and age-standardized rate and age-birth cohorts. The average annual percentage change was calculated by the Joinpoint Regression Program. Results: The natural death rate during 1958-2017 decreased from 9‰ to 5.4‰ and then increased to 8‰ as the population aged; cancer mortality rates rose continuously from 57/105 to 240/105. Liver cancer mortality increased from 20/105 to 80/105, and then dropped to less than 52/105 in 2017. Liver cancer deaths in 1972-2017 accounted for 30.53% of all cancers, with a CR of 60.48/105, age-standardized rate China (ASRC) of 34.78/105, and ASRW (world) of 45.71/105. Other key features were the CR for males and females of 91.86/105 and 29.92/105, respectively, with a sex ratio of 3.07:1. Period analysis showed that the ASRs for mortality of the age groups under 54 years old had a significant decreasing trend. Importantly, birth cohort analysis showed that the mortality rate of liver cancer in 40-44, 35-39, 30-34, 25-29, 20-24, 15-19 years cohort decreased considerably, but the rates in 70-74, and 75+ increased. Conclusions: The crude mortality rate of liver cancer in Qidong has experienced trends from lower to higher levels, and from continued increase at a high plateau to most recently a gradual decline, and a change greatest in younger people. Many years of comprehensive prevention and intervention measures have influenced the decline of the liver cancer epidemic in this area. The reduction of intake levels of aflatoxin might be one of the most significant factors as evidenced by the dramatic decline of exposure biomarkers in this population during the past three decades.

10.
Cell Death Differ ; 28(5): 1548-1562, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33398092

RESUMO

Iron homeostasis disturbance has been implicated in Alzheimer's disease (AD), and excess iron exacerbates oxidative damage and cognitive defects. Ferroptosis is a nonapoptotic form of cell death dependent upon intracellular iron. However, the involvement of ferroptosis in the pathogenesis of AD remains elusive. Here, we report that ferroportin1 (Fpn), the only identified mammalian nonheme iron exporter, was downregulated in the brains of APPswe/PS1dE9 mice as an Alzheimer's mouse model and Alzheimer's patients. Genetic deletion of Fpn in principal neurons of the neocortex and hippocampus by breeding Fpnfl/fl mice with NEX-Cre mice led to AD-like hippocampal atrophy and memory deficits. Interestingly, the canonical morphological and molecular characteristics of ferroptosis were observed in both Fpnfl/fl/NEXcre and AD mice. Gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) of ferroptosis-related RNA-seq data showed that the differentially expressed genes were highly enriched in gene sets associated with AD. Furthermore, administration of specific inhibitors of ferroptosis effectively reduced the neuronal death and memory impairments induced by Aß aggregation in vitro and in vivo. In addition, restoring Fpn ameliorated ferroptosis and memory impairment in APPswe/PS1dE9 mice. Our study demonstrates the critical role of Fpn and ferroptosis in the progression of AD, thus provides promising therapeutic approaches for this disease.

11.
Biol Psychiatry ; 89(6): 615-626, 2021 03 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33190845

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Deficiency in neuronal structural plasticity is involved in the development of major depressive disorder. TWIST1, a helix-loop-helix transcription factor that is essential for morphogenesis and organogenesis, is normally expressed at low levels in mature neurons. However, it is poorly understood what role TWIST1 plays in the brain and whether it is involved in the pathophysiology of depression. METHODS: Depressive-like behaviors in C57BL/6J mice were developed by chronic social defeat stress. Genetic and pharmacological approaches were used to investigate the role of the TWIST1-miR-214-PPAR-δ signaling pathway in depressive-like behaviors. Molecular biological and morphological studies were performed to define the molecular mechanisms downstream of TWIST1. RESULTS: The expression of TWIST1 was positively correlated with depressive behaviors in humans and mice. Chronic stress elevated TWIST1 expression in the medial prefrontal cortex of mice, which was reversed by fluoxetine treatment. While the overexpression of TWIST1 increased susceptibility to stress, the knockdown of TWIST1 prevented the defective morphogenesis of dendrites of pyramidal neurons in layer II/III of the medial prefrontal cortex and alleviated depressive-like behaviors. Mechanistically, this prodepressant property of TWIST1 was mediated, at least in part, through the repression of miR-214-PPAR-δ signaling and mitochondrial function, which was also mimicked by genetic and pharmacological inhibition of PPAR-δ. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that TWIST1 in the medial prefrontal cortex mediates chronic stress-induced dendritic remodeling and facilitates the occurrence of depressive-like behavior, providing new information for developing drug targets for depression therapy.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo Maior , Animais , Depressão , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Plasticidade Neuronal , Córtex Pré-Frontal , Estresse Psicológico , Fatores de Transcrição , Proteína 1 Relacionada a Twist
12.
Pharmacol Res ; 163: 105355, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33285230

RESUMO

Adaptive responses to stress are critical to enhance physical and mental well-being, but excessive or prolonged stress may cause inadaptability and increase the risks of psychiatric disorders, such as depression. GABABR signaling is fundamental to brain function and has been identified in neuropsychiatric disorders. KCTD12 is a critical auxiliary subunit in GABABR signaling, but its role in mental disorders, such as depression is unclear. In the present study, we used a well-validated mice model, chronic social defeat stress (CSDS) to investigate behavioral responses to stress and explore the role of Kctd12 in stress response, as well as the relevant mechanisms. We found that CSDS increased the expression of Kctd12 in the dentate gyrus (DG), a subregion of hippocampus. Overexpression of Kctd12 in DG induced higher responsiveness to acute stress and increased vulnerability to social stress in mice, whereas knock-down of Kctd12 in DG prevented the social avoidance. Furthermore, an increased expression of GABAB receptor 2 (GB2) in the DG of CSDS-treated mice was observed, and CGP35348, an antagonist of GABABR, improved the stress-induced behavior responses along with suppressing the excess expression of Kctd12. In addition, Kctd12 regulated the excitability of granule cell in DG, and the stimulation of neuronal activity by silencing Kctd12 contributed to the antidepressant-like effect of fluoxetine. These findings identify that the Kctd12 in DG works as a critical mediator of stress responses, providing a promising therapeutic target in stress-related psychiatric disorders, including depression.


Assuntos
Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/metabolismo , Comportamento Animal , Derrota Social , Estresse Psicológico/metabolismo , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/genética , Animais , Antidepressivos/farmacologia , Giro Denteado/metabolismo , Depressão/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Fluoxetina/farmacologia , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Subunidades Proteicas , RNA Interferente Pequeno/genética , Receptores de GABA-B
13.
Brain Res ; 1749: 147136, 2020 12 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32980332

RESUMO

Fear-related anxiety disorders, such as social phobia and post-traumatic stress disorder, are partly explained by an uncontrollable state of fear. An emerging literature suggests dopamine receptor-1 (D1 receptor) in the amygdala is involved in the regulation of fear memory. An early study has reported that amygdaloid D1 receptor (D1R) is not coupled to the classic cAMP-dependent signal transduction. Here, we investigated whether SKF83959, a typical D1R agonist that mainly activates a D1-like receptor-dependent phosphatidylinositol (PI) signal pathway, facilitates fear extinction and reduces the return of extinguished fear. Interestingly, long-term loss of fearful memories can be induced through a combination of SKF83959 (1 mg/kg/day, i.p., once daily for one week) pharmacotherapy and extinction training. Furthermore, sub-chronic administration of SKF83959 after fear conditioning reduced fear renewal and reinstatement in the mice. We found that the activation D1R and PI signaling in the amygdala was responsible for the effect of SKF83959 on fear extinction. Additionally, SKF83959 significantly promoted the elevation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression, possibly by the cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) -directed gene transcription. Given the beneficial effects on extinction, SKF83959 may emerge as a candidate pharmacological approach for improving cognitive-behavioral therapy on fear-related anxiety disorders.


Assuntos
2,3,4,5-Tetra-Hidro-7,8-Di-Hidroxi-1-Fenil-1H-3-Benzazepina/análogos & derivados , Tonsila do Cerebelo/efeitos dos fármacos , Condicionamento Clássico/efeitos dos fármacos , Agonistas de Dopamina/farmacologia , Extinção Psicológica/efeitos dos fármacos , Medo/efeitos dos fármacos , 2,3,4,5-Tetra-Hidro-7,8-Di-Hidroxi-1-Fenil-1H-3-Benzazepina/farmacologia , Tonsila do Cerebelo/metabolismo , Animais , Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/genética , Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/metabolismo , Proteína de Ligação ao Elemento de Resposta ao AMP Cíclico/genética , Proteína de Ligação ao Elemento de Resposta ao AMP Cíclico/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Receptores de Dopamina D1/agonistas
14.
EMBO Rep ; 21(9): e51235, 2020 09 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32789986

RESUMO

Response to comments on Cui Q-Q et al: "Hippocampal CD 39/ENTPD 1 promotes mouse depression-like behavior through hydrolyzing extracellular ATP".


Assuntos
Depressão , Hipocampo , Trifosfato de Adenosina , Animais , Camundongos
15.
Curr Med Sci ; 40(3): 391-400, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32681244

RESUMO

Microglia are the major immune cells in the central nervous system and play a key role in the normal function of the brain. Microglia exhibit functional diversity, and they control the inflammation in central nervous system through releasing inflammatory cytokine, clearing apoptotic cells via phagocytosis, regulating synaptic plasticity and the formation of neural network by synapse pruning. Recent studies have strongly indicated that the microglial dysfunction is associated with a variety of neuropsychiatric diseases such as depression, which have been termed as "microgliopathy". The emergency of advanced technologies and tools has enabled us to comprehensively understand the role of microglia in physiology and pathology, and growing studies have targetted microglia to explore the treatment of neuropsychiatric diseases. Here, we describe the key progress of microglia research, and review the recent developments in the understanding of the role of microglia in physiology and etiology of depression.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/patologia , Depressão/etiologia , Depressão/patologia , Microglia/fisiologia , Animais , Humanos , Inflamação/etiologia , Inflamação/patologia , Plasticidade Neuronal/fisiologia
16.
Neuropharmacology ; 176: 108235, 2020 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32710977

RESUMO

Acute ethanol intoxication by excessive drinking is an important cause of alcohol-induced death. Stress exposure has been identified as one risk factor for alcohol abuse. Previous reports indicated that stressors may augment inhibitory effects of alcohol, but the underlying mechanism remains unknown. Here, we reported that chronic unpredictable stress increased the sensitivity to the acute ethanol intoxication in mice via impairing nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2)-catalase signaling. Nrf2 activity regulates the expression of catalase, a key antioxidant enzyme that mediates ethanol oxidation in the brain. Pharmacological blockade of catalase or Nrf2 activity significantly aggravated acute ethanol intoxication. Sulforaphane, a cruciferous vegetable-derived activator of Nrf2, significantly attenuated acute ethanol intoxication. Furthermore, the stress-induced aggravation of acute alcoholism was rapidly reversed by sulforaphane. Our findings suggest that Nrf2 may function as a novel drug target for the prevention of acute alcoholism, especially in psychiatric patients, by controlling catalase-mediated ethanol oxidation.


Assuntos
Alcoolismo/metabolismo , Catalase/biossíntese , Etanol/administração & dosagem , Isotiocianatos/uso terapêutico , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Estresse Psicológico/metabolismo , Sulfóxidos/uso terapêutico , Alcoolismo/tratamento farmacológico , Alcoolismo/psicologia , Animais , Catalase/genética , Regulação Enzimológica da Expressão Gênica , Isotiocianatos/farmacologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/antagonistas & inibidores , Estresse Psicológico/tratamento farmacológico , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Sulfóxidos/farmacologia
17.
Technol Cancer Res Treat ; 19: 1533033820936773, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32618228

RESUMO

MYO10, recognized as an important regulator of cytoskeleton remodeling, has been reported to be associated with tumorigenesis. However, its functional implication in cervical cancer and potential mechanism still remain to be undetermined currently. MYO10 level in cervical cancer tissues was analyzed by using data retrieved from The Cancer Genome Atlas and ONCOMINE databases. Messenger RNA and protein expression levels were determined by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting. Small-interfering RNA and overexpressing plasmid were used for MYO10 silencing and overexpression, and cell proliferation was analyzed by CCK-8. Transwell assays were performed to investigate the ability of cell migration and invasion. MYO10 was upregulated in cervical cancer tissues and cells when compared to normal controls, and survival analysis showed patients with high MYO10 expression had worse overall survival. Moreover, knockdown/overexpression of MYO10 significantly inhibited/enhanced the proliferation, invasion, and migration capabilities of cervical cells transfected with siRNAs/overexpressing plasmid. Additionally, MYO10 silencing inhibited PI3K/Akt signaling pathway by decreasing the phosphorylation status of PI3K and AKT. Data from the present study indicated that MYO10 were overexpressed in patients with cervical cancer and positively linked with poor prognosis. Experimental results suggested that MYO10 induced a significant encouraging effect in cervical cancer cell proliferation, invasion, and migration, linked with involvement of PI3K/Akt signaling. Collectively, these results emphasize a novel role for MYO10 overexpression in cervical cancer and provide a potent therapeutic strategy against cervical cancer.


Assuntos
Deleção de Genes , Miosinas/genética , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/genética , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/metabolismo , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular/genética , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Miosinas/metabolismo , Prognóstico , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/mortalidade
18.
J Dig Dis ; 21(7): 406-415, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32407579

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: In this prospective cohort study, we aimed to evaluate the association between dietary habits and the risk of developing hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)-positive carriers in Qidong, an hepatitis B virus (HBV)-epidemic area in China. METHODS: A total of 3199 HBsAg carriers aged 30-70 years in a prospective cohort in Qidong, China from 2007 to 2011 were included in the study. At baseline, all participants self-reported their dietary habits in a questionnaire interview. A follow-up check-up was performed every 6 months to identify HCC cases until November 2017. Cox's regression analysis and an interaction analysis were performed to estimate the relative risks of HCC in terms of baseline diet. RESULTS: Among 3199 HBsAg-positive participants, 270 developed HCC (143.86/100 000 person-years [PYs]). Compared with participants who rarely consume garlic, the risk of HCC in those who consumed it ≥ once per week decreased along with the increase in frequency (HR = 1.00, 0.90 and 0.62 in those who consumed it rarely vs those who consumed it 1-6 times per week and ≥ 7 times per week, respectively). This study found a synergistic effect between garlic and tea consumption on the risk of HCC (P = 0.039 for a multiplicative interaction). CONCLUSIONS: HBsAg carriers should improve their diet. Regular consumption of garlic and tea drinking may reduce the HCC incidence in HBsAg carriers.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular , Dieta , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/sangue , Hepatite B Crônica , Neoplasias Hepáticas , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/epidemiologia , China , Alho , Vírus da Hepatite B , Hepatite B Crônica/epidemiologia , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Chá
19.
Biol Psychiatry ; 88(5): 415-425, 2020 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32220499

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) are widely prescribed antihypertensive agents. Intriguingly, case reports and clinical trials have indicated that ACEIs, including captopril and lisinopril, may have a rapid mood-elevating effect in certain patients, but few experimental studies have investigated their value as fast-onset antidepressants. METHODS: The present study consisted of a series of experiments using biochemical assays, immunohistochemistry, and behavioral techniques to examine the effect and mechanism of captopril on depressive-like behavior in 2 animal models, the chronic unpredictable stress model and the chronic social defeat stress model. RESULTS: Captopril (19.5 or 39 mg/kg, intraperitoneal injection) exerted rapid antidepressant activity in mice treated under the chronic unpredictable stress model and mice treated under the chronic social defeat stress model. Pharmacokinetic analysis revealed that captopril crossed the blood-brain barrier and that lisinopril, another ACEI with better blood-brain barrier permeability, exerted a faster and longer-lasting effect at a same molar equivalent dose. This antidepressant effect seemed to be independent of the renin-angiotensin system, but dependent on the bradykinin (BK) system, since the decreased BK detected in the stressed mice could be reversed by captopril. The hypofunction of the downstream effector of BK, Cdc42 (cell division control protein 42) homolog, contributed to the stress-induced loss of dendritic spines, which was rapidly reversed by captopril via activating the mTORC1 (mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1) pathway. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate that the BK-dependent activation of mTORC1 may represent a promising mechanism underlying antidepressant pharmacology. Considering their affordability and availability, ACEIs may emerge as a novel fast-onset antidepressant, especially for patients with comorbid depression and hypertension.


Assuntos
Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina , Hipertensão , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/farmacologia , Animais , Bradicinina , Captopril/farmacologia , Humanos , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Camundongos , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR
20.
EMBO Rep ; 21(4): e47857, 2020 04 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32133764

RESUMO

Emerging evidence implicates that low levels of ATP in the extracellular space may contribute to the pathophysiology of major depressive disorder (MDD). The concentration of extracellular ATP is regulated by its hydrolase ectonucleotide tri(di)phosphohydrolase (ENTPD). However, the role of ENTPD in depression remains poorly understood. Here we examine the role of CD39 (known as ENTPD1) in mouse depression-like behavior induced by chronic social defeat stress (CSDS). We demonstrate that CSDS enhances the expression and activity of CD39 in hippocampus. The CD39 functional analog apyrase also induces depression-like behavior, which can be ameliorated by ATP replenishment. Pharmacological inhibition and genetic silencing of CD39 has an antidepressant-like effect via increasing hippocampal extracellular ATP concentration, accompanied with an increase in hippocampal neurogenesis and dendritic spine numbers in defeated mice. These results suggest that hippocampal CD39 contributes to CSDS-induced depression-like behavior via hydrolyzing extracellular ATP, indicating that CD39 may be a promising new target for the treatment of depression.


Assuntos
Trifosfato de Adenosina/metabolismo , Apirase , Transtorno Depressivo Maior , Animais , Apirase/genética , Apirase/metabolismo , Depressão/genética , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/tratamento farmacológico , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/genética , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL
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