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1.
Front Microbiol ; 12: 768767, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34777322

RESUMO

This experiment aims to explore the effects of compound enzyme preparation substituting chlortetracycline on growth performance, serum immune markers, and antioxidant capacity and intestinal health in weaned piglets. A total of twenty-four 28-day-old "Duroc × Landrace × Yorkshire" weaned piglets with an average initial weight of 7.25 ± 0.25 kg were randomly divided into three groups according to their body weight, with eight replicates in each group and one pig in each replicate. The three dietary treatments were basal diet (CON), basal diet + 1,000 mg/kg compound enzyme preparation (cellulase 4,000 IU/g, α-amylase 1,000 IU/g, ß-glucanase 150 IU/g, and neutral protease 3,000 IU/g, CE), and basal diet + 75 mg/kg chlortetracycline (CTC). The animal experiment lasted for 28 days and was divided into two stages: the early stage (0-14 days) and the late stage (15-28 days). The results showed that (1) compared with the CON, the CE and CTC significantly increased the ADG of weaned piglets during the early and whole period of experiment (p < 0.05), decreased the F:G in the whole experiment period (p < 0.05), and diarrhea rate in the early stage (p < 0.01). (2) Compared with the CON, the apparent total tract digestibility of ADF and NDF was significantly increased in pigs fed the CE diet in the early and late stages of experiment (p < 0.05) with no significant difference compared with the CTC. (3) Compared with the CON, the concentrations of serum IgA and SOD in weaned piglets were significantly increased in the CE group in the early stage of the experiment (p < 0.05). (4) Compared with the CON group, the acetic acid, propionic acid, and total VFA contents in cecum and colon segments were elevated in the CE group (p < 0.05) with no significant difference compared with the CTC. (5) Compared with the CON group, the villus height of duodenum and jejunum and the ratio of villus height to recess depth of ileum were increased in the CE and CTC group (p < 0.05). (6) Compared with the CON group, the abundance of Lactobacillus significantly increased (p < 0.01) while the abundance of Escherichia coli decreased in the CE group and CTC group (p < 0.01). In conclusion, CE preparation instead of CTC can significantly improve the nutrient digestibility, the immunity, antioxidant capacity, and intestinal health of pigs, which may contribute to the improved growth performance of piglets.

2.
Anim Nutr ; 7(4): 1061-1069, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34738036

RESUMO

As the first line of defence against pathogens and endotoxins crossing the intestine-blood barrier, the intestinal epithelial barrier plays a determinant role in pigs' health and growth. 4-Phenylbutyric acid (4-PBA), an aromatic fatty acid, was reported to benefit homeostasis of endoplasmic reticulum and protein synthesis. However, whether 4-PBA affects intestinal epithelial barrier function in pigs is unknown. This study aimed to explore the effects of 4-PBA on the intestinal barrier function, using in vitro models of well-differentiated intestinal porcine epithelial cell (IPEC-J2) monolayers in the transwell plates. Cell monolayers with or without 4-PBA (1.0 mmol/L) treatment were challenged with physical scratch, deoxynivalenol (DON, 2.0 µg/mL, 48 h), and lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 5.0 µg/mL, 48 h), respectively. Transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) and fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran (FD-4) permeability were measured to indicate barrier integrity and permeability. Real-time PCR and Western blot were conducted to determine relative gene and protein expressions of tight junction proteins. As expected, physical scratch, DON, and LPS challenges decreased TEER and increased FD-4 permeability. 4-PBA treatment accelerated cell mitigation and rehabilitation of the physical scratch-damaged intestinal epithelial barrier but did not alleviate DON or LPS induced barrier damage. However, once 48-h DON and LPS challenges were removed, rehabilitation of the epithelial barrier function of IPEC-J2 monolayer was accelerated by the 4-PBA treatment. Also, the relative gene and protein expressions of zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1), occludin, and claudin-1 were further upregulated by the 4-PBA treatment during the barrier rehabilitation. Taken together, 4-PBA accelerated the IPEC-J2 cell monolayer barrier recovering from physical scratch, DON-, and LPS-induced damage, via enhancing cell mitigation and expressions of tight junction proteins.

3.
Front Microbiol ; 12: 719967, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34512598

RESUMO

Lycium barbarum polysaccharides (LBPs) have been proved to prevent obesity and modulate gut microbiota. However, the underlying mechanisms of LBPs' regulating lipid metabolism remain entirely unclear. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine whether LBPs are able to modulate the gut microbiota to prevent obesity. The results showed that oral administration of LBPs alleviated dyslipidemia by decreasing the serum levels of total triglycerides, total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol and elevating the high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in obese mice. Furthermore, LBP treatment decreased the number and size of adipocytes in epididymal adipose tissues and downregulated the expression of adipogenesis-related genes, including acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1, fatty acid synthase, stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1, sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ, and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein α. 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis showed that LBPs increased the diversity of bacteria, reduced the Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio, and improved the gut dysbiosis induced by a high-fat diet; for example, LBPs increased the production of short-chain fatty acid-producing bacteria Lacticigenium, Lachnospiraceae_NK4A136_group, and Butyricicoccus. LBPs treatment also increased the content of fecal short-chain fatty acids, including butyric acid. These findings illustrate that LBPs might be developed as a potential prebiotic to improve lipid metabolism and intestinal diseases.

4.
Front Microbiol ; 12: 734389, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34539619

RESUMO

The study investigated the impact of fermented cottonseed meal (FCSM) on growth performance, immunity and antioxidant properties, nutrient digestibility, and gut microbiota of weaned piglets by replacing soybean meal with FCSM in the diet. The experimental piglets were fed with either the soybean meal diet (SBM group) or fermented cottonseed meal diet (FCSM group) for 14days after weaning. The digestibility of dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP), gross energy (GE), amino acids and nitrogen was higher in the FCSM diet than those in the SBM diet (p<0.05). The piglets in the FCSM group showed greater growth performance and lower diarrhea rate than those in the SBM group (p<0.05). The concentration of serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) and antioxidase, intestinal and hepatic antioxidase were increased and the concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA) in the serum was decreased in those piglets in the FCSM group compared to those piglets in the SBM group (p<0.05). The piglets in the FCSM group had a higher concentration of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) in their ileum and cecum and a higher Simpson index of ileum than piglets in the SBM group (p<0.05). The relative abundance of Lactobacillus and [Ruminococcus]_torques_group in ileum and Intestinibacter, norank_f_Muribaculaceae, unclassified_o_Lactobacillales and [Eubacterium]_coprostanoligenes_group in cecum were enhanced in piglets fed with the FCSM diet, whereas the relative abundance of Sarcina and Terrisporobacter were increased in piglets fed with the SBM diet. Overall, FCSM replacing SBM improved the growth performance, immunity and antioxidant properties, and nutrient digestibility; possibly via the alterant gut microbiota and its metabolism of weaned piglets. Graphical AbstractFermented cottonseed meal as a partial replacement for soybean meal could improve the growth performance, immunity and antioxidant properties, and nutrient digestibility by altering the gut microbiota profile of weaned piglets. SBM, soybean meal; FCSM, fermented cottonseed meal.

5.
Front Vet Sci ; 8: 708597, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34490398

RESUMO

Because the use of antibiotics is forbidden, piglets experience a considerable weanling stress, resulting in increased incidence of diarrhea and death. Macleaya cordata extract or benzoic acid have anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and antimicrobial activities that makes them potential antibiotic alternatives. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential effects of feed supplemented with Macleaya cordata extract and benzoic acid on growth performance, immunity, antioxidant capacity, intestinal morphology, and microflora in weaned piglets. Twenty-four weaned piglets [Duroc × (Large White × Landrace)] 28 days of age and weighing 8.41 ± 0.13 kg were randomly divided in equal numbers (n = 8) into three groups fed a basal diet (CON), CON + 20 mg/kg flavomycin + 50 mg/kg quinocetone (AGP), or CON + 50 mg/kg Macleaya cordata extract + 1,000 mg/kg benzoic acid (MB). Compared with the CON diet, dietary MB or AGP increased the final weight and average daily gain, and reduced feed efficiency and the diarrhea rate (P < 0.05). Compared with the CON diet, MB supplementation increased serum superoxide dismutase (SOD activity) and decreased malondialdehyde (MDA) content (P < 0.05). Serum interleukin (IL)-10 IgA and IgM were higher (P < 0.05) in MB-fed piglets than in CON-fed piglets. Piglets fed the MB diet had greater villus height and villus height to crypt depth ratio (VC) in the duodenum, villus height in the ileum, and lower crypt depth in the jejunum than did piglets given the CON diet (P < 0.5). Piglets in the MB group had increased concentrations of acetate, propionate, butyrate, and total short-chain fatty acids in the ileum or cecum compared with the CON and AGP groups (P < 0.05). Streptococcus proportion was lower in the MB than in the AGP group. Dietary MB increased the Lactobacillus and decreased Escherichia-Shigella populations compared with the CON group (P < 0.05). The study results indicate that MB can be used to replace AGP as a feed supplement for weaned piglets.

6.
PeerJ ; 9: e11934, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34434661

RESUMO

Garlic (Allium sativum) is an essential vegetable that has been widely utilized as seasoning, flavoring, culinary and in herbal remedies. Garlic contains several characteristic organosulfur compounds, such as diallyl sulfide, allicin (diallyl thiosulphate), γ-glutamylcysteine, and S-allyl cysteine (alliin) and ajoene, which garlic has beneficial effects on inflammation, oxidative stress markers, hypertension, hyperlipidaemia and endothelial function in vitro or in animal model. These bioactive molecules are also playing pivotal role in livestock and fisheries production apart from its application in humans. Supplementation of animal feed with garlic and its related products is consistent with the modern agricultural concept of organic animal husbandry. This review compiles the information describing the effects of feeding garlic and its extracts on selected performance parameters in animals (chicken, rabbits, ruminants, pigs and fish). This review may provide reference for scientists and entrepreneurs to investigate the applications of feeds added with garlic and allicin by-products for the improvement of animal husbandry and aquatic production.

7.
J Anim Sci ; 99(9)2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34370023

RESUMO

Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) extract (RE) has multiple pharmacological and biological activities, including the use as a food additive and medicine. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary RE supplementation on the growth performance, nutrient digestibility, antioxidant capacity, intestinal morphology, and microbiota of weaning piglets. A total of 192 crossbred weaned piglets [Duroc × (Large White × Landrace)] (initial body weight = 6.65 ± 0.33 kg, weaned days = 23 ± 1 d) were group housed (six pigs per pen; n = 8 pens/treatment). Pigs were fed a corn-soybean meal-based control diet or the basal diet supplemented with 100, 200, or 400 mg/kg RE. Pigs were allowed ad libitum access to fed for 21 d. The growth performance and apparent total tract digestibility of nutrients, and intestinal morphology and antioxidant status were evaluated. The components of the microbial microflora were also determined in the cecal samples. Compared with the control, dietary supplementation with RE increased the final body weight, average daily gain, and average daily feed intake (linear, P = 0.038, 0.016, and 0.009, respectively), and decreased the diarrhea ratio in piglets (linear, P < 0.05). The digestibility of crude protein (linear, P = 0.034) and gross energy (linear, P = 0.046) increased with treatment with RE. Piglets fed RE showed longer villus height (linear, P = 0.037 and 0.028, respectively) and villus height/crypt depth (linear, P = 0.004 and 0.012; quadratic, P = 0.023 and 0.036, respectively) in the jejunum and ileum, in addition to a lesser crypt depth in the jejunum (linear, P = 0.019) and ileum (quadratic, P = 0.042). The addition of RE increased the activity of superoxide dismutase (linear, P = 0.035 and 0.008, respectively) and glutathione peroxidase activity (linear, P = 0.027 and 0.039, respectively) and decreased the content of malondialdehyde (linear, P = 0.041 and 0.013; quadratic, P = 0.023 and 0.005, respectively) in the serum and liver. Dietary RE supplementation, compared with the control, increased the number of Bifidobacterium (linear, P = 0.034) and Bacteroidetes (linear, P = 0.029), while decreased Escherichia coli (linear, P = 0.008; quadratic, P = 0.014) in the cecal contents. Thus, dietary RE supplementation can improve growth performance, nutrient digestibility, antioxidant capacity, intestinal morphology, and the microbiota in weaned piglets, and 200 mg/kg may be considered the optimum dosage.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Rosmarinus , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Antioxidantes , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Nutrientes , Extratos Vegetais , Suínos , Desmame
8.
Animals (Basel) ; 11(7)2021 Jun 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34201441

RESUMO

Sixteen 35-day-old piglets, including eight Large White (LW) piglets (a lean-type pig breed) and eight Ningxiang (NX) piglets (a fatty-type Chinese Indigenous pig breed), were fed the same diet for 105 days. NX pigs had higher intramuscular fat content than LW pigs (p < 0.05). According to 16S rRNA gene sequencing, the relative abundances of the genera Ruminococcaceae_NK4A214_group, Parabacteroides, Christensenellaaceae_R-7_group and Ruminiclostridium were higher, whereas the abundances of Prevotellaceae_NK3B31_group, Prevotella, Subdoligranulum and Faecalibacterium were lower, in the colon of NX pigs compared to that of LW pigs. Nonmetric multidimensional scaling analysis revealed that the microbiota of the two pig breeds clustered separately along the principal coordinate axis. Furthermore, functional prediction of the bacterial communities suggested higher fatty acid biosynthesis in NX pigs. NX pigs also exhibited lower concentrations of total short-chain fatty acids, propionate and butyrate in the colon (p < 0.05). These findings suggest that NX pigs exhibited higher intramuscular fat content and backfat thickness than LW pigs. The bacterial communities in the colon of NX pigs were also more diverse than those in the colon of LW pigs, which might be used as a potential metabolomics mechanism to research different breeds of pigs.

9.
Anim Nutr ; 7(2): 259-267, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34258414

RESUMO

Dietary fiber (DF), divided into soluble dietary fiber (SDF) and insoluble dietary fiber (IDF), has attracted increasing attention in the field of pig nutrition. Although DF reduces nutrient digestibility and inhibits energy deposition in most cases, fiber-rich feeds have been widely used in pig diets. This is not only because of lower feed costs, but also from the continuous discovery about the nutritional value of DF, mainly including the improvement of piglet intestinal health and sow reproductive performance. The addition timing has also been further considered, which potentially enables the nutritional value of DF to be accurately used in applicable pig models. Furthermore, fiber degrading enzymes have been shown to alleviate the anti-nutritional effects of DF and have ensured the improvement effect of fiber on intestinal health in young piglet models. However, the regulatory effect of fiber on pork quality is still unclear, which requires consideration of the wide range of fiber sources and the complexity of the basic diet composition, as well as the impact of pig breeds. Taken together, future research needs to gain more insight into the combined effects of SDF and IDF, processing methods, and addition timing to improve the nutritional value of DF, and further explore the physiological functions and regulatory mechanisms of DF fermentation products short-chain fatty acids in pigs.

10.
Front Vet Sci ; 8: 639039, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34095269

RESUMO

The study investigated the impact of soybean protein from different processing on the performance, dietary nitrogen digestibility, cecal fermentation characteristics, and bacterial community in newly weaned piglets. The piglets were allocated to two dietary treatment and fed with the extruded full-fat soybean diet (EFS group) and enzyme-treated soybean meal diet (ESBM group), respectively. The piglets in ESBM group showed greater nitrogen digestibility and feed efficiency, and lower diarrhea rate in comparison to piglets in EFS group (P < 0.05). Cecal samples from piglets in ESBM group contained greater concentration of acetate, propionate and total SCFAs (P < 0.05), and lower contents of isobutyrate, isovalerate, total BCFAs, NH3-N and putrescine (P < 0.05) than cecal samples from piglets in the EFS group. The cecal samples from piglets in ESBM group contained greater abundances of g_Blautia, g_Coprococcus_3, g_Fusicatenibacter, and g_Bifidobacterium than the cecal sample from piglets in the EFS group, which could promote to protect intestinal health. In summary, enzyme-treated soybean meal may enhance the growth performance of weaned piglets via increasing the dietary nitrogen digestibility, preventing protein fermentation in the hindgut, which shed light on the mechanism in regulating gut health of dietary protein.

11.
Animals (Basel) ; 11(3)2021 Feb 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33673705

RESUMO

The current study aimed to investigate the evolution of gut microbiota and its influencing factors for NXP in youth. The results showed that Shannon index increased from d 21 to d 28 whereas the ACE index increased from d 21 until d 60. Firmicutes, mainly Lactobacillus dominated on d 21. The Bacteroides and Spirochetes showed highest relative abundance on d 28. Fiber-degrading bacteria, mainly Prevotellaceae, Lachnospiraceae, Ruminococcaceae, Muribaculaceae, and Oscillospiraceae_UCG-002, dominated the microbial communities at d 28 and d 35. The microbial communities at d 60 and d 75 contained more Clostridium_sensu_stricto_1, Terrisporobacter and Oscillospiraceae_UCG-005 than other ages, which had significantly positive correlations with acetate and total SCFAs concentration. In conclusion, the evolution of gut microbiota was mainly adapted to the change of dietary factors during NXP growth. The response of fiber-degrading bacteria at different stages may help NXP better adapt to plant-derived feeds.

12.
Front Physiol ; 12: 633964, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33643073

RESUMO

This study aimed to explore the effects of beta-hydroxy-beta-methyl butyrate (HMB) on serum metabolic profiles and meat quality of muscles in Wenshi broiler chickens. Birds were fed a basal diet with an additional 0, 0.05, 0.10, or 0.15% HMB, respectively. Results showed that dietary HMB quadratically increased the average daily gain (P = 0.058) and decreased feed:gain (P < 0.05) mainly in the starter phase. At 51 days of age, birds receiving 0.10% HMB diet exhibited less abdominal fat and more breast yield than the control (P < 0.05). Moreover, dietary HMB quadratically decreased the L∗ value and drip loss in selected muscles (P < 0.05) and increased the a∗ value in breast muscle (P < 0.05). Serum metabolome profiling showed that the most differentially abundant metabolites are lipids and lipid-like molecules, including phosphatidylcholines. It was concluded that HMB improved growth performance and meat quality of muscle in broilers.

13.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2020: 8837893, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33354280

RESUMO

Mitochondria are the main organelles that produce adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) in eukaryotic cells and meanwhile susceptible to oxidative damage. The irreversible oxidative damage in mitochondria has been implicated in various human diseases. Increasing evidence indicates the therapeutic potential of mitochondria-targeted antioxidants (MTAs) for oxidative damage-associated diseases. In this article, we introduce the advantageous properties of MTAs compared with the conventional (nontargeted) ones, review different mitochondria-targeted delivery systems and antioxidants, and summarize their experimental results for various disease treatments in different animal models and clinical trials. The combined evidence demonstrates that mitochondrial redox homeostasis is a potential target for disease treatment. Meanwhile, the limitations and prospects for exploiting MTAs are discussed, which might pave ways for further trial design and drug development.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Animais , Humanos , Mitocôndrias/patologia , Oxirredução/efeitos dos fármacos
14.
Biomed Res Int ; 2020: 5159796, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32832551

RESUMO

A systemic design was carried out to investigate the optimal combination of BET, Met-Cr, CLA, and CS for improving the meat tenderness in rats. A total of 104 six-week old male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to 13 treatments with 4 replicates of 2 rats each. The experiments lasted for 5 weeks. The results showed that inclusion of Met-Cr decreased the contents of intramuscular fat (IMF), fat among muscle cells, and lipid droplets inside muscle cells (P < 0.05), and inclusion of CLA or Met-Cr increased the contents of IMF, fat among muscle cells, and lipid droplets inside muscle cells (P < 0.05). CS increased the contents of total collagen (TC) and soluble collagen (SC), and CLA decreased the contents of TC and SC (P < 0.05). The combination of BET and CLA increased IMF and SC contents and decreased TC contents (P < 0.05). The combination of BET and CS could increase fat contents among muscle cells and decrease TC and SC contents (P < 0.05). The combination of CLA and Met-Cr decreased IMF contents (P < 0.05). The combination of CLA and CS, as well as Met-Cr and CS, decreased fat contents among muscle cells (P < 0.05). These combinations may regulate lipogenesis and decrease the deposition of fat in muscles. There existed a significant positive correlation between IMF and SC content, which might indicate that IMF content improves meat's tenderness partly by increasing SC content in muscle.


Assuntos
Betaína/farmacologia , Cisteamina/farmacologia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Ácidos Linoleicos Conjugados/farmacologia , Carne , Metionina/farmacologia , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Animais , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
15.
J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl) ; 104(3): 928-935, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32141136

RESUMO

This study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary amylose/amylopectin (AM/AP) ratio and amylase on growth performance, apparent digestibility of energy and starch, serum biochemical index, and digestive enzymes. The experiment used a 4 × 3 factor design, and 960 one-day-old Arbor Acres (AA) broilers were randomly divided into 12 groups fed diets containing different AM/AP ratio of 0.11, 0.23, 0.35 and 0.47 and combined with 0, 3,000 and 6,000 U/kg amylase. Results showed that 0.23-0.35 AM/AP ratio increased growth performance, while dietary addition of 6,000 U/kg amylase significantly reduced average daily weight gain in broilers. The energy digestibility was significantly reduced along with the increase of dietary AM/AP ratio and in the 6,000 U/Kg amylase-supplemented groups. The digestibility of starch also decreased significantly with the increase of dietary AM/AP ratio, but high dose (6,000 U/Kg) of amylase increased. High AM/AP diet reduced serum insulin concentration, which was increased in amylase-supplemented groups. Furthermore, exogenous amylase increased amylase activity in the jejunal chyme. In conclusion, dietary 0.23-0.35 AM/AP ratio was suggested to maintain a higher growth performance in broilers and high AM/AP ratio diets reduced energy and starch digestibility and serum insulin concentration, which was reversed by dietary amylase.


Assuntos
Amilopectina/farmacologia , Amilose/farmacologia , Ração Animal/análise , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Dieta/veterinária , Amido/metabolismo , Amilopectina/administração & dosagem , Amilose/administração & dosagem , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Glicemia , Galinhas/metabolismo , Digestão/fisiologia , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Metabolismo Energético , Enzimas/metabolismo , Feminino , Íleo/fisiologia , Insulina/metabolismo , Ácido Láctico , Masculino , Ácido Úrico
16.
Food Funct ; 11(2): 1304-1311, 2020 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32016208

RESUMO

Branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) are reduced in various protein restricted models, while the detailed role of BCAAs in protein restricted response is still obscure. Thus, the current study mainly investigated the amino acid metabolism in protein restricted piglets and the effects of BCAA balance in a low-protein diet on growth performance, amino acid metabolism, intestinal structure, and gut microbiota with focus on which BCAAs contributed to the protein restricted response. The results showed that protein restriction increased serum Ser, Thr, Ala, Lys, and Trp but reduced His, Cys, Val, and Ile levels. Intestinal amino acid transporters mainly mediated the mechanism of amino acid uptake. The BCAA balance refreshed the serum BCAA pool, which further improved growth performance in protein restricted piglets. Leu, Val, and Ile balances increased serum BCAA concentrations, respectively, and Leu and Val but not Ile enhanced the feed intake and weight gain in protein restricted piglets. In addition, protein restriction impaired the villus structure and increased the number of goblet cells in the ileum. Also, gut microbiota (Spirochaetales, Gammaproteobacteria, Lactobacillales at the order level) were altered in protein restricted pigs, while the BCAA balance markedly improved Gammaproteobacteria, Lactobacillales, and Aeromonadales proliferation, which might mediate growth promotion and amino acid metabolism. In conclusion, protein restriction markedly affected the host amino acid metabolism (i.e., Ser, Thr, Lys, His, BCAAs). The BCAA balance (especially for supplementation with Leu and Val) improved the amino acid metabolism, growth performance, and gut microbiota communities.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Dieta com Restrição de Proteínas/veterinária , Leucina/metabolismo , Modelos Animais , Valina/metabolismo , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Suínos
17.
J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl) ; 104(4): 1106-1115, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31746060

RESUMO

Lycium barbarum polysaccharides (LBPs) are a complex mixture of highly branched and partially characterised polysaccharides and proteoglycans extracted from the goji berry. This mixture has great potential as a novel feed supplement for pigs. Two trials were conducted to evaluate the effects of supplementation with LBPs on the growth performance, immune status, antioxidant capacity and selected intestinal microbial populations in weaned piglets. In trial 1, a total of 400 weaned piglets [(Yorkshire × Landrace) × Duroc] with an average body weight (BW) of 6.34 ± 0.16 kg (21 days of age) were divided into five groups and fed a basal diet (control group) or a basal diet containing 1,000, 2,000, 4,000 or 6,000 mg/kg LBPs (supplemented at the expense of corn). Supplementation with 4,000 or 6,000 mg/kg LBPs for 2 weeks significantly increased the average daily gain (ADG) and average daily feed intake (ADFI) of the pigs compared with the control group (p < .05). In trial 2, thirty-two 21-days-old weaned piglets (BW: 6.33 ± 0.11 kg) were allotted to a control group (fed with a basal diet) or an experimental group (basal diet containing 4,000 mg/kg LBPs). The experiment lasted for 14 days. Pigs fed LBP diets exhibited an increased ADG and ADFI, and a decreased diarrhoeal incidence compared with those fed the basal diets (p < .05). Supplementation with LBPs increased the serum IgG and IgM levels (p < .05). Dietary LBPs effectively promoted antioxidant defence properties through enhancing the activities of serum, liver superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), in addition to decreasing the malondialdehyde (MDA) content (p < .05). The addition of LBPs increased the amounts of Bacteroidetes in the ileum and caecum and the caecal contents of Lactobacillus spp. and Bifidobacterium spp. (p < .05), while decreased the populations of Escherichia coli and Firmicutes in the ileum and caecum (p < .05) compared with the control group. Our results suggest that dietary supplementation with LBPs can enhance growth performance, immune status and antioxidant capacity, and improve the intestinal microbial populations of weaned piglets.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Lycium/química , Suínos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Diarreia/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais , Fezes/química , Feminino , Imunoglobulina A/sangue , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Imunoglobulina M/sangue , Masculino , Suínos/imunologia , Suínos/metabolismo , Suínos/microbiologia , Doenças dos Suínos/induzido quimicamente
18.
Animals (Basel) ; 9(10)2019 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31640132

RESUMO

The aim of the current study was to investigate whether dietary supplementation with alpha-ketoglutarate (AKG) in a reduced crude protein (CP) diet would affect fatty acid composition and lipid metabolism related gene expression in the muscles of growing pigs. A total of 27 Large White × Landrace growing pigs at 44 ± 1 d of age (11.96 ± 0.18 kg) were randomly allocated to three treatments (n = 9). Dietary treatments included: (1) normal protein diet with 20% crude protein (CP) (NP); (2) a low crude protein diet formulated to contain approximately 17% CP (LP); and (3) a low crude protein diet with 17% CP supplemented with 1% AKG at the expense of regular corn components (ALP). The experimental trial lasted 35 d. The results showed that compared with the NP and LP diets, supplementation with AKG in a low-protein diet increased the intramuscular fat (IMF), oleic acid (C18:1n-9), and monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) contents (p < 0.05), and tended to increase the percentage of palmitoleic acid (C16:1) and stearic acid (C18:0) (p < 0.10) in the biceps femoris and longissimus dorsi muscles of growing pigs. These effects may be associated with increased relative mRNA expression levels of fatty acid synthase (FAS), acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), adipocyte determination and differentiation factor 1 (ADD1), fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4), and stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) in skeletal muscle, indicating that AKG might be involved in the differential regulation of some key lipogenic genes in skeletal muscles of pigs.

19.
Anim Sci J ; 90(9): 1220-1228, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31273888

RESUMO

The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effects of dietary supplementation with porous zinc oxide (HiZox) on growth performance, intestinal microbiota, morphology, and permeability in weaned piglets. A total of 128 weaned piglets [(Landrace × Yorkshire) × Duroc] with an average body weight (BW) of (6.55 ± 0.25 kg; 21 d of age) were randomly assigned to four dietary treatments: (1) a corn-soybean basal diet; (2) basal diet + 3,000 mg/kg conventional ZnO; (3) basal diet + 200 mg/kg HiZox; (4) basal diet + 500 mg/kg HiZox. The experiments lasted for 28 days. Incremental HiZox in the diet increased ADG (linear p = 0.015; quadratic p = 0.043) and ADFI (linear p = 0.027; quadratic p = 0.038), and the diarrhea index decreased linearly and quadratically (p < 0.01) as HiZox supplemented increased. Furthermore, supplementation with HiZox increased the amounts of Lactobacillus spp. (p < 0.05) in the ileum and cecum in comparison with that of control treatment or 3,000 mg/kg ZnO treatment, while decreased the populations of Escherichia coli, Clostridium coccoides, and Clostridium. leptum subgroup (p < 0.05) in the ileum and cecum relative to those in control treatment. The addition of HiZox increased the villus height and villus-to-crypt ratio (VC) of duodenum, jejunum, and ileum (p < 0.05), while decreased the crypt depth of jejunum (p < 0.05) and tended to reduce the crypt depth of duodenum (p < 0.10) compared with the control treatment. Piglets fed with 500 mg/kg HiZox had lower serum D-lactate and diamine oxidase (DAO) than those fed with basal control diet or 3,000 mg/kg ZnO diet (p < 0.01). The results suggested that supplementation with HiZox modulated intestinal microbial composition and improved intestinal morphology, which may exert protective effects on the integrity of the mucosal barrier function of weaned piglets, was as efficacious as pharmaceutical doses of ZnO in enhancing growth performance, indicating that the HiZox may be a promising alternative to pharmaceutical doses of ZnO.


Assuntos
Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Intestinos/microbiologia , Intestinos/fisiologia , Suínos , Óxido de Zinco/farmacologia , Animais , Clostridium/efeitos dos fármacos , Diarreia/dietoterapia , Suplementos Nutricionais/microbiologia , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Absorção Intestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Intestinos/anatomia & histologia , Lactobacillus/efeitos dos fármacos , Desmame
20.
Biomed Res Int ; 2019: 2015978, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31080810

RESUMO

Bacterial quorum sensing (QS) is a cell-to-cell communication in which specific signals are activated to coordinate pathogenic behaviors and help bacteria acclimatize to the disadvantages. The QS signals in the bacteria mainly consist of acyl-homoserine lactone, autoinducing peptide, and autoinducer-2. QS signaling activation and biofilm formation lead to the antimicrobial resistance of the pathogens, thus increasing the therapy difficulty of bacterial diseases. Anti-QS agents can abolish the QS signaling and prevent the biofilm formation, therefore reducing bacterial virulence without causing drug-resistant to the pathogens, suggesting that anti-QS agents are potential alternatives for antibiotics. This review focuses on the anti-QS agents and their mediated signals in the pathogens and conveys the potential of QS targeted therapy for bacterial diseases.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções Bacterianas/tratamento farmacológico , Percepção de Quorum/efeitos dos fármacos , Acil-Butirolactonas , Animais , Proteínas de Bactérias , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Biofilmes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Homosserina/análogos & derivados , Humanos , Lactonas , Estudos Prospectivos , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Fatores de Virulência
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