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1.
Brain Behav Immun ; 2019 Jun 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31255682

RESUMO

Evidence shows that gut microbiota may play important roles in schizophrenia pathogenesis via the "gut-brain" axis, but the mechanisms remain unclear. Here, eighty-four patients with schizophrenia and 84 sex- and age-matched healthy controls were enrolled. Shotgun metagenomic sequencing and 16S rRNA sequencing were performed, and the gut microbiota-associated epitopes (MEs) were predicted, which, together with IgA content, were used to determine the gut microbiota composition associated with gut immune status. Patients with schizophrenia had significantly reduced gut microbiota richnesses compared with those of the healthy controls, and the gut microbiota compositions clearly distinguished the patients with schizophrenia from the healthy controls. Based on two-stage metagenomic-wide association studies, nineteen gut microbiota taxonomies were associated with schizophrenia, and the microbial dysbiosis (MD) index was calculated based on the abundance of differential taxonomies. We found that MD index was positively correlated with MEs diversity and gut IgA levels, and negatively correlated with gut microbiota richness. Glutamate synthase (GOGAT) was more active in the guts of patients with schizophrenia than in those of healthy controls, and high GOGAT activity was associated with altered gut microbiota taxonomies associated with gut IgA levels. Our results may imply a role of the microbiome in the etiology of schizophrenia and contribute to the development of microbiome targeted interventions for schizophrenia.

2.
Nat Microbiol ; 4(8): 1378-1388, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31110366

RESUMO

Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb)-derived components are usually recognized by pattern recognition receptors to initiate a cascade of innate immune responses. One striking characteristic of Mtb is their utilization of different type VII secretion systems to secrete numerous proteins across their hydrophobic and highly impermeable cell walls, but whether and how these Mtb-secreted proteins are sensed by host immune system remains largely unknown. Here, we report that MPT53 (Rv2878c), a secreted disulfide-bond-forming-like protein of Mtb, directly interacts with TGF-ß-activated kinase 1 (TAK1) and activates TAK1 in a TLR2- or MyD88-independent manner. MPT53 induces disulfide bond formation at C210 on TAK1 to facilitate its interaction with TRAFs and TAB1, thus activating TAK1 to induce the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Furthermore, MPT53 and its disulfide oxidoreductase activity is required for Mtb to induce the host inflammatory responses via TAK1. Our findings provide an alternative pathway for host signalling proteins to sense Mtb infection and may favour the improvement of current vaccination strategies.

3.
Genet Test Mol Biomarkers ; 23(4): 264-269, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30986100

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Qualitative and quantitative detection of circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) is a liquid biopsy technology used for early cancer diagnosis. However, the plasma ctDNA content is extremely low, so it is difficult to detect somatic mutations of tumors using conventional sequencing methods. Target region sequencing (TRS) technology, through enrichment of the target genomic region followed by next generation sequencing, overcomes this challenge and has been widely used in ctDNA sequencing. METHODS: We designed a ctDNA sequencing panel to capture 128 tumor genes, and tested the performance of the panel by running TRS for ctDNA of a clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) patient and 12 breast cancer patients. RESULTS: TRS using the new ctDNA panel at more than 500 × coverage depth achieved almost the same accuracy as traditional whole-exome sequencing (WES). PBRM1 p.L641V was detected in the plasma sample of the ccRCC patient with an allele frequency of 0.2%. The ctDNA of 12 breast cancer patients was sequenced at a depth of 500-fold, achieving 99.89% coverage; 34 genes were detected with mutations, including the drug target genes BRCA2, PTEN, TP53, APC, KDR, and NOTCH2. CONCLUSIONS: This TRS new ctDNA panel can be used to detect mutations in cell-free DNA from multiple types of cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Carcinoma de Células Renais/genética , Biópsia Líquida/métodos , Adulto , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/sangue , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Carcinoma de Células Renais/sangue , Carcinoma de Células Renais/diagnóstico , DNA Tumoral Circulante/análise , DNA Tumoral Circulante/sangue , DNA de Neoplasias/sangue , Feminino , Genômica , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Análise de Sequência de DNA
4.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 97(51): e13553, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30572456

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diagnosing schizophrenia is primarily based on the presentation of defined signs and symptoms, none of which is pathognomonic for this group of syndromes. However, few significant genome-wide associations between schizophrenia and individual have detected. Protein profiling of candidate serum biomarkers in schizophrenia is therefore an area of great interest. METHODS: In the present study, we used a combination of 7% polyethylene glycol (PEG) enrichment of immune complexes and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) to separate abnormal band, then analyse the band with liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS). RESULTS: There is a special 150-kD electrophoretic band in patients with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, or depression relative to healthy controls (each 30 samples). Analysis of the band using LC-MS resulted in the identification of 11 serum proteins whose abundance was altered between patients and controls. Among them, 8 proteins (CFH, CFB, cDNA FLJ75416, zinc finger protein 729, isoform 2 of nidogen-1, diaphanous-1, cDNA FLJ77762, and cDNA FLJ58411) were up regulated, while one protein (isoform 1 of collagen alpha-1 (II) was down regulated in patients with schizophrenia, but only zinc finger protein 729 has statistics significance (P < .05). No differences were noted with regard to thrombospondin-1 or collagen alpha-2 (I) among the 3 groups. These proteins take part in several biological functions such as focal adhesion, complement cascades, ECM-receptor interaction, and Staphylococcus aureus infection. CONCLUSIONS: The 150-kD electrophoretic band or zinc finger protein 729 may become biomarkers in patients with schizophrenia. In the future increasing sample size and function research of zinc finger protein 729 should be executed continuously.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida , Eletroforese em Gel de Poliacrilamida , Espectrometria de Massas , Proteínas/metabolismo , Esquizofrenia/sangue , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
5.
Mol Cancer Res ; 2018 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30401720

RESUMO

The E-cadherin/ß-catenin signaling pathway plays a critical role in the maintenance of epithelial architecture and regulation of tumor progression. Normally, E-cadherin locates on the cell surface with its cytosolic domain linking to the actin cytoskeleton through interaction with catenins. Although the nuclear localization of E-cadherin has been frequently observed in various types of cancers, little is known regarding the functional consequences of its nuclear translocation. Here, we showed that in colorectal cancer samples and cell lines, E-cadherin localized in the nucleus; and the nuclear localization was mediated through protein interaction with CTNND1. In the nucleus, E-cadherin was acetylated by CBP at Lysine870 and Lysine871 in its ß-catenin binding domain, and the acetylation can be reversed by SIRT2. Acetylation of nuclear E-cadherin attenuated its interaction with ß-catenin, which therefore released ß-catenin from the complex, resulting in increased expression of its downstream genes and accelerated tumor growth and migration. Further study showed that acetylation level of nuclear E-cadherin had high prognostic significance in clinical colorectal samples. Taken together, our findings reveal a novel mechanism of tumor progression through post-translational modification of E-cadherin, which may serve as a potential drug target of tumor therapy. Implications: This finding that acetylation of nuclear E-cadherin regulates ß-catenin activity expands our understanding of the acetylation of E-cadherin promotes colorectal cancer cell growth and suggests novel therapeutic approaches of targeting acetylation in tumors.

6.
Nature ; 563(7729): 131-136, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30356214

RESUMO

Accurate repair of DNA double-stranded breaks by homologous recombination preserves genome integrity and inhibits tumorigenesis. Cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS) is a cytosolic DNA sensor that activates innate immunity by initiating the STING-IRF3-type I IFN signalling cascade1,2. Recognition of ruptured micronuclei by cGAS links genome instability to the innate immune response3,4, but the potential involvement of cGAS in DNA repair remains unknown. Here we demonstrate that cGAS inhibits homologous recombination in mouse and human models. DNA damage induces nuclear translocation of cGAS in a manner that is dependent on importin-α, and the phosphorylation of cGAS at tyrosine 215-mediated by B-lymphoid tyrosine kinase-facilitates the cytosolic retention of cGAS. In the nucleus, cGAS is recruited to double-stranded breaks and interacts with PARP1 via poly(ADP-ribose). The cGAS-PARP1 interaction impedes the formation of the PARP1-Timeless complex, and thereby suppresses homologous recombination. We show that knockdown of cGAS suppresses DNA damage and inhibits tumour growth both in vitro and in vivo. We conclude that nuclear cGAS suppresses homologous-recombination-mediated repair and promotes tumour growth, and that cGAS therefore represents a potential target for cancer prevention and therapy.

7.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 4295, 2018 10 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30327467

RESUMO

Tuberculosis (TB) caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) kills millions every year, and there is urgent need to develop novel anti-TB agents due to the fast-growing of drug-resistant TB. Although autophagy regulates the intracellular survival of Mtb, the role of calcium (Ca2+) signaling in modulating autophagy during Mtb infection remains largely unknown. Here, we show that microRNA miR-27a is abundantly expressed in active TB patients, Mtb-infected mice and macrophages. The target of miR-27a is the ER-located Ca2+ transporter CACNA2D3. Targeting of this transporter leads to the downregulation of Ca2+ signaling, thus inhibiting autophagosome formation and promoting the intracellular survival of Mtb. Mice lacking of miR-27a and mice treated with an antagomir to miR-27a are more resistant to Mtb infection. Our findings reveal a strategy for Mtb to increase intracellular survival by manipulating the Ca2+-associated autophagy, and may also support the development of host-directed anti-TB therapeutic approaches.

8.
Cell Death Discov ; 4: 17, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29531814

RESUMO

The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a multifunctional cell process involved in the pathogenesis of numerous conditions, including fibrosis and cancer. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a progressive and fatal disease characterized by fibroblast accumulation and collagen deposition in the lungs. The fibroblasts involved in this process partially originate from lung epithelial cells via the EMT. Evidence suggests that the EMT contributes to progression, invasion, and metastasis of various types of cancer. We screened a series of 80 compounds for the ability to interfere with the EMT and potentially be applied as a therapeutic for IPF and/or lung cancer. We identified 2-aminopurine (2-AP), a fluorescent analog of guanosine and adenosine, as a candidate in this screen. Herein, we demonstrate that 2-AP can restore E-cadherin expression and inhibit fibronectin and vimentin expression in TGF-ß1-treated A549 lung cancer cells. Moreover, 2-AP can inhibit TGF-ß1-induced metastasis of A549 cells. This compound significantly attenuated bleomycin (BLM)-induced pulmonary inflammation, the EMT, and fibrosis. In addition, 2-AP treatment significantly decreased mortality in a mouse model of pulmonary fibrosis. Collectively, we determined that 2-AP could inhibit metastasis in vitro by suppressing the TGF-ß1-induced EMT and could attenuate BLM-induced pulmonary fibrosis in vivo. Results of this study suggest that 2-AP may have utility as a treatment for lung cancer and pulmonary fibrosis.

9.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 7(1): 34, 2018 Mar 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29559631

RESUMO

Tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection remains a large global public health problem. One striking characteristic of Mtb is its ability to adapt to hypoxia and trigger the ensuing transition to a dormant state for persistent infection, but how the hypoxia response of Mtb is regulated remains largely unknown. Here we performed a quantitative acetylome analysis to compare the acetylation profile of Mtb under aeration and hypoxia, and showed that 377 acetylation sites in 269 Mtb proteins were significantly changed under hypoxia. In particular, deacetylation of dormancy survival regulator (DosR) at K182 promoted the hypoxia response in Mtb and enhanced the transcription of DosR-targeted genes. Mechanistically, recombinant DosRK182R protein demonstrated enhanced DNA-binding activity in comparison with DosRK182Q protein. Moreover, Rv0998 was identified as an acetyltransferase that mediates the acetylation of DosR at K182. Deletion of Rv0998 also promoted the adaptation of Mtb to hypoxia and the transcription of DosR-targeted genes. Mice infected with an Mtb strain containing acetylation-defective DosRK182R had much lower bacterial counts and less severe histopathological impairments compared with those infected with the wild-type strain. Our findings suggest that hypoxia induces the deacetylation of DosR, which in turn increases its DNA-binding ability to promote the transcription of target genes, allowing Mtb to shift to dormancy under hypoxia.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/química , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Lisina/metabolismo , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/metabolismo , Oxigênio/metabolismo , Proteínas Quinases/química , Proteínas Quinases/metabolismo , Tuberculose/microbiologia , Acetilação , Motivos de Aminoácidos , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/química , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genética , Proteínas Quinases/genética
10.
J Infect Dis ; 218(2): 312-323, 2018 Jun 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29228365

RESUMO

Tuberculosis, caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection, remains a global threat to human health, but knowledge of the molecular mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of tuberculosis is still limited. Although Notch4, a member of the Notch receptor family, is involved in the initiation of mammary tumors, its function in M. tuberculosis infection remains unclear. In this study, we found that Notch4-deficient mice were more resistant to M. tuberculosis infection, with a much lower bacterial burden and fewer pathological changes in the lungs. Notch4 inhibited M. tuberculosis-induced production of proinflammatory cytokines by interaction with TAK1 and inhibition of its activation. Furthermore, we found that Notch intracellular domain 4 prevented TRAF6 autoubiquitination and suppressed TRAF6-mediated TAK1 polyubiquitination. Finally, Notch inhibitors made mice more resistant to M. tuberculosis infection. These results suggest that Notch4 is a negative regulator of M. tuberculosis-induced inflammatory response, and treatment with a Notch inhibitor could serve as a new therapeutic strategy for tuberculosis.

11.
Cancer Biomark ; 19(3): 257-262, 2017 Jul 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28436387

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The study aims to evaluate the predictive value of microRNA-143 (miR-143) for the prognosis of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). METHODS: Between October 2010 and October 2012, 131 HCC patients were selected as a case group; meanwhile, 122 healthy controls were enrolled as a control group. The miR-143 expression in serum was detected by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). These HCC patients were divided into the high miR-143 expression group and the low miR-143 expression group based on the threshold of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. Kaplan-Meier method was applied to analyze the prognosis of HCC patients. RESULTS: MiR-143 exhibited decreased expression in the case group significantly compared to the control group. The areas under the ROC curve (AUC), sensitivity value and specificity value of the miR-143 expression for the diagnosis of HCC were 0.831, 80.30% and 82.40%, respectively. The miR-143 expression was negatively correlated with vascular invasion, TNM staging, tumor recurrence, metastasis and survival of HCC patients. CONCLUSIONS: Our study provides evidence that miR-143 may be negatively correlated with the prognosis of HCC and provides a promising strategy for HCC treatment and prognosis improvement.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular/genética , Neoplasias Hepáticas/genética , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/metabolismo , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Masculino , MicroRNAs/genética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico
12.
PLoS One ; 12(1): e0169922, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28076390

RESUMO

Interleukin-37 (IL-37), a novel member of the IL-1 family, plays fundamental immunosuppressive roles by broadly reducing both innate inflammation and acquired immunity, but whether it is involved in the pathogenesis of tuberculosis (TB) has not been clearly elucidated. In this study, single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis demonstrated an association of the genetic variant rs3811047 of IL-37 with TB susceptibility. In line with previous report, a significant elevated IL-37 abundance in the sera and increased expression of IL-37 protein in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were observed in TB patients in comparison to healthy controls. Moreover, release of IL-37 were detected in either macrophages infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) or the lung of BCG-infected mice, concurrent with reduced production of proinflammatory cytokines including IL-6 and TNF-α. Furthermore, in contrast to wild-type mice, BCG-infected IL-37-Tg mice manifested with reduced mycobacterial burden and tissue damage in the lung, accompanied by higher frequency of Th1 cell and less frequencies of regulatory T cells and Th17 cells in the spleen. Taken together, our findings demonstrated that IL-37 conferred resistance to Mtb infection possibly involving suppressing detrimental inflammation and modulating T cell responses. These findings implicated that IL-37 may be employed as a new molecular target for the therapy and diagnosis of TB.


Assuntos
Inflamação/genética , Interleucina-1/fisiologia , Ativação Linfocitária/genética , Infecções por Mycobacterium/prevenção & controle , Células Th1/imunologia , Animais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Células Cultivadas , Citoproteção/genética , Citoproteção/imunologia , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Interleucina-1/genética , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Transgênicos , Infecções por Mycobacterium/genética , Infecções por Mycobacterium/imunologia , Infecções por Mycobacterium/veterinária , Mycobacterium bovis/imunologia , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/imunologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Células Th17/imunologia , Tuberculose/genética , Tuberculose/imunologia , Tuberculose/prevenção & controle
13.
Cell Signal ; 28(9): 1145-51, 2016 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27259691

RESUMO

Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), the causative agent of tuberculosis, invades and replicates within susceptible hosts by disturbing host antimicrobial mechanisms. Although G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are involved in most physiological and pathological activities of mammalian cells, the roles of GPCRs in Mtb invasion into host cell remain elusive. Here, we report that GPR160 expression is elevated at both mRNA and protein level in macrophages in response to BCG infection. Both the PiggyBac (PB) transposon-mediated mutation of gpr160 gene in mouse primary macrophages and siRNA-mediated knockdown of GPR160 in the human macrophage cell line THP-1 markedly reduced the entry of green fluorescent protein (GFP) expressing BCG (BCG-GFP), also operative in vivo. BCG infection-induced phosphorylation of ERK1/2 was significantly reduced in gpr160 mutated (gpr160(-/-)) macrophages relative to levels observed in wild type macrophages, while inhibition of ERK by specific inhibitor or knockdown ERK1/2 by specific siRNA markedly reduced entry of BCG. Finally, lower bacteria burdens and attenuated pathological impairments were observed in the lungs of BCG-infected gpr160(-/-) mice. Furthermore, gpr160(-/-) macrophages also exhibits reduced uptake of Escherichia coli and Francisella tularensis. Taken together, these findings suggest an important role of GPR160 in regulating the entry of BCG into macrophages by targeting the ERK signaling pathway. As GPCRs have proven to be successful drug targets in pharmaceutical industry, it's tempting to speculate that compounds targeting GPR160, a G protein-coupled receptor, could intervene in Mtb infection.


Assuntos
Macrófagos Peritoneais/enzimologia , Macrófagos Peritoneais/microbiologia , Proteína Quinase 3 Ativada por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Mycobacterium/fisiologia , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas-G/metabolismo , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Ativação Enzimática , Feminino , Humanos , Camundongos , Mutação/genética , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas-G/deficiência
14.
Cell Signal ; 28(9): 1292-303, 2016 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27234131

RESUMO

CD36, a scavenger receptor, plays an important role in the progression of atherosclerosis through its interaction with oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL). Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis, Pg) has been shown to promote macrophage-derived foam cell formation by affecting the expression of CD36. However, the regulatory role of CD36 in macrophages infected with Pg remains largely unknown. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to explore the molecular mechanism of Pg induced CD36 expression in macrophages. Our results showed that Pg promoted ox-LDL uptake by macrophages and the formation of foam cells. Pg infection increased CD36 mRNA and protein levels in ox-LDL-untreated macrophages. Moreover, small interferon RNA (siRNA) targeting CD36 significantly reduced foam cell formation induced by Pg. Additionally, Pg stimulated nuclear translocation of p65, which directly bound to the promoters of CD36 to facilitate its transcription. Inhibition of p65, NF-κB or ERK1/2 blocked Pg-induced CD36 production; whereas, overexpression of NF-κB subunits p65 and p50 upregulated CD36. Furthermore, Ras inhibitors significantly attenuated ERK1/2 activation and CD36 expression. Taken together, the data indicated that stimulation of the ERK/NF-κB pathway by Pg led to transactivation of the CD36 promoters, thereby upregulating CD36 expression in the infected macrophages. These findings may help design new treatment strategies in atherosclerosis.


Assuntos
Infecções por Bacteroidaceae/genética , Infecções por Bacteroidaceae/microbiologia , Antígenos CD36/genética , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases , Macrófagos Peritoneais/microbiologia , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Porphyromonas gingivalis/fisiologia , Regulação para Cima/genética , Animais , Infecções por Bacteroidaceae/patologia , Antígenos CD36/metabolismo , Feminino , Células Espumosas/metabolismo , Células Espumosas/microbiologia , Células Espumosas/patologia , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Macrófagos Peritoneais/metabolismo , Macrófagos Peritoneais/patologia , Camundongos , Modelos Biológicos , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética , Ligação Proteica , Subunidades Proteicas/metabolismo , Células RAW 264.7
15.
Nat Immunol ; 17(4): 397-405, 2016 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26928339

RESUMO

The signaling adaptor TRAF3 is a highly versatile regulator of both innate immunity and adaptive immunity, but how its phosphorylation is regulated is still unknown. Here we report that deficiency in or inhibition of the conserved serine-threonine kinase CK1ɛ suppressed the production of type I interferon in response to viral infection. CK1ɛ interacted with and phosphorylated TRAF3 at Ser349, which thereby promoted the Lys63 (K63)-linked ubiquitination of TRAF3 and subsequent recruitment of the kinase TBK1 to TRAF3. Consequently, CK1ɛ-deficient mice were more susceptible to viral infection. Our findings establish CK1ɛ as a regulator of antiviral innate immune responses and indicate a novel mechanism of immunoregulation that involves CK1ɛ-mediated phosphorylation of TRAF3.


Assuntos
Caseína Quinase Iépsilon/imunologia , Imunidade Inata/imunologia , Interferon beta/imunologia , Fator 3 Associado a Receptor de TNF/imunologia , Animais , Caseína Quinase Iépsilon/antagonistas & inibidores , Caseína Quinase Iépsilon/genética , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Células HEK293 , Células HeLa , Herpes Simples/imunologia , Herpesvirus Humano 1/imunologia , Humanos , Interferon Tipo I/biossíntese , Interferon Tipo I/imunologia , Interferon beta/biossíntese , Espectrometria de Massas , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Fosforilação , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Infecções por Rhabdoviridae/imunologia , Fator 3 Associado a Receptor de TNF/genética , Ubiquitinação , Vesiculovirus/imunologia , Febre do Nilo Ocidental/imunologia , Vírus do Nilo Ocidental/imunologia
16.
Tuberculosis (Edinb) ; 95(4): 497-504, 2015 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25937126

RESUMO

Tuberculosis (TB) remains a major global health problem and host genetic factors play a critical role in susceptibility and resistance to TB. The aim of this study was to identify novel candidate genes associated with TB susceptibility. We performed a population-based case-control study to genotype 13 tag SNPs spanning Epstein-Barr virus-induced gene 3 (EBI3), colony stimulating factor 2 (CSF2), IL-4, interferon beta 1 (IFNB1), chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 14 (CXCL14) and myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (Myd88) genes in 435 pulmonary TB patients and 375 health donors from China. We observed that EBI3 gene rs4740 polymorphism was associated with susceptibility to pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) and the allele G was associated with a protective effect against PTB. Furthermore, EBI3 deficiency led to reduced bacterial burden and histopathological impairment in the lung of mice infected with Mycobacterium bovis BCG. Meanwhile, higher abundance of EBI3 was observed in the granuloma of PTB patients and in the lung tissue of BCG-infected mice. Of note, the expression of EBI3 in macrophages was remarkably induced by mycobacteria infection at both mRNA and protein level. In conclusion, EBI3 gene rs4740 polymorphism is closely associated with susceptibility to PTB and the elevation and enrichment of EBI3 in the lung which at least partially derived from macrophages may contribute to the exacerbation of mycobacterial infection.


Assuntos
Interleucinas/genética , Pulmão/metabolismo , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/patogenicidade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Receptores de Citocinas/genética , Tuberculose Pulmonar/genética , Animais , Carga Bacteriana , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Linhagem Celular , China , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Humanos , Interleucinas/metabolismo , Pulmão/microbiologia , Macrófagos/microbiologia , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Menor , Mycobacterium bovis/patogenicidade , Fenótipo , Fatores de Proteção , Receptores de Citocinas/deficiência , Fatores de Risco , Tuberculose Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Tuberculose Pulmonar/metabolismo , Tuberculose Pulmonar/microbiologia , Tuberculose Pulmonar/prevenção & controle
17.
Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao ; 35(5): 758-62, 2015 May.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26018278

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore the effects of different concentrations of putrescine on the proliferation, migration and apoptosis of human skin fibroblasts (HSF). METHODS: HSF cultured in the presence of 0.5, 1.0, 5.0, 10, 50, 100, 500, and 1000 µg/ putrescine for 24 h were examined for the changes in the cell proliferation, migration, and apoptosis using MTS assay, Transwell migration assay, and flow cytometry, respectively. RESULTS: Compared with the control cells, HSF cultured with 0.5, 1.0, 5.0, and 10 µg/ putrescine showed significantly increased cell proliferation (P<0.01), and the effect was the most obvious with 1 µg/ putrescine, whereas 500 and 1000 µg/ putrescine significantly reduced the cell proliferation (P<0.01); 50 and 100 µg/ did not obviously affect the cell proliferation (P>0.05). Putrescine at 1 µg/ most significantly enhanced the cell migration (P<0.01), while at higher doses (50, 100, 500, and 1000 µg/) putrescine significantly suppressed the cell migration (P<0.05); 0.5, 5.0, and 10 µg/ putrescine produced no obvious effects on the cell migration (P>0.05). HSF treated with 0.5, 1.0, 5.0, and 10 µg/ putrescine obvious lowered the cell apoptosis rate compared with the control group (P<0.01), and the cell apoptosis rate was the lowest in cells treated with 1 µg/ putrescine; but at the concentrations of 100, 500, and 1000 µg/, putrescine significantly increased the cell apoptosis rate (P<0.01), while 50 µg/ml putrescine produced no obvious effect on cell apoptosis (P>0.05). CONCLUSION: Low concentrations of putrescine can obviously enhance the proliferation ability and maintain normal migration ability of HSF in vitro, but at high concentrations, putrescine can obviously inhibit the cell migration and proliferation and induce cells apoptosis, suggesting the different roles of different concentrations of putrescine in wound healing.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Fibroblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Putrescina/farmacologia , Células Cultivadas , Fibroblastos/citologia , Citometria de Fluxo , Humanos , Putrescina/administração & dosagem , Pele/citologia , Cicatrização
18.
PLoS Pathog ; 11(1): e1004613, 2015 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25615690

RESUMO

Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is the most virulent pathogen among enteroviruses that cause hand, foot and mouth disease in children but rarely in adults. The mechanisms that determine the age-dependent susceptibility remain largely unclear. Here, we found that the paucity of invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells together with immaturity of the immune system was related to the susceptibility of neonatal mice to EV71 infection. iNKT cells were crucial antiviral effector cells to protect young mice from EV71 infection before their adaptive immune systems were fully mature. EV71 infection led to activation of iNKT cells depending on signaling through TLR3 but not other TLRs. Surprisingly, iNKT cell activation during EV71 infection required TLR3 signaling in macrophages, but not in dendritic cells (DCs). Mechanistically, interleukin (IL)-12 and endogenous CD1d-restricted antigens were both required for full activation of iNKT cells. Furthermore, CD1d-deficiency led to dramatically increased viral loads in central nervous system and more severe disease in EV71-infected mice. Altogether, our results suggest that iNKT cells may be involved in controlling EV71 infection in children when their adaptive immune systems are not fully developed, and also imply that iNKT cells might be an intervention target for treating EV71-infected patients.


Assuntos
Enterovirus Humano A/imunologia , Infecções por Enterovirus/imunologia , Imunidade Celular , Macrófagos/imunologia , Células T Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Receptor 3 Toll-Like/fisiologia , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Infecções por Enterovirus/genética , Humanos , Imunidade Celular/genética , Ativação Linfocitária/genética , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Camundongos Knockout , Células T Matadoras Naturais/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia
19.
Zhonghua Shao Shang Za Zhi ; 31(6): 446-50, 2015 Dec.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26837252

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore the effects of different concentrations of putrescine on proliferation, migration, and apoptosis of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). METHODS: HUVECs were routinely cultured in vitro. The 3rd to the 5th passage of HUVECs were used in the following experiments. (1) Cells were divided into 500, 1 000, and 5 000 µg/mL putrescine groups according to the random number table (the same grouping method was used for following grouping), with 3 wells in each group, which were respectively cultured with complete culture solution containing putrescine in the corresponding concentration for 24 h. Morphology of cells was observed by inverted optical microscope. (2) Cells were divided into 0.5, 1.0, 5.0, 10.0, 50.0, 100.0, 500.0, 1 000.0 µg/mL putrescine groups, and control group, with 4 wells in each group. Cells in the putrescine groups were respectively cultured with complete culture solution containing putrescine in the corresponding concentration for 24 h, and cells in control group were cultured with complete culture solution with no additional putrescine for 24 h. Cell proliferation activity (denoted as absorption value) was measured by colorimetry. (3) Cells were divided (with one well in each group) and cultured as in experiment (2), and the migration ability was detected by transwell migration assay. (4) Cells were divided (with one flask in each group) and cultured as in experiment (2), and the cell apoptosis rate was determined by flow cytometer. Data were processed with one-way analysis of variance, Kruskal-Wallis test, and Dunnett test. RESULTS: (1) After 24-h culture, cell attachment was good in 500 µg/mL putrescine group, and no obvious change in the shape was observed; cell attachment was less in 1 000 µg/mL putrescine group and the cells were small and rounded; cells in 5 000 µg/mL putrescine group were in fragmentation without attachment. (2) The absorption values of cells in 0.5, 1.0, 5.0, 10.0, 50.0, 100.0, 500.0, 1 000.0 µg/mL putrescine groups, and control group were respectively 0.588 ± 0.055, 0.857 ± 0.031, 0.707 ± 0.031, 0.662 ± 0.023, 0.450 ± 0.019, 0.415 ± 0.014, 0.359 ± 0.020, 0.204 ± 0.030, and 0.447 ± 0.021, with statistically significant differences among them (χ(2) = 6.86, P = 0.009). The cell proliferation activity in 0.5, 1.0, 5.0, and 10.0 µg/mL putrescine groups was higher than that in control group (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01). The cell proliferation activity in 500.0 and 1 000.0 µg/mL putrescine groups was lower than that in control group (with P values below 0.01). The cell proliferation activity in 50.0 and 100.0 µg/mL putrescine groups was close to that in control group (with P values above 0.05). (3) There were statistically significant differences in the numbers of migrated cells between the putrescine groups and control group (F = 138.662, P < 0.001). The number of migrated cells was more in 1.0, 5.0, and 10.0 µg/mL putrescine groups than in control group (with P value below 0.01). The number of migrated cells was less in 500.0 and 1 000.0 µg/mL putrescine groups than in control group (with P value below 0.01). The number of migrated cells in 0.5, 50.0, and 100.0 µg/mL putrescine groups was close to that in control group (with P values above 0.05). (4) There were statistically significant differences in the apoptosis rate between the putrescine groups and control group (χ(2)=3.971, P=0.046). The cell apoptosis rate was lower in 0.5, 1.0, 5.0, and 10.0 µg/mL putrescine groups than in control group (with P values below 0.05). The cell apoptosis rate was higher in 500.0 and 1 000.0 µg/mL putrescine groups than in control group (with P values below 0.01). The cell apoptosis rates in 50.0 and 100.0 µg/mL putrescine groups were close to the cell apoptosis rate in control group (with P values above 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Low concentration of putrescine can remarkably enhance the ability of proliferation and migration of HUVECs, while a high concentration of putrescine can obviously inhibit HUVECs proliferation and migration, and it induces apoptosis.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana/efeitos dos fármacos , Putrescina/farmacologia , Produtos Biológicos , Linhagem Celular , Células Cultivadas , Citometria de Fluxo , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana/citologia , Humanos , Putrescina/administração & dosagem , Putrescina/efeitos adversos , Putrescina/fisiologia , Pele/citologia , Cicatrização
20.
Cell Signal ; 26(5): 942-50, 2014 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24462705

RESUMO

Cytokine induction in response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection is critical for pathogen control, by (i) mediating innate immune effector functions and (ii) instructing specific adaptive immunity. IL-10 is an important anti-inflammatory cytokine involved in pathogenesis of tuberculosis (TB). Here, we show that TLR3, a sensor of extracellular viral or host RNA with stable stem structures derived from infected or damaged cells, is essential for Mtb-induced IL-10 production. Upon Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) infection, TLR3(-/-) macrophages expressed lower IL-10 but higher IL-12p40 production, accompanied by reduced phosphorylation of AKT at Ser473. BCG-infected TLR3(-/-) mice exhibited reduced IL-10 but elevated IL-12 expression compared to controls. Moreover, higher numbers of splenic Th1 cells and reduced pulmonary bacterial burden and tissue damage were observed in BCG-infected TLR3(-/-) mice. Finally, BCG RNA induced IL-10 in macrophages via TLR3-mediated activation of PI3K/AKT. Our findings demonstrate a critical role of TLR3-mediated regulation in the pathogenesis of mycobacterial infection involving mycobacterial RNA, which induces IL-10 through the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway.


Assuntos
Interleucina-10/metabolismo , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinase/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , RNA Bacteriano/metabolismo , Receptor 3 Toll-Like/metabolismo , Animais , Subunidade p40 da Interleucina-12/metabolismo , Macrófagos/imunologia , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Macrófagos/microbiologia , Camundongos , Mycobacterium bovis/genética , Mycobacterium bovis/patogenicidade , Fosforilação , Transdução de Sinais , Receptor 3 Toll-Like/deficiência , Receptor 3 Toll-Like/genética
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