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1.
Ultraschall Med ; 2020 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32294796

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study was conducted to explore the clinical value of noninvasive assessment of bedside ultrasound in the diagnosis of lung lesions of Coronavirus Disease-19. METHODS: In this retrospective study, 30 patients with Coronavirus Disease-19 admitted to our hospital from January 18 to February 5, 2020, were selected as the research subjects. All cases were examined by lung ultrasound and CT. Lung lesions were reviewed by blinded observers, with imaging scores being used to analyze the ultrasound findings of lung lesions in patients with Coronavirus Disease-19 and with chest CT being used as the reference standard. The clinical value of ultrasound in the noninvasive assessment of lung lesions was evaluated. RESULTS: Lung ultrasound signs in patients with Coronavirus Disease-19 were mainly manifested as interstitial pulmonary edema (90.0 %, 27/30) and pulmonary consolidations (20.0 %, 6/30). The lung lesions were mainly distributed in the subpleural and peripheral pulmonary zones. The lower lobe and the dorsal region had a greater tendency to be involved. There was moderate agreement (Kappa = 0.529) between the noninvasive assessment of bedside ultrasound for lung lesions in patients with Coronavirus Disease-19 and CT. The ultrasound scores to evaluate mild, moderate and severe lung lesions exhibited sensitivity of 68.8 % (11/16), 77.8 % (7/9), 100.0 % (2/2), specificity of 85.7 % (12/14), 76.2 % (16/21), 92.9 % (26/28), and diagnostic accuracy of 76.7 % (23/30), 76.7 % (23/30), 93.3 % (28/30), respectively. The follow-up dynamic ultrasound examination showed that the condition of all patients worsened gradually, with the ultrasound scores of lung lesions increasing to varying degrees. CONCLUSION: Though the diagnostic efficacy of bedside ultrasound is relatively low for mild to moderate patients, it is high for severe patients. Bedside ultrasound has important clinical significance for noninvasive assessment and dynamic observation of lung lesions in patients with Coronavirus Disease-19, which is worth further consideration.

2.
Clin Transl Sci ; 2020 Apr 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32315487

RESUMO

In this study we report on the clinical and autoimmune characteristics of severe and critical novel coronavirus pneumonia caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The clinical, autoimmune, and laboratory characteristics of 21 patients who had laboratory-confirmed severe and critical cases of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) from the intensive care unit of the Huangshi Central Hospital, Hubei Province, China, were investigated. A total of 21 patients (13 men and 8 women), including 8 (38.1%) severe cases and 13 (61.9%) critical cases, were enrolled. Cough (90.5%) and fever (81.0%) were the dominant symptoms, and most patients (76.2%) had at least one coexisting disorder on admission. The most common characteristics on chest computed tomography were ground-glass opacity (100%) and bilateral patchy shadowing (76.2%). The most common findings on laboratory measurement were lymphocytopenia (85.7%) and elevated levels of C-reactive protein (94.7%) and interleukin-6 (89.5%). The prevalence of anti-52 kDa SSA/Ro antibody, anti-60 kDa SSA/Ro antibody, and antinuclear antibody was 20%, 25%, and 50%, respectively. We also retrospectively analyzed the clinical and laboratory data from 21 severe and critical cases of COVID-19. Autoimmune phenomena exist in COVID-19 subjects, and the present results provide the rationale for a strategy of preventing immune dysfunction and optimal immunosuppressive therapy.

3.
J Med Virol ; 2020 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32243599

RESUMO

A novel coronavirus pneumonia, first identified in Wuhan City and referred to as COVID-19 by the World Health Organization, has been quickly spreading to other cities and countries. To control the epidemic, the Chinese government mandated a quarantine of the Wuhan city on January 23, 2020. To explore the effectiveness of the quarantine of the Wuhan city against this epidemic, transmission dynamics of COVID-19 have been estimated. A well-mixed "susceptible exposed infectious recovered" (SEIR) compartmental model was employed to describe the dynamics of the COVID-19 epidemic based on epidemiological characteristics of individuals, clinical progression of COVID-19, and quarantine intervention measures of the authority. Considering infected individuals as contagious during the latency period, the well-mixed SEIR model fitting results based on the assumed contact rate of latent individuals are within 6-18, which represented the possible impact of quarantine and isolation interventions on disease infections, whereas other parameter were suppose as unchanged under the current intervention. The present study shows that, by reducing the contact rate of latent individuals, interventions such as quarantine and isolation can effectively reduce the potential peak number of COVID-19 infections and delay the time of peak infection.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32342610

RESUMO

Electronic textiles that are thin, lightweight, flexible and breathable have been widely explored with a variety of functionalities including power supplying, displaying and sensing, which may revolutionize many fields such as communication, health care and artificial intelligence. To date, unfortunately, computing is the missing puzzle to close their functional loop. Memristor is compatible with the interwoven structure and fabricating process in textile due to its two-terminal and crossbar configuration. However, it remains challenging to realize textile memristors due to the difficulties in designing advanced memristive materials and achieving high-quality active layers on fiber electrodes. Here we report a robust textile memristor based on an electrophoretic-deposited active layer of d eoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) on fiber electrodes. The unique architecture and orientation of DNA molecules with the incorporation of Ag nanoparticles offer the best-in-class performances, e.g., both ultra- low operation voltage of ~0.3 V and power consumption of ~100 pW and high switching speed of 20 ns. Fundamental logic calculations such as implication and NAND are demonstrated as functions of textile chips, and it has been thus integrated with power-supplying and displaying modules to make a proof-of-concept fabric computer . This work provides a promising route towards wearable computers and artificial neural networks for effective brain-machine interfaces.

5.
Biosci Rep ; 40(5)2020 May 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32285913

RESUMO

Neuropathic pain is a kind of chronic pain that is triggered or caused primarily by damage to the nervous system and neurological dysfunction. It's known that dexmedetomidine is a new type of highly selective alpha2-adrenoceptor agonist with sedation, anti-anxiety, analgesic and other effects. However, the function and mechanism of dexmedetomidine on neuropathic pain are not clear. Rat DRG neurons were isolated and identified using immunofluorescence assay. Following treatment with H2O2, dexmedetomidine or ROS inhibitor (NAC), the apoptosis and ROS levels were examined by flow cytometery; apoptosis- and anaerobic glycolysis-related proteins were determined by Western blot assay; glucose consumption, pyruvic acid, lactic acid and ATP/ADP ratios were also measured. The results revealed that dexmedetomidine inhibited H2O2-induced apoptosis and reactive oxygen species (ROS) in rat DRG neurons and in addition, dexmedetomidine down-regulated the expression levels of anaerobic glycolysis-related proteins, significantly reduced glucose, pyruvic acid and lactic acid levels. It also increased the ATP/ADP ratio in H2O2-treated rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons. Moreover, we also demonstrated that ROS inhibitor (NAC) also inhibited H2O2-induced apoptosis and anaerobic glycolysis in rat DRG neurons. In conclusion, dexmedetomidine suppressed H2O2-induced apoptosis and anaerobic glycolysis activity by inhibiting ROS, in rat DRG neurons. Therefore, dexmedetomidine might play a pivotal role in neuropathic pain by the inhibition of ROS.

6.
Chemosphere ; 251: 126360, 2020 Feb 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32155494

RESUMO

Microplastics are abundant in municipal wastewater which is mainly from personal care products and laundry. In recent years, great attention has been given to microplastics removal in wastewater treatment. In this article, the study focusing on microplastics in wastewater has been evaluated with VOSviewer. It was found that the major interest was in identification, quantification and pollution of the microplastics in the wastewater, and their transportation and final destination during wastewater treatment processes. The major microplastics and their shapes in wastewater were reviewed. Our evaluation results were consistent with other reported that fibers and fragment were the majority in terms of shape and polyethylene terephthalare (PET), polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PP), and polystyrene (PS) are the most presented microplastics in wastewater. During wastewater treatment, the removal route of microplastics from wastewater includes settling, adsorption, entrapment, interception, etc. It confirms that microplastics are just simply transferred from wastewater to sludge. It could then bring problems to anaerobic digestion as microplastics are great vector for toxic substances such as antibiotics and persistence organic pollutants. The key to determine the microplastics effect on anaerobic digestion is the desorption behavior of the toxic substances such as antibiotics, persistent organic pollutants and heavy metals from microplastics in digestion condition. Toxic compounds which are commonly presenting in sludge have shown the tendency to release from microplastics. It indicates that microplastics in sludge have great possibility to impact on methane production.

7.
Environ Sci Technol ; 54(5): 2565-2574, 2020 03 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32022554

RESUMO

We developed a method to better estimate the carbon stocks of in-use harvested wood products (HWP) by using the Eora multiregional input-output tables to link global HWP production and end uses, compared to existing global-scale studies that focused on semifinished HWP. Using the new method, we allocated global HWP to country-specific end uses, including solid HWP used in (1) construction, (2) furniture production, and (3) other end uses, and as (4) household and sanitary paper and (5) other paper and paper products, while the HWP carbon stocks in these end uses were estimated using the Stock Change Approach. We reported that HWP produced globally contained an annual average of 277.7 teragram carbon in 1992-2015, of which 63.0, 12.6, 76.7, 9.1, and 116.3 teragram carbon were consumed by the above five end uses, respectively. By 2015, the carbon stocks of global in-use HWP produced since 1992 accumulated to 2938 teragrams of carbon, of which the above five HWP end uses accounted for 1489, 268, 890, 0, and 291 teragrams of carbon, respectively. Country-specific HWP production and consumption varied significantly, with the eight leading consuming countries (United States, China, Japan, Canada, Germany, Russia, United Kingdom, and France) accounting for 69% of the global in-use HWP carbon stocks.


Assuntos
Carbono , Madeira , Canadá , China , França , Alemanha , Japão , Federação Russa , Reino Unido
8.
Langmuir ; 36(7): 1709-1717, 2020 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32004005

RESUMO

During the evolution of life on earth, the emergence of lipid membrane-bounded compartments is one of the most enigmatic events. Endosymbiosis has been hypothesized as one of the solutions. In this work, using a coacervate droplet formed by single-stranded oligonucleotides (ss-oligo) and poly(l-lysine) (PLL) as the protocell model, we monitored the uptake of liposomes of different types and studied the dynamic behavior of the resulting composite droplet under the electric field. The coacervate droplet exhibits affinity for the liposomes of varying charges. However, the permeation of liposome is also controlled by electrostatic interactions. Dominated by electrostatic attraction, the positively charged liposome is retained inside the droplet as growing fibrous structures, while the negatively charged liposome is mainly coated on the droplet surface. Permeation and even distribution occur when the liposome and the droplet carry the same charges, or at least one of them is neutral. As an electric field is applied to trigger repetitive cycles of vacuolization in the ss-oligo/PLL droplet, the fibrous structure formed by the positively charged liposome is basically intact, while a new phase is generated together with uneven mass transport as the negatively charged liposome is internalized. Interestingly, the release of daughter droplets with similar components occurs on the droplet containing neutral liposomes. Our work not only provides a step toward creating protocells with hierarchical structures and biofunctions using a biogenetic material via simple mixing but also sheds light on the possible origin of the lipid structure inside a living organism.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31940538

RESUMO

Zero-shot learning (ZSL) is a challenging task due to the lack of unseen class data during training. Existing works attempt to establish a mapping between the visual and class spaces through a common intermediate semantic space. The main limitation of existing methods is the strong bias towards seen class, known as the domain shift problem, which leads to unsatisfactory performance in both conventional and generalized ZSL tasks. To tackle this challenge, we propose to convert ZSL to the conventional supervised learning by generating features for unseen classes. To this end, a joint generative model that couples variational autoencoder (VAE) and generative adversarial network (GAN), called Zero-VAE-GAN, is proposed to generate high-quality unseen features. To enhance the class-level discriminability, an adversarial categorization network is incorporated into the joint framework. Besides, we propose two self-training strategies to augment unlabeled unseen features for the transductive extension of our model, addressing the domain shift problem to a large extent. Experimental results on five standard benchmarks and a large-scale dataset demonstrate the superiority of our generative model over the state-of-the-art methods for conventional, especially generalized ZSL tasks. Moreover, the further improvement of the transductive setting demonstrates the effectiveness of the proposed self-training strategies.

11.
Microvasc Res ; 129: 103975, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31926201

RESUMO

Microvascular injury is a common pathological process in ischemia-reperfusion injury. Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are vital cells for angiogenesis and endothelial repair. These cells can home to injury sites and secrete angiogenic growth factors. α7nAChRs are pivotal in cholinergic angiogenesis, which is associated with endothelial cells and EPCs. Our study was designed to determine whether activating α7nAChRs enhances the function of EPCs and to explore the underlying mechanism. EPCs were derived from the bone marrow of male Sprague-Dawley rats and treated with an α7nAChR agonist (PNU282987), an α7nAChR antagonist (MLA) and a JAK2 antagonist (AG490). We then assayed the angiogenic abilities of the EPCs, including proliferation ability, adhesion ability, migration ability and in vitro tube formation ability. The levels of total JAK2 (t-JAK2), phosphorylated JAK2 (p-JAK2), total STAT3 (t-STAT3) and phosphorylated STAT3 (p-STAT3) were estimated by western blot analysis. PNU282987 treatment facilitated the angiogenic abilities of EPCs compared with the control regimen. The western blot data suggested that PNU282987 increased the levels of p-JAK2 and p-STAT3. However, the differences in t-JAK2 levels and t-STAT3 levels between the agonist-treated group and the control group were not significant. Moreover, treating EPCs with AG490 reduced STAT3 phosphorylation and attenuated the PNU282987-induced enhancement of EPCs. We demonstrated that activating α7nAChRs can enhance EPC functions partially through the JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway. This study reveals that α7nAChRs are potential therapeutic targets for angiogenesis and that the JAK2/STAT3 pathway plays a vital role in the associated therapeutic mechanism.

12.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 142: 803-810, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31622699

RESUMO

Filled hydrogel particles can be fabricated by incorporating an oil-in-water emulsion into portions of separated incompatible lower and upper phases together and remixing with later acidification to pH 5.0. The purpose of present study was to investigate the influence of different heat-denatured whey protein concentrates (HWPC)/high methoxy pectin (HMP) mass ratios (1:1, 2:1, 3:1, 4:1, and 5:1) of phase separated systems on the physical characteristics and stabilities of filled hydrogel particles. The results showed that the particle size of filled hydrogel particles significantly decreased with increasing HWPC/HMP mass ratios (P < 0.05), which was verified by reduced interfacial layer thickness. Moreover, decreased particle size also induced consistent reduction of the apparent viscosity and slightly increased the lightness. In particular, when the HWPC/HMP mass ratio was 3:1, the filled hydrogel particles exhibited the lowest amount of conjugated dienes and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances after 10 days of storage (P < 0.05), which was mainly due to the highest amount of biopolymers distributed at the interfacial membrances (P < 0.05). Our results indicate that the phase separation system formed by HWPC/HMP mass ratio of 3:1 could be used to fabricate filled hydrogel particles with amplified stabilities at acidic pH for novel delivery systems.

13.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 48(D1): D93-D100, 2020 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31598675

RESUMO

Transcription factors (TFs) and their target genes have important functions in human diseases and biological processes. Gene expression profile analysis before and after knockdown or knockout is one of the most important strategies for obtaining target genes of TFs and exploring TF functions. Human gene expression profile datasets with TF knockdown and knockout are accumulating rapidly. Based on the urgent need to comprehensively and effectively collect and process these data, we developed KnockTF (http://www.licpathway.net/KnockTF/index.html), a comprehensive human gene expression profile database of TF knockdown and knockout. KnockTF provides a number of resources for human gene expression profile datasets associated with TF knockdown and knockout and annotates TFs and their target genes in a tissue/cell type-specific manner. The current version of KnockTF has 570 manually curated RNA-seq and microarray datasets associated with 308 TFs disrupted by different knockdown and knockout techniques and across multiple tissue/cell types. KnockTF collects upstream pathway information of TFs and functional annotation results of downstream target genes. It provides details about TFs binding to promoters, super-enhancers and typical enhancers of target genes. KnockTF constructs a TF-differentially expressed gene network and performs network analyses for genes of interest. KnockTF will help elucidate TF-related functions and potential biological effects.

14.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 136: 111082, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31887398

RESUMO

T-2 toxin, one member of the type A trichothecene family, induces the apoptosis of human hepatocytes (L02) and murine Leydig cells (TM3), as well as mitochondrial dysfunctions. In the present study, we attempted to investigate whether T-2 toxin toxicity is related to mitochondrial dysfunction and mitophagy. We found that T-2 toxin might induce autophagy and mitophagy in TM3 cells (TM3) in a concentration-dependent manner. In addition, T-2 toxin could induce mitochondrial dysfunction, depolarization, and fission concentration-dependently. The inducible effects of T-2 toxin on mitophagy, mitochondrial dysfunction, and cell apoptosis could all be significantly reversed by autophagy inhibitor, 3 MA. Finally, DRP-1 participated in the inducible effects of T-2 toxin on TM3 cell mitophagy, mitochondrial dysfunction, and cell apoptosis. In summary, mitophagy and mitochondrial dysfunction are essential mechanisms of the toxicity induced by T-2 toxin. Thus, our findings provide a rationale for further studies on selectively targeting mitophagy to improve mitochondrial dysfunction and to protect cells from T-2 toxin-induced toxicity.

15.
Front Chem ; 7: 789, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31803722

RESUMO

Substantial consumption of fossil fuels causes an increase in CO2 emissions and intensifies global pollution problems, such as the greenhouse effect. Recently, a new type of ultra-low-density porous material, metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), has been developed for the photocatalytic conversion of CO2. Herein, a composite photocatalytic catalyst based on NH2-MIL-125(Ti) and reduced graphene oxide (rGO@NH2-MIL-125) was fabricated through a facile "one-pot" process. The acquired materials were characterized to obtain their structures, morphologies, and optical information. The experimental results showed that methyl formate (MF) was the predominant reaction product, and rGO@NH2-MIL-125 exhibited the highest yield of 1,116 µmol·g-1·h-1, more than twice that of pure MIL-125. The high photoactivity of rGO@NH2-MIL-125 can be ascribed to the effective spatial separation and transfer of photoinduced carriers, largely due to the synergistic effect of amino functionality and rGO incorporation. rGO@NH2-MIL-125 also displayed acceptable repeatability in cyclic runs for CO2 reduction.

16.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2019: 9426368, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31827710

RESUMO

Patients with orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) frequently develop acute gut injury (AGI), and dexmedetomidine (Dex) has been reported to exert a protective effect against AGI. We investigated whether Dex protects against AGI through antioxidative stress effects by the Nrf2/HO-1 antioxidative signaling pathway. Rats were randomly allocated into a sham group and six orthotopic autologous liver transplantation (OALT) groups receiving different doses of Dex together with/without α 2-adrenergic receptor (AR) blockers. Intestinal tissues were collected to visualize the barrier damage and to measure the indexes of oxidative stress. For in vitro studies, rat intestinal recess epithelial cells (IEC-6) underwent hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R), and the protective role of Dex was evaluated after α 2A-AR siRNA silencing. OALT resulted in increased oxidative stress, significant intestinal injury, and barrier dysfunction. Dex attenuated OALT-induced oxidative stress and intestinal injury, which was abolished by the pretreatment with the nonspecific α 2A-AR siRNA blocker atipamezole and the specific α 2A-AR siRNA blocker BRL-44408, but not by the specific 2B/C-AR siRNA blocker ARC239. Silencing of α 2A-AR siRNA also attenuated the protective role of Dex on alleviating oxidative stress in IEC-6 cells subjected to H/R. Dex exerted its protective effects by activating Nrf2/HO-1 antioxidative signaling. Collectively, Dex attenuates OALT-induced AGI via α 2A-AR-dependent suppression of oxidative stress, which might be a novel potential therapeutic target for OALT-induced AGI.

17.
Biomolecules ; 9(12)2019 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31779213

RESUMO

T-2 toxin is one of the most toxic type A trichothecene mycotoxins in nature, and it exhibits reproductive toxicity. Betulinic acid (BA) is a natural pentacyclic triterpene compound found in species of Betula, and it has been reported to have antioxidant activity. The aim of the present study was to investigate the protective effect of BA on T-2-toxin-induced testicular injury in mice and explore its molecular mechanism. Sixty adult male mice were randomly divided into groups. The mice were pretreated orally with BA (0.25, 0.5, and 1.0 mg/kg) daily for 14 days, and the T-2 toxin (4 mg/kg body weight) was administered via intraperitoneal injection to induce oxidative stress after the last administration of BA. BA pretreatment significantly increased the secreted levels of testosterone and sperm motility. Moreover, BA pretreatment significantly increased the total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), the activity of SOD and CAT, and the content of GSH, and it reduced the content of MDA. Furthermore, BA relieved testicular injury and reduced the number of apoptotic cells, and it significantly decreased the protein expression of Janus kinase 2 (JAK2), signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 (STAT3), caspsae-3, and Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax). BA also increased the expression of B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2). We suggest that BA reduced the oxidative damage induced by T-2 toxin, and that these protective effects may be partially mediated by the JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway.

18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31664635

RESUMO

Along with iron and steel production, large amount of slag is generated. Proper management on the iron- and steelmaking slag is highly demanded due to the high cost of direct disposal of the slag to landfill, which is the most adopted management approach. In this article, the potential application of iron- and steelmaking slag has been reviewed, which included the slag utilization in construction as cement and sand, in water, soil, and gas treatment, as well as in value material recovery. In addition, the challenge and required effort to be made in iron- and steelmaking slag management have been discussed.

19.
Front Chem ; 7: 500, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31380345

RESUMO

Although LiNi0.8Co0.1Mn0.1O2 is attracting increasing attention on account of its high specific capacity, the moderate cycle lifetime still hinders its large-scale commercialization applications. Herein, the Ti-doped LiNi0.8Co0.1Mn0.1O2 compounds are successfully synthesized. The Li(Ni0.8Co0.1Mn0.1)0.99Ti0.01O2 sample exhibits the best electrochemical performance. Under the voltage range of 2.7-4.3 V, it maintains a reversible capacity of 151.01 mAh·g-1 with the capacity retention of 83.98% after 200 cycles at 1 C. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and differential capacity profiles during prolonged cycling demonstrate that the Ti doping could enhance both the abilities of electronic transition and Li ion diffusion. More importantly, Ti doping can also improve the reversibility of the H2-H3 phase transitions during charge-discharge cycles, thus improving the electrochemical performance of Ni-rich cathodes.

20.
Sci Data ; 6(1): 148, 2019 08 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31409791

RESUMO

Data Repository of Antimicrobial Peptides (DRAMP, http://dramp.cpu-bioinfor.org/ ) is an open-access comprehensive database containing general, patent and clinical antimicrobial peptides (AMPs). Currently DRAMP has been updated to version 2.0, it contains a total of 19,899 entries (newly added 2,550 entries), including 5,084 general entries, 14,739 patent entries, and 76 clinical entries. The update covers new entries, structures, annotations, classifications and downloads. Compared with APD and CAMP, DRAMP contains 14,040 (70.56% in DRAMP) non-overlapping sequences. In order to facilitate users to trace original references, PubMed_ID of references have been contained in activity information. The data of DRAMP can be downloaded by dataset and activity, and the website source code is also available on dedicatedly designed download webpage. Although thousands of AMPs have been reported, only a few parts have entered clinical stage. In the paper, we described several AMPs in clinical trials, including their properties, indications and clinicaltrials.gov identifiers. Finally, we provide the applications of DRAMP in the development of AMPs.

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