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1.
Eur J Med Chem ; 220: 113468, 2021 Apr 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33933753

RESUMO

A series of steroidal compounds based on 3-hydroxyandrosta-5,7-diene-17-carboxylic acid core structure were designed, synthesized and bio-evaluated for their anti-inflammatory potency. Among them, compound 5c, 6f, and 6q effectively inhibited the production of nitric oxide (NO) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. They inhibited the expression of inducible NO synthase (iNOS) and prostaglandin synthase-2 (COX-2) at mRNA level. Compound 6q displayed inhibitory effects on both iNOS and COX-2 expression in a concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, 6q was found to effectively decrease the mRNA and protein levels of interleukin 6 (IL-6). Mechanically, 6q could potently downregulate NF-κB signaling via suppression of the Akt/PI3K pathway. Moreover, 6q demonstrated high in vivo anti-inflammatory activities in a mouse colitis model induced by dextran sulfate sodium (DSS). Taken together, these data indicate that 6q represents a novel and promising anti-inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) agent worthy of further investigation.

2.
Biomater Sci ; 2021 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33949442

RESUMO

As the most common cause of gynecological cancer-related deaths worldwide, ovarian cancer requires novel therapy strategies. Pt(ii)-Based antitumor drugs (e.g. cisplatin) are one of the most successful and frequently used drugs in ovarian cancer chemotherapy at present. However, drug resistance and severe side effects are the major problems in cancer treatment. Herein, the design of a reduction responsive platinum(iv) (Pt(iv))/ursolic acid (UA)/polyethylene glycol (PEG) dual prodrug amphiphile (Pt(iv)-UA-PEG) to treat cisplatin-resistant ovarian cancer is reported for the first time. Pt(iv)-UA-PEG could self-assemble into nanoparticles (Pt(iv)-UA NPs) with a fixed and precise Pt/UA ratio, and a constantly high content of drugs. Pt(iv)-UA NPs could be efficiently taken up by cisplatin-resistant ovarian cancer cells and release the drug in intracellular reductive and acidic environments. In vitro studies show that the released UA and cisplatin have different anticancer mechanisms, and their synergistic effects overcome the detoxification and anti-apoptotic mechanisms of cancer cells. Furthermore, the in vivo results indicate that Pt(iv)-UA NPs have a prolonged blood circulation time, enhanced tumor accumulation, and significantly improved antitumor efficacy in A2780/DDP tumor-bearing mice, without causing any side effects. In summary, our results demonstrate that the development of the stimuli-responsive dual prodrug amphiphile nano-assembly provides a new strategy to overcome drug resistance.

3.
Lin Chung Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi ; 35(4): 306-311;315, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33794626

RESUMO

Objective:This study aimed to explore the biomarkers in nasal secretion that can assist in the diagnosis of allergic rhinitis(AR) and can be used to evaluate the therapeutic effect of AR. Methods:Thirty-three patients with AR and 21 healthy controls were included. The nasal secretion of healthy controls and patients with AR(before and after treatment) were collected. The cytology, the concentrations of cytokines(IL-5, IL-6, IL-8, IL-33, IFN-γ) and inflammatory mediators(ECP, MPO) were detected. Then, we compared the differences of various biomarkers between healthy controls and AR patients(before and after treatment group). And analyzed the correlation between each biomarkers/biomarkers difference value/the percentage of biomarkers difference value and clinical symptom score/ score difference value / the percentage of score difference value. Results:Compared with normal controls, the levels of ECP, IL-5, IL-6, IL-8, IL-33 and IFN-γ in nasal secretion of AR patients were significantly higher than those of normal controls(P<0.05). There was no significant difference in MPO. After treatment, ECP decreased significantly(P<0.01), inflammatory cell grade and eosinophil percentage are also decreased(P<0.01). However, MPO, IL-5, IL-6, IL-8, IL-33 and IFN-γ did not change significantly. The difference value of ECP before and after treatment was correlated with the difference value of VAS score(r=0.348, P=0.047). The difference value of IL-5 was correlated with the difference value of VAS score and rhinorrhea, the correlation coefficients were 0.406(P=0.019) and 0.429(P=0.013), respectively. The difference value of eosinophil percentage in nasal secretion before and after treatment was correlated with nasal congestion, and the correlation coefficient was 0.383. The difference value of eosinophil percentage multiplied by inflammatory cell grade before and after treatment was correlated with VAS score(r=0.417, P=0.016) and nasal congestion difference value(r=0.519, P=0.002). The percentage of difference value of IFN-γ before and after treatment was correlated with the percentage of difference value of VAS score / rhinorrhea / sneeze / total nasal symptom score. Conclusion:ECP, IL-6, IL-8 and IL-33 in nasal secretion are expected to be objective biomarkers for auxiliary diagnosis of AR. And ECP, IL-5, IFN-γ, eosinophil percentage multiplied by grade is expected to be an objective index to judge the improvement of patients' symptoms after treatment.


Assuntos
Rinite Alérgica , Biomarcadores , Eosinófilos , Humanos , Inflamação , Mucosa Nasal , Nariz , Rinite Alérgica/diagnóstico
4.
Virol Sin ; 2021 Apr 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33851337

RESUMO

Genome sequencing has shown strong capabilities in the initial stages of the COVID-19 pandemic such as pathogen identification and virus preliminary tracing. While the rapid acquisition of SARS-CoV-2 genome from clinical specimens is limited by their low nucleic acid load and the complexity of the nucleic acid background. To address this issue, we modified and evaluated an approach by utilizing SARS-CoV-2-specific amplicon amplification and Oxford Nanopore PromethION platform. This workflow started with the throat swab of the COVID-19 patient, combined reverse transcript PCR, and multi-amplification in one-step to shorten the experiment time, then can quickly and steadily obtain high-quality SARS-CoV-2 genome within 24 h. A comprehensive evaluation of the method was conducted in 42 samples: the sequencing quality of the method was correlated well with the viral load of the samples; high-quality SARS-CoV-2 genome could be obtained stably in the samples with Ct value up to 39.14; data yielding for different Ct values were assessed and the recommended sequencing time was 8 h for samples with Ct value of less than 20; variation analysis indicated that the method can detect the existing and emerging genomic mutations as well; Illumina sequencing verified that ultra-deep sequencing can greatly improve the single read error rate of Nanopore sequencing, making it as low as 0.4/10,000 bp. In summary, high-quality SARS-CoV-2 genome can be acquired by utilizing the amplicon amplification and it is an effective method in accelerating the acquisition of genetic resources and tracking the genome diversity of SARS-CoV-2.

5.
Front Med ; 2021 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33860875

RESUMO

The avian influenza A (H7N9) virus is a zoonotic virus that is closely associated with live poultry markets. It has caused infections in humans in China since 2013. Five waves of the H7N9 influenza epidemic occurred in China between March 2013 and September 2017. H7N9 with low-pathogenicity dominated in the first four waves, whereas highly pathogenic H7N9 influenza emerged in poultry and spread to humans during the fifth wave, causing wide concern. Specialists and officials from China and other countries responded quickly, controlled the epidemic well thus far, and characterized the virus by using new technologies and surveillance tools that were made possible by their preparedness efforts. Here, we review the characteristics of the H7N9 viruses that were identified while controlling the spread of the disease. It was summarized and discussed from the perspectives of molecular epidemiology, clinical features, virulence and pathogenesis, receptor binding, T-cell responses, monoclonal antibody development, vaccine development, and disease burden. These data provide tools for minimizing the future threat of H7N9 and other emerging and re-emerging viruses, such as SARS-CoV-2.

6.
Viruses ; 13(4)2021 03 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33806229

RESUMO

The results of experimental and clinical trials of the agents based on oncolytic Newcastle disease virus (NDV) strains provided hope for the development of virotherapy as a promising method for treating human tumors. However, the mechanism of the antitumor effect of NDV and realization of its cytotoxic potential in a cancer cell remains to be elucidated. In the current work, we have studied the antitumor effect of NDV in a syngeneic model of mouse Krebs-2 carcinoma treated with intratumoral injections of a wild-type strain NDV/Altai/pigeon/770/2011. Virological methods were used for preparation of a virus-containing sample. Colorimetric MTS assay was used to assess the viability of Krebs-2 tumor cells infected with a viral strain in vitro. In vivo virotherapy was performed in eight-week-old male BALB/c mice treated with serial intratumoral injections of NDV in an experimental model of Krebs-2 solid carcinoma. Changes in the tumor nodes of Krebs-2 carcinoma after virotherapy were visualized by MRI and immunohistological staining. Light microscopy examination, immunohistochemical and morphometric analyses have shown that intratumoral viral injections contribute to the inhibition of tumor growth, appearance of necrosis-like changes in the tumor tissue and the antiangiogenic effect of the virus. It has been established that a course of intratumoral virotherapy with NDV/Altai/pigeon/770/2011 strain in a mouse Krebs-2 carcinoma resulted in increased destructive changes in the tumor tissue, in the volume density of necrotic foci and numerical density of endothelial cells expressing CD34 and VEGFR. These results indicate that intratumoral NDV injection reduces tumor progression of an aggressive tumor.

7.
Cell Stem Cell ; 28(4): 585-587, 2021 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33798415

RESUMO

Accumulation of undifferentiated myeloid progenitors is a hallmark of AML, and targeting differentiation blockade represents a promising therapeutic strategy for AML. In this issue of Cell Stem Cell, Wang et al. (2021) conducted surface antigen-guided CRISPR screening and identified ZFP36L2 as a myeloid leukemia differentiation regulator and new therapeutic target.

8.
Plants (Basel) ; 10(3)2021 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33808598

RESUMO

Seed germination and seedling vigor can be affected by environmental cues experienced by the mother plant. However, information about how the maternal environment affects seed quality is scarce in ornamental plants. This study aimed to investigate the effects of two different maternal environments on the seed germination and seedling vigor of Petunia × hybrida under a variety of abiotic stresses. Petunia mother plants were grown in either a greenhouse during the summer months or an indoor controlled-temperature-and-light environment. Collected seeds were subjected to external stressors, including polyethylene glycol (PEG), sodium chloride (NaCl), high temperature, and abscisic acid (ABA), to determine seed germination percentage and seedling vigor. Results indicated that seeds harvested from the mother plants grown in a controlled environment germinated better than seeds harvested from the mother plants grown in the greenhouse when suboptimal germination conditions were applied. Additionally, the seedlings from the controlled maternal environment performed better in both ABA and salinity stress tests than the greenhouse seedlings. Interestingly, the greenhouse seedlings displayed less reactive oxygen species (ROS) damage and lower electrolyte leakage than the controlled environment seedlings under dehydration stress. The difference in germination and seedling vigor of seeds from the two different maternal environments might be due to the epigenetic memory inherited from the mother plants. This study highlighted the strong impact of the maternal environment on seed germination and seedling vigor in Petunia and may assist in high-quality seed production in ornamental plants.

9.
Genome Biol ; 22(1): 125, 2021 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33926529

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Medulloblastoma (MB) is the most common malignant pediatric brain tumor that originates in the cerebellum and brainstem. Frequent somatic mutations and deregulated expression of epigenetic regulators in MB highlight the substantial role of epigenetic alterations. 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) is a highly abundant cytosine modification in the developing cerebellum and is regulated by ten-eleven translocation (TET) enzymes. RESULTS: We investigate the alterations of 5hmC and TET enzymes in MB and their significance to cerebellar cancer formation. We show total abundance of 5hmC is reduced in MB, but identify significant enrichment of MB-specific 5hmC marks at regulatory regions of genes implicated in stem-like properties and Nanog-binding motifs. While TET1 and TET2 levels are high in MBs, only knockout of Tet1 in the smoothened (SmoA1) mouse model attenuates uncontrolled proliferation, leading to a favorable prognosis. The pharmacological Tet1 inhibition reduces cell viability and platelet-derived growth factor signaling pathway-associated genes. CONCLUSIONS: These results together suggest a potential key role of 5hmC and indicate an oncogenic nature for TET1 in MB tumorigenesis, suggesting it as a potential therapeutic target for MBs.

10.
J Med Chem ; 64(8): 4498-4515, 2021 Apr 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33788562

RESUMO

Novel indazole and benzimidazole analogues were designed and synthesized as tubulin inhibitors with potent antiproliferative activities. Among them, compound 12b exhibited the strongest inhibitory effects on the growth of cancer cells with an average IC50 value of 50 nM, slightly better than colchicine. 12b exhibited nearly equal potency against both, a paclitaxel-resistant cancer cell line (A2780/T, IC50 = 9.7 nM) and the corresponding parental cell line (A2780S, IC50 = 6.2 nM), thus effectively overcoming paclitaxel resistance in vitro. The crystal structure of 12b in complex with tubulin was solved to 2.45 Å resolution by X-ray crystallography, and its direct binding was confirmed to the colchicine site. Furthermore, 12b displayed significant in vivo antitumor efficacy in a melanoma tumor model with tumor growth inhibition rates of 78.70% (15 mg/kg) and 84.32% (30 mg/kg). Collectively, this work shows that 12b is a promising lead compound deserving further investigation as a potential anticancer agent.

11.
Bioorg Chem ; 110: 104825, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33774492

RESUMO

A series of novel quinazoline analogs with a variety of cysteine-targeting warheads (electrophiles) were designed and synthesized based on ARS-1620 as covalent KRAS G12C inhibitors. Among them, compounds LLK10 and LLK14 exhibited similar or better antiproliferative activity than ARS-1620. LLK10 was used for subsequent biological studies due to the higher selectivity towards KRAS G12C-mutated cells than LLK14. LLK10 maintained the mechanism of action by forming a covalent bond with KRAS G12C protein, thus decreasing the level of phosphorylated Mek and Erk, and leading to tumor cell apoptosis. In addition, LLK10 was able to suppress the formation of H358 tumor colonies. Molecular modeling study indicated that LLK10 binds with high affinity to the SWII binding site in KRAS G12C and overlaps well with ARS-1620. The high binding affinity of LLK10 was further confirmed by the isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) assay in which LLK10 exhibited a KD of 115 nM for binding to KRAS G12C. These results suggest that the novel covalent inhibitors of KRAS G12C with different warheads deserve further investigation as potential anticancer agents.

13.
Cell Discov ; 7(1): 19, 2021 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33785729

RESUMO

The ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, poses a severe threat to humanity. Rapid and comprehensive analysis of both pathogen and host sequencing data is critical to track infection and inform therapies. In this study, we performed unbiased metatranscriptomic analysis of clinical samples from COVID-19 patients using a recently developed RNA-seq library construction method (TRACE-seq), which utilizes tagmentation activity of Tn5 on RNA/DNA hybrids. This approach avoids the laborious and time-consuming steps in traditional RNA-seq procedure, and hence is fast, sensitive, and convenient. We demonstrated that TRACE-seq allowed integrated characterization of full genome information of SARS-CoV-2, putative pathogens causing coinfection, antibiotic resistance, and host response from single throat swabs. We believe that the integrated information will deepen our understanding of pathogenesis and improve diagnostic accuracy for infectious diseases.

14.
Biochem Pharmacol ; 188: 114522, 2021 Mar 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33741334

RESUMO

Programmed death protein 1 (PD-1)/programmed death protein ligand 1 (PD-L1) pathway is one of the most actively pursued targets in cancer immunotherapy. In a continuation of our research interest in this pathway, we synthesized and evaluated the pharmacological activities of a series of resorcinol biphenyl ether analogs as small molecule PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors for cancer treatment. Among the 27 newly synthesized compounds, CH1 was found to have the highest inhibitory effect against PD-1/PDL-1 with an IC50 value of 56.58 nM in the HTRF (homogenous time-resolved fluorescence) assay. In addition, CH1 dose-dependently promoted HepG2 cell death in a co-culture model of HepG2/hPD-L1 and Jurkat T cells. Furthermore, molecular modeling study indicated that CH1 binds with high affinity to the binding interface of PD-L1. Moreover, CH1 effectively inhibited tumor growth (TGI of 76.4% at 90 mg/kg) in an immune checkpoint humanized mouse model with no obvious toxicity. Finally, CH1 did not cause in vivo cardiotoxicity and bone marrow suppression (myelosuppression) to BALB/c mice. Taken together, these results suggest that CH1 deserves further investigation as a potent and safe PD-1/PDL-1 inhibitor for cancer treatment.

15.
Nanotechnology ; 2021 Mar 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33657546

RESUMO

Systematic analysis of the surface morphology, crystalline phase, chemical composition and elemental distribution along depth for nitrogen-doped niobium was carried out through different ways of characterization, including SEM, AFM, GIXRD, RBS and layer-by-layer XPS analysis. The results showed that, after nitrogen doping, the surface was covered by densely distributed trigonal precipitates with average crystallite size of 32 ± 8 nm, in line with the calculation result (29.9 nm) of nitrogen-enriched ß-Nb2N from GIXRD, demonstrating the phase composion of trigonal precipitates. The depth analysis through RBS and XPS indicated that ß-Nb2N was dominant in the topmost 9.7 nm and extended to depth of 575 nm with gradually decreased content. In addition, the successive change of naturally oxidized states of niobium after nitrogen doping along depth was revealed along depth. It was interesting to find that oxygen diffusion depth could be moderately enhanced by nitridation process. These results established the near-surface phase composition of nitrided niobium, which was of great significance for evaluating the effect of nitrogen doping and further understanding the Q improvement of the SRF cavities.

16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33707120

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: High mobility group box 1 protein participates in the pathogenesis of allergic rhinitis. Activation of the inflammasome can mediate the release of high mobility group box 1. The role of the absent in melanoma 2 inflammasome in allergic rhinitis remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the function of absent in melanoma 2 inflammasome in murine allergic rhinitis and the interaction between high mobility group box 1 and the absent in melanoma 2 inflammasome. METHODS: A murine allergic rhinitis model was established using twenty Balb/c mice. Expression of the components of the absent in melanoma 2 inflammasome: absent in melanoma 2, apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a CARD (Asc), caspase-1 p20, and additional nod-like receptor family pyrin domain containing 3 (Nlrp3) were detected by western blotting during allergic rhinitis. Alterations of absent in melanoma 2, caspase-1, and high mobility group box 1 after ovalbumin challenge were demonstrated by immunohistochemistry. TdT-mediated dUTP Nick end labeling, TUNEL assay, and cleavage of caspase-3 and PARP-1 were used for the observation of pyroptosis. RESULTS: Eosinophilia and goblet cell infiltration were observed in the nasal mucosa of mice in the allergic rhinitis group. Absent in melanoma 2, Asc, and caspase-1 p20 increased after ovalbumin exposure while Nlrp3 did not. High mobility group box 1 was released in the nasal mucosa of allergic rhinitis mice. TUNEL-positive cells increased in the epithelium and laminae propria, whereas cleavage of caspase-3 and PARP-1 was not observed. CONCLUSIONS: The absent in melanoma 2 inflammasome was activated and pyroptosis may occur in the nasal mucosa after ovalbumin treatment. These may contribute to the translocation of high mobility group box 1 and the development of allergic rhinitis.

17.
Blood ; 2021 Mar 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33763698

RESUMO

RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) are critical regulators of transcription and translation that are often dysregulated in cancer. Although RBPs are increasingly appreciated as being important for normal hematopoiesis and for hematological malignancies as oncogenes or tumor suppressors, essential RBPs for leukemia maintenance and survival remain elusive. Here we show that YBX1 is specifically required for maintaining myeloid leukemia cell survival in an m6A-dependent manner. We found that expression of YBX1 is significantly upregulated in myeloid leukemia cells, and deletion of YBX1 dramatically induces apoptosis, promotes differentiation, coupled with reduced proliferation and impaired leukemic capacity of primary human and mouse acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells in vitro and in vivo. Loss of YBX1 does not obviously affect normal hematopoiesis. Mechanistically, YBX1 interacts with IGF2BPs and stabilizes m6A-tagged RNA. Moreover, YBX1 deficiency dysregulates the expression of apoptosis-related genes, and promotes mRNA decay of MYC and BCL2 in an m6A-dependent manner, which contributes to the defective survival due to YBX1 deletion. Thus, our findings uncover a selective and critical role of YBX1 in maintaining myeloid leukemia survival that might provide a rationale for the therapeutic targeting of YBX1 in myeloid leukemia.

18.
J Hazard Mater ; 415: 125637, 2021 Mar 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33740717

RESUMO

CuMn oxides have been studied for many years to catalytic degradation of toluene, but there are still many divergences on the essence of their great catalytic activity and reaction mechanism. A series of CuMn bimetallic oxides were synthesized for the catalytic oxidation of toluene in this study. Cu2Mn1 exhibited the highest toluene oxidation rate per specific surface area, which was approximately 4 times that of monometallic CuO and Mn3O4. Benzoic acid was the only intermediates which could be observed during toluene oxidation. Between monometallic CuO and Mn3O4, toluene was more difficult to be activated by Mn3O4 to generate benzoic acid (toluene activation), whereas benzoic acid was oxidized (ring-breaking) by CuO with more difficulty. As for CuMn, the superior reducibility combined with the balance between ring-breaking of benzoic acid and activation of toluene-to-benzoic acid determined the high toluene oxidation rate. DFT simulations exhibited that in O-Cu-O-Mn-O structure, the Mn-O site was a more effective activation site for toluene-to-benzoic acid oxidation, whereas Cu-O mainly performed as an adsorption site for toluene. This work identifies the different roles of Cu and Mn entities in toluene oxidation and provides the novel design strategy for toluene removal catalysts.

19.
Chem Biol Drug Des ; 97(5): 1109-1116, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33638903

RESUMO

A series of benz-fused five-membered heterocyclic compounds were designed and synthesized as novel tubulin inhibitors targeting the colchicine binding site. Among them, compound 4d displayed the highest antiproliferative activity against four cancer cell lines with an IC50 value of 4.9 µM in B16-F10 cells. Compound 4d effectively inhibited tubulin polymerization in vitro (IC50 of 13.1 µM). Further, 4d induced cell cycle arrest in G2/M phase. Finally, 4d inhibited the migration of cancer cells in a dose-dependent manner. In summary, these results suggest that compound 4d represents a new class of tubulin inhibitors deserving further investigation.

20.
EMBO Rep ; 22(4): e50128, 2021 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33605073

RESUMO

N6 -methyladenosine (m6 A) modification of mRNA mediates diverse cellular and viral functions. Infection with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is causally associated with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), 10% of gastric carcinoma, and various B-cell lymphomas, in which the viral latent and lytic phases both play vital roles. Here, we show that EBV transcripts exhibit differential m6 A modification in human NPC biopsies, patient-derived xenograft tissues, and cells at different EBV infection stages. m6 A-modified EBV transcripts are recognized and destabilized by the YTHDF1 protein, which leads to the m6 A-dependent suppression of EBV infection and replication. Mechanistically, YTHDF1 hastens viral RNA decapping and mediates RNA decay by recruiting RNA degradation complexes, including ZAP, DDX17, and DCP2, thereby post-transcriptionally downregulating the expression of EBV genes. Taken together, our results reveal the critical roles of m6 A modifications and their reader YTHDF1 in EBV replication. These findings contribute novel targets for the treatment of EBV-associated cancers.

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