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1.
Eur Radiol ; 2021 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34519862

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Sonographic features are associated with pathological and immunohistochemical characteristics of triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). To predict the biological property of TNBC, the performance using quantitative high-throughput sonographic feature analysis was compared with that using qualitative feature assessment. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed ultrasound images, clinical, pathological, and immunohistochemical (IHC) data of 252 female TNBC patients. All patients were subgrouped according to the histological grade, Ki67 expression level, and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) score. Qualitative sonographic feature assessment included shape, margin, posterior acoustic pattern, and calcification referring to the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS). Quantitative sonographic features were acquired based on the computer-aided radiomics analysis. Breast cancer masses were manually segmented from the surrounding breast tissues. For each ultrasound image, 1688 radiomics features of 7 feature classes were extracted. The principal component analysis (PCA), least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO), and support vector machine (SVM) were used to determine the high-throughput radiomics features that were highly correlated to biological properties. The performance using both quantitative and qualitative sonographic features to predict biological properties of TNBC was represented by the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). RESULTS: In the qualitative assessment, regular tumor shape, no angular or spiculated margin, posterior acoustic enhancement, and no calcification were used as the independent sonographic features for TNBC. Using the combination of these four features to predict the histological grade, Ki67, HER2, axillary lymph node metastasis (ALNM), and lymphovascular invasion (LVI), the AUC was 0.673, 0.680, 0.651, 0.587, and 0.566, respectively. The number of high-throughput features that closely correlated with biological properties was 34 for histological grade (AUC 0.942), 27 for Ki67 (AUC 0.732), 25 for HER2 (AUC 0.730), 34 for ALNM (AUC 0.804), and 34 for LVI (AUC 0.795). CONCLUSION: High-throughput quantitative sonographic features are superior to traditional qualitative ultrasound features in predicting the biological behavior of TNBC. KEY POINTS: • Sonographic appearances of TNBCs showed a great variety in accordance with its biological and clinical characteristics. • Both qualitative and quantitative sonographic features of TNBCs are associated with tumor biological characteristics. • The quantitative high-throughput feature analysis is superior to two-dimensional sonographic feature assessment in predicting tumor biological property.

2.
Ultrason Imaging ; 43(6): 308-319, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34470531

RESUMO

Large scale early scanning of fetuses via ultrasound imaging is widely used to alleviate the morbidity or mortality caused by congenital anomalies in fetal hearts and lungs. To reduce the intensive cost during manual recognition of organ regions, many automatic segmentation methods have been proposed. However, the existing methods still encounter multi-scale problem at a larger range of receptive fields of organs in images, resolution problem of segmentation mask, and interference problem of task-irrelevant features, obscuring the attainment of accurate segmentations. To achieve semantic segmentation with functions of (1) extracting multi-scale features from images, (2) compensating information of high resolution, and (3) eliminating the task-irrelevant features, we propose a multi-scale model with skip connection framework and attention mechanism integrated. The multi-scale feature extraction modules are incorporated with additive attention gate units for irrelevant feature elimination, through a U-Net framework with skip connections for information compensation. The performance of fetal heart and lung segmentation indicates the superiority of our method over the existing deep learning based approaches. Our method also shows competitive performance stability during the task of semantic segmentations, showing a promising contribution on ultrasound based prognosis of congenital anomaly in the early intervention, and alleviating the negative effects caused by congenital anomaly.

3.
FEBS Open Bio ; 2021 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34449964

RESUMO

Clear-cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) is the most prevalent renal malignancy. The pathogenesis of the disease is currently poorly understood, and the prognosis is poor. Therefore, in this study, we focused on exploring and identifying genes and signal transduction pathways that are closely related to ccRCC. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were analyzed using the renal cell oncogene expression profiles GSE100666 and GSE68417. DAVID evaluation of gene ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analyses was used. We constructed a protein-protein interaction (PPI) network of DEGS using Cytoscape software and analyzed the submodules with the CytoHubba plugin. Finally, we performed western blot, immunohistochemistry, and PCR validation by collecting tissues, and also utilized cells for in vitro functional analysis of ceruloplasmin (CP). In total, 202 DEGs (52 upregulated and 150 downregulated genes) were identified. Upregulated DEGs are significantly rich in angiogenesis, cell adhesion, and response to hypoxia, whereas downregulated DEGs are involved in intracellular pH regulation, excretion, coagulation, and chloride transmembrane transport. We selected the interactions of the top 20 hub genes provided by the PPI network, all of which are involved in important physiological pathways in vivo, such as complement and coagulation cascades. Tissue protein assays demonstrated that renal cancer highly expressed CP, while in vitro experiments showed that CP could promote the invasion of renal cancer cells. Our study suggests that ALB, C3, LOX, HRG, CXCR4, GPC3, SLC12A3, CP, and CASR may be involved in the development of ccRCC, and is expected to provide theoretical support for future studies on the diagnosis and targeted therapy of ccRCC.

4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361032

RESUMO

17,18-Epoxyeicosatetraenoic acid (17,18-EEQ) and 19,20-epoxydocosapentaenoic acid (19,20-EDP) are bioactive epoxides produced from n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid, respectively. However, these epoxides are quickly metabolized into less active diols by soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH). We have previously demonstrated that an sEH inhibitor, t-TUCB, decreased serum triglycerides (TG) and increased lipid metabolic protein expression in the brown adipose tissue (BAT) of diet-induced obese mice. This study investigates the preventive effects of t-TUCB (T) alone or combined with 19,20-EDP (T + EDP) or 17,18-EEQ (T + EEQ) on BAT activation in the development of diet-induced obesity and metabolic disorders via osmotic minipump delivery in mice. Both T + EDP and T + EEQ groups showed significant improvement in fasting glucose, serum triglycerides, and higher core body temperature, whereas heat production was only significantly increased in the T + EEQ group. Moreover, both the T + EDP and T + EEQ groups showed less lipid accumulation in the BAT. Although UCP1 expression was not changed, PGC1α expression was increased in all three treated groups. In contrast, the expression of CPT1A and CPT1B, which are responsible for the rate-limiting step for fatty acid oxidation, was only increased in the T + EDP and T + EEQ groups. Interestingly, as a fatty acid transporter, CD36 expression was only increased in the T + EEQ group. Furthermore, both the T + EDP and T + EEQ groups showed decreased inflammatory NFκB signaling in the BAT. Our results suggest that 17,18-EEQ or 19,20-EDP combined with t-TUCB may prevent high-fat diet-induced metabolic disorders, in part through increased thermogenesis, upregulating lipid metabolic protein expression, and decreasing inflammation in the BAT.


Assuntos
Fármacos Antiobesidade/uso terapêutico , Ácidos Araquidônicos/uso terapêutico , Benzoatos/uso terapêutico , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Compostos de Fenilureia/uso terapêutico , Adipogenia , Tecido Adiposo Marrom/citologia , Tecido Adiposo Marrom/efeitos dos fármacos , Tecido Adiposo Marrom/metabolismo , Animais , Fármacos Antiobesidade/administração & dosagem , Fármacos Antiobesidade/farmacologia , Ácidos Araquidônicos/administração & dosagem , Ácidos Araquidônicos/farmacologia , Benzoatos/administração & dosagem , Benzoatos/farmacologia , Glicemia/metabolismo , Carnitina O-Palmitoiltransferase/metabolismo , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Epóxido Hidrolases/antagonistas & inibidores , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Obesidade/etiologia , Obesidade/metabolismo , Coativador 1-alfa do Receptor gama Ativado por Proliferador de Peroxissomo/metabolismo , Compostos de Fenilureia/administração & dosagem , Compostos de Fenilureia/farmacologia
5.
Anal Chem ; 93(33): 11379-11387, 2021 08 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34378378

RESUMO

This work presents a sensitive and specific single-step RNA sensor for Zika virus (ZIKV) in serum. Using AC electrokinetics (ACEK)-enhanced capacitive sensing technology, ZIKV genomic RNA (gRNA) can be directly detected from serum. The sensors are interdigitated electrodes modified with oligonucleotide probes complementary to the conserved regions of ZIKV gRNA. The ACEK capacitive sensing applies an optimized AC excitation signal over the sensor, which induces ACEK microfluidic enrichment of analytes and also simultaneously performs real-time monitoring of hybridization of ZIKV gRNA on the sensor surface. Hence, the sensing procedures are simple with rapid turn-around time and good specificity and sensitivity. A series of experiments are conducted to optimize the sensor performance. The performance of the sensor is investigated for three different probes, two functionalization buffers, and different hybridization buffers. With the optimized sensing protocol, this method can detect spiked ZIKV gRNA from human serum within 30 s and reach a limit of detection of 78.8 copies/µL in analytical samples and as low as 287.5 copies/µL in neat serum. The sensors can successfully differentiate between the RNAs of the ZIKV and dengue virus, two viruses with similar transmission paths and symptoms. The sensor is simple to use and requires no labeling or sophisticated process typically involved in a polymerase chain reaction, hybridization chain reaction, or nucleic acid sequence-based amplification.


Assuntos
Infecção por Zika virus , Zika virus , Genômica , Humanos , Sistemas Automatizados de Assistência Junto ao Leito , RNA Viral/genética , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Zika virus/genética , Infecção por Zika virus/diagnóstico
6.
J Biophotonics ; : e202100142, 2021 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34405557

RESUMO

Pulmonary cancer is one of the most common malignancies worldwide. Accurate classification of its subtypes is required in differential diagnosis. However, existing algorithms are mostly based on color images, and the improvement of accuracy is quite challenging. In this study, we propose a convolution combination unit (CCU)-based three-dimensional convolutional neural network (3D-PulCNN) for classifying pulmonary cancer presented in microscopic hyperspectral image with both spatial and spectral information. CCU is designed to fuse the features acquired by different convolution scales. Compared with VGGNet, only two fully connected layers are used in this model, reducing the network parameters and model complexity. Experimental results show that 3D-PulCNN achieves overall average (OA) of 0.962 and Precision, Recall, and Kappa of more than 0.920, superior to 2D-VGGNet. Then, 3D-UNet is leveraged to segment cancer cells, and their morphological characteristics are calculated to supply quantitative virtual analysis data for classification results explanation and prognosis assessment.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33798078

RESUMO

As being radiation-free, portable, and capable of repetitive use, ultrasonography is playing an important role in diagnosing and evaluating the COVID-19 Pneumonia (PN) in this epidemic. By virtue of lung ultrasound scores (LUSS), lung ultrasound (LUS) was used to estimate the excessive lung fluid that is an important clinical manifestation of COVID-19 PN, with high sensitivity and specificity. However, as a qualitative method, LUSS suffered from large interobserver variations and requirement for experienced clinicians. Considering this limitation, we developed a quantitative and automatic lung ultrasound scoring system for evaluating the COVID-19 PN. A total of 1527 ultrasound images prospectively collected from 31 COVID-19 PN patients with different clinical conditions were evaluated and scored with LUSS by experienced clinicians. All images were processed via a series of computer-aided analysis, including curve-to-linear conversion, pleural line detection, region-of-interest (ROI) selection, and feature extraction. A collection of 28 features extracted from the ROI was specifically defined for mimicking the LUSS. Multilayer fully connected neural networks, support vector machines, and decision trees were developed for scoring LUS images using the fivefold cross validation. The model with 128×256 two fully connected layers gave the best accuracy of 87%. It is concluded that the proposed method could assess the ultrasound images by assigning LUSS automatically with high accuracy, potentially applicable to the clinics.


Assuntos
COVID-19/diagnóstico por imagem , Interpretação de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Redes Neurais de Computação , Ultrassonografia/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , SARS-CoV-2
8.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 13(9): 11461-11469, 2021 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33634696

RESUMO

There is a growing interest in the design and construction of artificial photosythetic materials for solar energy utilization and conversion. Inspired by the structure of thylakoid membrane, we present here a hybrid construct for light-harvesting and oxygen releasing. Our design conjugates chlorophyll to TiO2 in a native-like membrane environment. The natural bilayer structure of lipids is utilized to localize the amphiphilic chlorophyll a and hydrophobic tetrabutyl titanate TBOT in the liposomal membrane during hydration process. The coassembled structure, which mimics the essential organization of the thylakoid membrane, is characterized using a combination of field emission scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS), Ramam spectra, pressure (π)-area (Α) isotherms, cyclic voltammetry (CV), and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) analysis. Our results demonstrate successful insertation of chlorophyll a in the membrane and confirm the in situ formation of TiO2 nanoshell confined at the lipid bilayer/water interface. We further show that the hybrid liposomes exhibit unambiguous photoactivity in visible light-harvesting and oxygen release, likely resulting from a larger specific surface area of the TiO2 shell, an efficient interfacial conjugation of the chlorophyll molecules with the thin TiO2 layer. The density functional theory (DFT) calculations were in accordance with the eletron injection processes.We expect that the present work will open a new insight into interfacial recombination between light-harvesting pigments and their sensitized photocatalysis, and develop a new kind of artificial photosynthetic materials with zero-cost of environmental degradation and high efficiency for the photocatalytic O2 production.


Assuntos
Materiais Biomiméticos/química , Clorofila/química , Bicamadas Lipídicas/química , Lipossomos/química , Oxigênio/química , Titânio/química , Catálise/efeitos da radiação , Clorofila/efeitos da radiação , Luz , Oxirredução/efeitos da radiação , Tilacoides/química , Titânio/efeitos da radiação , Água/química
9.
IEEE Trans Med Imaging ; 40(1): 218-227, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32956043

RESUMO

Skin biopsy histopathological analysis is one of the primary methods used for pathologists to assess the presence and deterioration of melanoma in clinical. A comprehensive and reliable pathological analysis is the result of correctly segmented melanoma and its interaction with benign tissues, and therefore providing accurate therapy. In this study, we applied the deep convolution network on the hyperspectral pathology images to perform the segmentation of melanoma. To make the best use of spectral properties of three dimensional hyperspectral data, we proposed a 3D fully convolutional network named Hyper-net to segment melanoma from hyperspectral pathology images. In order to enhance the sensitivity of the model, we made a specific modification to the loss function with caution of false negative in diagnosis. The performance of Hyper-net surpassed the 2D model with the accuracy over 92%. The false negative rate decreased by nearly 66% using Hyper-net with the modified loss function. These findings demonstrated the ability of the Hyper-net for assisting pathologists in diagnosis of melanoma based on hyperspectral pathology images.


Assuntos
Melanoma , Neoplasias Cutâneas , Biópsia , Humanos , Melanoma/diagnóstico por imagem , Pele , Neoplasias Cutâneas/diagnóstico por imagem
10.
Ultrason Imaging ; 43(1): 19-28, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33355516

RESUMO

It is of vital importance to identify the pleural line when performing lung ultrasound, as the pleural line not only indicates the interface between the chest wall and lung, but offers additional diagnostic information. In the current clinical practice, the pleural line is visually detected and evaluated by clinicians, which requires experiences and skills with challenges for the novice. In this study, we developed a computer-aided technique for automated pleural line detection using ultrasound. The method first utilized the Radon transform to detect line objects in the ultrasound images. The relation of the body mass index and chest wall thickness was then applied to estimate the range of the pleural thickness, based on which the pleural line was detected together with the consideration of the ultrasonic properties of the pleural line. The proposed method was validated by testing 83 ultrasound data sets collected from 21 pneumothorax patients. The pleural lines were successfully identified in 76 data sets by the automated method (successful detection rate 91.6%). In those successful cases, the depths of the pleural lines measured by the automated method agreed with those manually measured as confirmed with the Bland-Altman test. The measurement errors were below 5% in terms of the pleural line depth. As a conclusion, the proposed method could detect the pleural line in an automated manner in the defined data set. In addition, the method may potentially act as an alternative to visual inspection after further tests on more diverse data sets are performed in future studies.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33287419

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This cross-sectional study examined the associations between health-related physical fitness (HPF) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in overweight and obese university staff. METHODS: A total of 340 university staff (109 women, mean age 43.1 ± 9.7 years) with overweight (n = 284) and obesity (n = 56) were included. The HPF indicators included skeletal muscle mass index (SMI), body fat percentage (BFP), grip strength (GS), sit-and-reach test (SRT), and vital capacity index (VCI). CVD risk factors were measured, including uric acid (UA), triglycerides (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and glucose (GLU). RESULTS: BFP, SMI, and GS were positively associated with UA level (ß = 0.239, ß = 0.159, ß = 0.139, p < 0.05). BFP was positively associated with TG and TG/HDL-C levels (ß = 0.421, ß = 0.259, p < 0.05). GS was positively associated with HDL-C level (ß = 0.244, p < 0.05). SRT was negatively associated with GLU level (ß = -0.130, p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: In overweight and obese university staff, body composition, muscle strength, and flexibility were associated with CVD risk factors. An HPF test may be a practical nonmedical method to assess CVD risk.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Obesidade , Saúde do Trabalhador , Sobrepeso , Aptidão Física , Universidades , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , HDL-Colesterol , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Saúde do Trabalhador/estatística & dados numéricos , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Triglicerídeos , Universidades/estatística & dados numéricos
12.
DNA Cell Biol ; 39(11): 1948-1960, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33155841

RESUMO

The antitumor activity of Momordica anti-human immunodeficiency virus protein of 30 kDa (MAP30) has been proved. However, the role of MAP30 on tumor metastasis has not yet been identified. For this purpose, we investigated this effect and underlying mechanism of MAP30 in bladder cancer (BC). Here, we reported that MAP30 significantly inhibited the cell proliferation and clone formation of 5637 and T24 cells in vitro by promoting apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. We also found MAP30 inhibited cell migration and invasion by suppressing the epithelial/mesenchymal transition (EMT) process. Moreover, the Affymetrix GeneChip assay revealed that MAP30 significantly changed gene expression profile in T24 cells, especially the genes in cell cycle regulation pathways. After the Ingenuity Pathway Analysis, we predicted that NUPR1 was the most important upstream regulator. Subsequently, we verified that the AKT and EMT signaling pathways were inhibited by MAP30 treatment in T24 cells. In conclusion, MAP30 treatment inhibited the progression of human BC, especially cell migration and invasion through suppressing AKT pathways.


Assuntos
Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/genética , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas de Neoplasias/genética , Proteínas Inativadoras de Ribossomos Tipo 2/farmacologia , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/tratamento farmacológico , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Pontos de Checagem do Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Invasividade Neoplásica/genética , Invasividade Neoplásica/patologia , Metástase Neoplásica , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/genética , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/genética , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/patologia
13.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 14483, 2020 09 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32879411

RESUMO

Vegetation concrete is one of the most widely used substrates for slope ecological protection in China. However, there are still some imperfections that are disadvantageous for plant growth, such as high density, low porosity, insufficient nutrient retention ability and so on. In this paper, the effect of wood activated carbon and mineral activated carbon on the physicochemical properties of vegetation concrete is studied. The experimental results show that the activated carbon proportion in vegetation concrete is positively related to the porosity, permeability coefficient, water holding capacity, and nutrient content and retention ability, while it is negatively related to the dry density, water retention ability, cohesive force and internal friction angle. However, it should be noticed that when the proportion exceeds 2%, the average height, aboveground biomass and underground biomass of Cynodon dactylon decrease with increasing proportion of activated carbon. The effect of wood activated carbon is generally more remarkable than that of mineral activated carbon. In addition, according to the research results, the effect of activated carbon on vegetation concrete can last for at least half a year, although it does slowly deteriorate with increasing time. By comprehensive consideration of the current industry standard, previous research results and economical reasoning, the recommended type of activated carbon is wood, with a corresponding suitable proportion ranging between 1 and 2%.


Assuntos
Carvão Vegetal/química , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Cynodon/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Solo , Madeira/química , Biomassa , Carbono/química , China , Meio Ambiente , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Nitrogênio/química , Permeabilidade , Fósforo/química , Porosidade , Potássio/química , Resistência ao Cisalhamento , Estresse Mecânico
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32754581

RESUMO

Poly-γ-glutamic acid (γ-PGA) is an emerging biopolymer with various applications and γ-PGAs with different molecular weights exhibit distinctive properties. However, studies on the controllable molecular weights of biopolymers are limited. The purpose of this study is to achieve production of γ-PGAs with a wide range of molecular weights through manipulating the expression of γ-PGA depolymerase (PgdS) in Bacillus licheniformis WX-02. Firstly, the expression and secretion of PgdS were regulated through engineering its expression elements (four promoters and eight signal peptides), which generated γ-PGAs with molecular weights ranging from 6.82 × 104 to 1.78 × 106 Da. Subsequently, through combination of promoters with signal peptides, the production of γ-PGAs with a specific molecular weight could be efficiently obtained. Interestingly, the γ-PGA yield increased with the reduced molecular weight in flask cultures (Pearson correlation coefficient of -0.968, P < 0.01). Finally, in batch fermentation, the highest yield of γ-PGA with a weight-average molecular weight of 7.80 × 104 Da reached 39.13 g/L under glutamate-free medium. Collectively, we developed an efficient strategy for one-step production of γ-PGAs with specific molecular weights, which have potential application for industrial production of desirable γ-PGAs.

15.
Ultrason Imaging ; 42(3): 148-158, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32238107

RESUMO

Because of continuous movement and variation in diameter of the inferior vena cava (IVC) with respiration, the measurements on IVC are labor-intensive and with considerable inter-operator variations. Some computer-assisted techniques have been developed to track the movement of the IVC semi-automatically. However, existing methods predominantly rely on reference marker selection and require many manual inputs. In this study, we developed a cross-correlation (CC)-based method for automated IVC movement tracking and measurement, which requires minimal manual input and avoids manual selection of reference markers. Based on the CC method, two approaches, named direct and relative approaches, were used to calculate the maximum, minimum, and variation of the IVC diameter, and compared with the manual measurement. Fifty-four ultrasound cine-loops collected from nine pigs were tested. The results reveal that both the proposed approaches were well agreed with the manual measurement. The errors of the direct approach were less than 9%, while those of relative approach were as high as 26.7%. It is concluded that the proposed direct approach is superior for IVC diameter measurements, which can be comparable with manual counterpart, serving as an alternative to traditional IVC measurement.

16.
Bioresour Technol ; 306: 123167, 2020 Mar 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32192957

RESUMO

This study evaluated enzyme activity, available nitrogen, and bacterial succession during pig manure composting with and without microbial inoculation (ABB and CK, respectively). ABB reached the thermophilic stage 2 days than CK. Cellulose, urease, phosphatase, and sucrase activities were higher in ABB than in CK on days 12-24 of composting, but catalase activity was lesser in ABB than in CK throughout composting. NH4+-N and NO3--N were significantly increased in ABB at the maturity stage. 16S rRNA sequencing revealed Nocardiopsaceae, Bacillaceae, Streptosporangiaceaec, Flavobacteriaceae, and Caldicoprobacteraceae as the dominant bacteria at the family level. Metabolism function analysis revealed that human diseases were reduced and carbohydrate metabolism was increased in ABB. Correlation analysis revealed that urease, sucrose, and phosphatase were significantly correlated with bacteria at the species level, whereas NH4+-N and NO3--N were not significantly correlated. These results indicated that microbial inoculation accelerated the composting process and significantly regulated microbial functions.

17.
Polymers (Basel) ; 12(1)2020 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31906565

RESUMO

High pressure in situ Fourier transfer infrared/near infrared technology (HP FTIR/NIR) along with theoretical calculation of density functional theory (DFT) method was employed. The solvation behaviors and the free radical homopolymerization of methyl methacrylate (MMA), methacrylate acid (MAA), trifluoromethyl methacrylate (MTFMA) and trifluoromethyl methacrylate acid (TFMAA) in scCO2 were systematically investigated. Interestingly, the previously proposed mechanism of intermolecular-interaction dynamically-induced solvation effect (IDISE) of monomer in scCO2 is expected to be well verified/corroborated in view that the predicted solubility order of the monomers in scCO2 via DFT calculation is ideally consistent with that observed via HP FTIR/NIR. It is shown that MMA and MAA can be easily polymerized, while the free radical polymerizability of MTFMA is considerably poor and TFMAA cannot be polymerized via the free radical initiators. The α trifluoromethyl group (-CF3) may effectively enhance the intermolecular hydrogen bonding and restrain the diffusion of the monomer in scCO2. More importantly, the strong electron-withdrawing inductive effect of -CF3 to C=C may distinctly decrease the atomic charge of the carbon atom in the methylene (=CH2). These two factors are believed to be predominantly responsible for the significant decline of the free radical polymerizability of MTFMA and the other alkyl 2-trifluoromethacrylates in scCO2.

18.
Langmuir ; 35(21): 7018-7025, 2019 05 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31066285

RESUMO

There is a growing interest in the use of hybrid liposomes for various biochemical and biomedical applications. In this study, we report the first preparation and characterization of a class of TiO2-reinforced liposomes by a one-step assembly approach. The amphiphilic natural structure of lipids is exploited to localize a hydrophobic molecule, namely, precursor tetrabutyl titanate (TBOT), in the mid-plane of the liposomal bilayer assemblies in the aqueous phase. In situ TiO2 nanoshell formation is driven by subsequent interfacial hydrolysis of TBOT and the ensuing condensation within the hydrophobic interstices of the lipid bilayer. The core-shell structure, like cell and wall, is demonstrated by means of scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy images, and the formation of the TiO2 shell is confirmed using energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, and differential scanning calorimetry. To study the structural evolution of the hybrid liposomes during titania formation, fluorescence probe technique and surface pressure versus molecular area (π- A) isotherms are designed. The results demonstrate that the incorporation of TBOT into the mid-membrane of the lipid and titania in the core of the membrane strengthened the assembly of the lipid bilayer. We further demonstrate that titania shell improved the stability and release property of liposomes. We expect that the reported new TiO2-coated liposomes by co-assembly will be valuable in designing hybrid liposomes, exhibiting integrative capacity for drug encapsulation, compartment reaction, and photocatalysis.


Assuntos
Bicamadas Lipídicas/química , Nanoestruturas , Titânio/química , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Lipossomos , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Nanoestruturas/química , Nanoestruturas/ultraestrutura , Espectrometria por Raios X
19.
J Zhejiang Univ Sci B ; 20(3): 287-290, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30829016

RESUMO

To further enrich the genetic data of the Chinese Xinjiang Mongolian group, the genetic distribution and forensic parameters of 19 autosomal short tandem repeats (STRs) were investigated. Altogether, 249 alleles were observed in these 19 STRs. The mean values of the polymorphism information content (PIC), match probability (MP), discrimination power (DP), and probability of exclusion (PE) for these 19 STRs were 0.7775, 0.0699, 0.9301, and 0.6085, respectively. Additionally, the cumulative DP and PE values obtained in the Mongolian group were 0.999 999 999 999 999 999 999 995 67 and 0.999 999 992 163, respectively. Furthermore, population genetic analysis of the Mongolian group and 20 published populations was conducted based on the population data of 15 overlapping STRs. Genetic distances indicated that the Mongolian group had closer genetic similarities with the Uyghur, Xibe, and other Chinese populations rather than the other continental populations. Multidimensional scaling analysis further revealed that the Mongolian group possessed similar genetic distributions as most Chinese populations. To sum it all up, these STRs could be used as an extremely efficient tool for forensic applications in the Xinjiang Mongolian group.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Marcadores Genéticos , Repetições de Microssatélites , Alelos , China , Impressões Digitais de DNA , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Grupos Étnicos/genética , Frequência do Gene , Genética Populacional , Genoma Humano , Humanos , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Mongólia , Polimorfismo Genético , Análise de Componente Principal , Probabilidade , Software
20.
Electrophoresis ; 40(6): 890-896, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30132934

RESUMO

A rapid, low-cost, highly sensitive, and specific capacitive aptasensor is presented for detection of lipopolysaccharides (LPS). Exposure to LPS could cause fever, gram-negative sepsis, septic shock, and eventual death. Hence, rapid, low cost, and sensitive detection of LPS is pivotal for the safety of food, pharmaceutical, and medical devices and products. In this work, a capacitive sensing method based on alternating current electrokinetics is developed to achieve rapid and specific detection of LPS. This method uses an alternating current signal for two purposes. One is to induce positive dielectrophoresis, which attracts LPS toward the sensor electrodes' surface and accelerates its binding with the immobilized aptamer probe. The other purpose is to simultaneously sense the binding reaction by measuring the interfacial capacitance change on the electrodes' surface. The testing procedures and instrumentation setup of this sensing platform are significantly simplified while finding quantitative concentrations of both analytical and complex samples within 30 s. When testing analytical samples of LPS from Escherichia coli O55:B5, a LOD of 4.93 fg/mL is achieved. The recovery analysis is also performed with LPS spiked in a complex matrix and good recovery rates are demonstrated. This work provides an affordable and field-deployable platform for highly sensitive and real-time LPS detection.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais/métodos , Técnicas Eletroquímicas/métodos , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Lipopolissacarídeos/análise , Sondas Moleculares/química , Escherichia coli/química , Escherichia coli/isolamento & purificação , Limite de Detecção
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