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1.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 2021 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34792163

RESUMO

R-loops play versatile roles in many physiological and pathological processes, and are of great interest to scientists in multiple fields. However, controversy about their genomic localization and incomplete understanding of their regulatory network raise great challenges for R-loop research. Here, we present R-loopBase (https://rloopbase.nju.edu.cn) to tackle these pressing issues by systematic integration of genomics and literature data. First, based on 107 high-quality genome-wide R-loop mapping datasets generated by 11 different technologies, we present a reference set of human R-loop zones for high-confidence R-loop localization, and spot conservative genomic features associated with R-loop formation. Second, through literature mining and multi-omics analyses, we curate the most comprehensive list of R-loop regulatory proteins and their targeted R-loops in multiple species to date. These efforts help reveal a global regulatory network of R-loop dynamics and its potential links to the development of cancers and neurological diseases. Finally, we integrate billions of functional genomic annotations, and develop interactive interfaces to search, visualize, download and analyze R-loops and R-loop regulators in a well-annotated genomic context. R-loopBase allows all users, including those with little bioinformatics background to utilize these data for their own research. We anticipate R-loopBase will become a one-stop resource for the R-loop community.

2.
Zhongguo Ying Yong Sheng Li Xue Za Zhi ; 37(5): 514-519, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34816664

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the effects of Z Ajoene on gastric cancer cell MGC-803 and its molecular mechanisms. Methods: The gastric cancer cells MGC-803 were treated with 0, 1, 5, 25 and 125 µmol/L Z Ajoene for 24 h, 48 h and 72 h, each with 3 replicate wells. The proliferation activity of MGC-803 cells was analyzed by MTS method, mitochondrial membrane potential was analyzed after JC-1 staining, nuclear type was observed after Hoechst 33342 staining, cytotoxicity was detected by LDH release method, and the apoptosis level and cell cycle were analyzed with flow cytometry. RT-qPCR and Western blot methods were used to evaluate the expression levels of P53, Caspase-3, RAS, ERK, BCL-2, AKT, mTOR and PI3K genes. At the same time, 4-week-old male BALB/C mice were randomly divided into 5 groups, 20 per group, and were subcutaneously inoculated with gastric cancer cell MGC-803 in the groin. Two days later, each group was injected with Z Ajoene at the doses of 0, 1, 5, 25 and 125 µmol/L, 0.1 ml/time, and was injected every other day. On the 20th day of the first injection of tumor cells, 10 mice in each group were killed, the tumor tissues were taken out and weighed. The survival period of the remaining mice was recorded and the effects of Z Ajoene on the growth and survival period of gastric cancer in tumor-bearing mice were observed. Results: After Z Ajoene treatment, the proliferation activity of MGC-803 cells was significantly inhibited and the apoptosis rate was significantly increased(P<0.01). The transcription and expression levels of p53, Caspase-3 and BAX genes were significantly increased, while the transcription and expression levels of RAS, ERK1, BCL-2, AKT, mTOR and PI3K genes were decreased markedly(P<0.01). The tumor inhibition experiments showed that the growth of the tumor could be inhibited and the survival time of the tumor-bearing animals could be greatly prolonged after Z Ajoene treatment(P<0.01). Conclusion: Z Ajoene has therapeutic effects on gastric cancer, can inhibit the proliferation of gastric cancer cells and induce them apoptosis by regulating the expression of PI3K-AKT-mTOR and RAS-RAF-MEK-ERK signal pathways.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Gástricas , Animais , Apoptose , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células , Dissulfetos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases , Neoplasias Gástricas/tratamento farmacológico , Sulfóxidos
3.
Front Oncol ; 11: 749881, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34804936

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the oncologic and reproductive outcomes of fertility-sparing treatments (FSTs) in atypical endometrial hyperplasia (AEH) and endometrial cancer (EC) patients with excess weight (EW). Methods: This retrospective study comprised patients with AEH or EC who achieved a complete response (CR) after FST from 2010 to 2018. The clinical characteristics, oncological and reproductive outcomes were compared between the excess weight (EW) group (body mass index (BMI)≥25 kg/m2) and normal weight (NW) group (BMI<25 kg/m2). The risk factors associated with recurrence and unsuccessful pregnancy in patients with EW were analyzed. Results: Overall, 227 patients were enrolled, including 139 (61.2%) in EW group and 88 (38.8%) in NW group. In patients with EW, the pregnancy rate, the live birth rate and the relapse rate were 29.8%, 23.4%, and 30.9%, respectively. In patients with NW, these rates were 61.1%, 47.2%, and 31.8%, respectively. No significant differences were observed in the time to remission (P=0.865) and disease-free survival (DFS) (P=0.750). Patients in NW group achieved a better pregnancy rate than patients in the EW group (P=0.034). The patients with EW using ovulation induction to increase fertility tended to have a shorter time to pregnancy (P=0.042). However, no significant risk factors associated with unsuccessful pregnancy were identified after the multivariate analysis. In terms of DFS, the combination of gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRH-a) and LNG-IUD was better for patients with EW than GnRH-a or oral progestin therapy alone (P=0.044, adjusted hazard ratio (HR)=0.432, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.152-1.229), especially for patients with EW diagnosed with EC (P=0.032). Conclusion: FSTs for overweight and obese patients should be more individualized. GnRH-a and/or LNG-IUD may be options prior to FSTs in patients with EW. Further prospective studies are needed.

4.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 6365, 2021 11 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34753899

RESUMO

The nucleolus is the organelle for ribosome biogenesis and sensing various types of stress. However, its role in regulating stem cell fate remains unclear. Here, we present evidence that nucleolar stress induced by interfering rRNA biogenesis can drive the 2-cell stage embryo-like (2C-like) program and induce an expanded 2C-like cell population in mouse embryonic stem (mES) cells. Mechanistically, nucleolar integrity maintains normal liquid-liquid phase separation (LLPS) of the nucleolus and the formation of peri-nucleolar heterochromatin (PNH). Upon defects in rRNA biogenesis, the natural state of nucleolus LLPS is disrupted, causing dissociation of the NCL/TRIM28 complex from PNH and changes in epigenetic state and reorganization of the 3D structure of PNH, which leads to release of Dux, a 2C program transcription factor, from PNH to activate a 2C-like program. Correspondingly, embryos with rRNA biogenesis defect are unable to develop from 2-cell (2C) to 4-cell embryos, with delayed repression of 2C/ERV genes and a transcriptome skewed toward earlier cleavage embryo signatures. Our results highlight that rRNA-mediated nucleolar integrity and 3D structure reshaping of the PNH compartment regulates the fate transition of mES cells to 2C-like cells, and that rRNA biogenesis is a critical regulator during the 2-cell to 4-cell transition of murine pre-implantation embryo development.

5.
J Integr Neurosci ; 20(3): 595-603, 2021 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34645092

RESUMO

Collapsin response mediator protein 4 (CRMP4) is critical for neuronal development. However, whether CRMP4 could be SUMOylated and how the SUMOylation regulates the interaction with the L-type voltage-gated calcium channel (Cav1.2), neurite outgrowth, and thermal pain sensitivity remain to be elucidated. To determine the SUMOylation of CRMP4, Glutathione S-transferase (GST) - Small Ubiquitin-like Modifier 1 (-SUMO1), -SUMO2, and -SUMO3 proteins were purified for GST-pulldown. Immunofluorescence staining was performed to observe colocalization of CRMP4 and SUMOs. Co-immunoprecipitation (co-IP) was performed to assess the interaction between CRMP4 and SUMO2. GST-pulldown and co-IP were performed to verify the interaction between CRMP4 and Cav1.2. The impact of SUMOylation of CRMP4 on its interaction with Cav1.2 was determined. Then, the effect of CRMP4 SUMOylation on neurite outgrowth was observed. Whole-cell patch clamping revealed the effect of CRMP4 SUMOylation on Cav1.2 mediated calcium influx. Paw withdrawal latency was measured to assess the impact of CRMP4 SUMOylation on thermal pain sensitivity in rats. The data revealed that CRMP4 K374 is a potential site for SUMO modification. SUMO1, SUMO2, and SUMO3 can all interact with CRMP4. SUMO2 interacts with CRMP4, but not a variant of CRMP4 harboring a mutation of K374. CRMP4 and SUMO proteins colocalized in neurites, and CRMP4 deSUMOylation promoted neurite outgrowth. CRMP4 interacted with Cav1.2, and deSUMOylation of CRMP4 strengthened this interaction. CRMP4 promoted calcium influx via Cav1.2, and overexpression of CRMP4 significantly increased thermal pain sensitivity in rats, which CRMP4 deSUMOylation strengthened. In conclusion, these data demonstrate the SUMOylation of CRMP4, elucidate the impacts of SUMOylation on the interaction with Cav1.2 on neurite outgrowth and thermal pain sensitivity.

6.
Mitochondrial DNA B Resour ; 6(11): 3098-3099, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34621986

RESUMO

Clerodendrum lindleyi Decne. ex Planch. is a Chinese medicinal plant in the Lingnan region of China. In this study, the complete chloroplast genome sequence of C. lindleyi was assembled and characterized from high-throughput sequencing data. The chloroplast genome is 151,678 bp in length, consisting of a large single-copy (LSC) and a small single-copy (SSC) regions of 83,043 bp and 17,311 bp, respectively, which are separated by a pair of 25,662 bp inverted repeat (IR) regions. The overall GC content of the genome is 38.18%. The genome contains 133 genes, including 88 protein-coding, 37 tRNA, and 8 rRNA genes. A phylogenetic tree reconstructed by using 16 chloroplast genomes reveals that C. lindleyi is most closely related to C. trichotomum which together forms a group that is a sister to genus Caryopteris. The work reported here is the first complete chloroplast genome of C. lindleyi which will provide useful information to the evolutionary studies on the genus of Clerodendrum.

7.
Psychiatry Res ; 306: 114237, 2021 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34655926

RESUMO

The direct effect of genetic variations on clinical phenotypes within schizophrenia (SZ) remains elusive. We examined the previously identified association of reduced gray matter concentration in the insula - medial prefrontal cortex and a quantitative trait locus located in 12q24 in a SZ dataset. The main analysis was performed on 1461 SNPs and 830 participants. The highest contributing SNPs were localized in five genes including TMEM119, which encodes a microglial marker, that is associated with neuroinflammation and Alzheimer's disease. The gene set in 12q4 may partially explain brain alterations in SZ, but they may also relate to other psychiatric and developmental disorders.

8.
Front Oncol ; 11: 744256, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34671560

RESUMO

To generate robust patient-derived xenograft (PDX) models for epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC), analyze the resemblance of PDX models to the original tumors, and explore factors affecting engraftment rates, fresh cancer tissues from a consecutive cohort of 158 patients with EOC were collected to construct subcutaneous PDX models. Paired samples of original tumors and PDX tumors were compared at the genome, transcriptome, protein levels, and the platinum-based chemotherapy response was evaluated to ensure the reliability of the PDXs. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to determine the factors affecting the engraftment rates. The engraftment success rate was 58.23% (92/158) over 3-6 months. The Ki-67 index and receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy can affect the engraftment rate in primary patients. The PDX models generated in this study were found to retain the histomorphology, protein expression, and genetic alteration patterns of the original tumors, despite the transcriptomic differences observed. Clinically, the PDX models demonstrated a high degree of similarity with patients in terms of the chemotherapy response and could predict prognosis. Thus, the PDX model can be considered a promising and reliable preclinical tool for personalized and precise treatment.

9.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 9916328, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34541001

RESUMO

Ferroptosis and inflammation induced by cerebral hemorrhage result in an excessive inflammatory response and irreversible neuronal injury. Alleviating ferroptosis might be an effective way to prevent neuroinflammatory injury and promote neural functional recovery. Pyridoxal isonicotinoyl hydrazine (PIH), a lipophilic iron-chelating agent, has been reported to reduce excess iron-induced cytotoxicity. However, whether PIH could ameliorate the effects of hemorrhagic stroke is not completely understood. In the present study, the preventive effects of PIH in an intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) mouse model were investigated. Neurological score, rotarod test, and immunofluorescence around the hematoma were assessed to evaluate the effects of PIH on hemorrhagic injury. The involvement of ferroptosis and inflammation was also examined in vitro to explore the underlying mechanism. Results showed that administration of PIH prevented neuronal cell death and reduced lipid peroxidation in Erastin-treated PC-12 cells. In vivo, mice treated with PIH after ICH attenuated neurological deficit scores. Additionally, we found PIH reduced ROS production, iron accumulation, and lipid peroxidation around the hematoma peripheral tissue. Meanwhile, ICH mice treated with PIH showed an upregulation of the key ferroptosis enzyme, glutathione peroxidase 4, and downregulation of cyclooxygenase-2. Moreover, PIH administration inhibited proinflammatory polarization and reduced interleukin-1 beta and tumor necrosis factor alpha in ICH mice. Collectively, these results demonstrated that PIH protects mice against hemorrhage stroke, which was associated with mitigation of inflammation and ferroptosis.


Assuntos
Hemorragia Cerebral/tratamento farmacológico , Ferroptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Isoniazida/análogos & derivados , Piridoxal/análogos & derivados , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Morte Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Hemorragia Cerebral/metabolismo , Compostos Férricos/farmacologia , Ferroptose/fisiologia , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Inflamação/prevenção & controle , Ferro/metabolismo , Quelantes de Ferro/farmacologia , Isoniazida/metabolismo , Isoniazida/farmacologia , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Neurônios/metabolismo , Piridoxal/metabolismo , Piridoxal/farmacologia
10.
Front Oncol ; 11: 686962, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34568017

RESUMO

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a common cancer in the world, and its incidence is increasing yearly. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection are important causes of HCC. Liver cirrhosis, age, sex, smoking and drinking, and metabolic risk factors will increase the risk of cancer in HBV/HCV patients. And viral load, APRI, FIB-4, and liver stiffness can all predict the risk of HCC in patients with viral infection. In addition, effective prevention strategies are essential in reducing the risk of HCC. The prevention of HCC involves mainly tertiary prevention strategies, while the primary prevention is based on standardized vaccine injections to prevent the occurrence of HBV/HCV. Eliminating the route of transmission and vaccination will lead to a decrease in the incidence of HCC. Secondary prevention involves effective antiviral treatment of HBV/HCV to prevent the disease from progressing to HCC, and tertiary prevention is actively treating HCC to prevent its recurrence.

11.
Front Oncol ; 11: 705720, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34552868

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate whether systematic lymph node dissection can confer clinical benefits in patients with apparent early-stage low-grade epithelial ovarian cancer. Methods: Patients with apparent early-stage low-grade epithelial ovarian cancer seen at Peking Union Medical College Hospital from January 1, 2005, to December 31, 2015, were retrospectively enrolled. Patients with other histological types and those who did not receive necessary adjuvant chemotherapy were excluded. Data collection and long-term follow-up were performed. According to the removed lymph node number, three groups based on surgical methods were used: abnormal lymph node resection, pelvic lymphadenectomy, and systematic lymph node dissection to control surgical quality. Their effects on prognosis were analyzed in pathological subgroups. Results: A total of 196 patients were enrolled; 30.1% of patients had serous, 42.3% of patients had mucinous, and 27.6% of patients had endometrioid carcinoma, of which 51 (26.0%), 96 (49.0), and 49 (25.0%) patients were treated with the above surgical methods, respectively. The occult lymph node metastasis rate was 14 (7.1%), and only five (2.6%) of apparent early-stage patients were upstaged due to lymph node metastasis alone. Systematic lymph node dissection did not benefit progression-free survival or disease-specific overall survival of apparent early-stage low-grade mucinous and endometrioid epithelial ovarian cancer but prolonged progression-free survival of apparent early-stage low-grade serous patients (OR, 0.231, 95% CI, 0.080, 0.668, p = 0.007). Conclusions: Systematic lymph node dissection may be abolished in patients with apparent early-stage low-grade mucinous and endometrioid epithelial ovarian cancer but may be considered for apparent early-stage low-grade serous patients.

12.
Curr Opin Genet Dev ; 70: 104-114, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34530248

RESUMO

It has been nearly 60 years since Dr John Gurdon achieved the first cloning of Xenopus by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). Later, in 2006, Takahashi and Yamanaka published their landmark study demonstrating the application of four transcription factors to induce pluripotency. These two amazing discoveries both clearly established that cell identity can be reprogrammed and that mature cells still contain the information required for lineage specification. Considering that different cell types possess identical genomes, what orchestrates reprogramming has attracted wide interest. Epigenetics, including high-level chromatin structure, might provide some answers. Benefitting from the tremendous progress in high-throughput and multi-omics techniques, we here address the roles and interactions of genome architecture, chromatin modifications, and transcription regulation during somatic cell reprogramming that were previously beyond reach. In addition, we provide perspectives on recent technical advances that might help to overcome certain barriers in the field.

13.
BMJ Open ; 11(9): e048851, 2021 09 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34531212

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the determinants of willingness and practice of physicians' online medical services (OMS) uptake based on social ecosystem theory, so as to formulate OMS development strategies. DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey. SETTING: Research was conducted in two comprehensive hospitals and two community hospitals in Jiangsu, China, and the data were gathered from 1 June to 31 June 2020. PARTICIPANTS: With multistage sampling, 707 physicians were enrolled in this study. OUTCOME MEASURE: Descriptive statistics were reported for the basic characteristics. χ2 test, Mann-Whitney U test and Spearman's correlation analysis were used to perform univariate analysis. Linear regression and logistic regression were employed to examine the determinants of physicians' OMS uptake willingness and actual uptake, respectively. RESULTS: The mean score of the physicians' OMS uptake willingness was 17.33 (range 5-25), with an SD of 4.39, and 53.3% of them reported having conducted OMS. In the micro system, factors positively associated with willingness included holding administrative positions (b=1.03, p<0.05), OMS-related awareness (b=1.32, p<0.001) and OMS-related skills (b=4.88, p<0.001); the determinants of actual uptake included holding administrative positions (OR=2.89, 95% CI 1.59 to 5.28, p<0.01), OMS-related awareness (OR=1.90, 95% CI 1.22 to 2.96, p<0.01), OMS-related skills (OR=2.25, 95% CI 1.35 to 3.74, p<0.01) and working years (OR=2.44, 95% CI 1.66 to 3.59, p<0.001). In the meso system, the hospital's incentive mechanisms (b=0.78, p<0.05) were correlated with willingness; hospital advocated for OMS (OR=2.34, 95% CI 1.21 to 4.52, p<0.05), colleagues' experiences (OR=3.81, 95% CI 2.25 to 6.45, p<0.001) and patients' consultations (OR=2.93, 95% CI 2.02 to 4.25, p<0.001) were determinants of actual uptake. In the macro system, laws and policies were correlated with willingness (b=0.73, p<0.05) and actual uptake (OR=1.98, 95% CI 1.31 to 2.99, p<0.01); media orientation was also associated with willingness (b=0.74, p<0.05). CONCLUSION: Multiple determinants influence physicians' OMS application. Comprehensive OMS promotion strategies should be put forward from multidimensional perspectives including the micro, meso and macro levels.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Médicos , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Motivação , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Inquéritos e Questionários
14.
Front Cell Dev Biol ; 9: 659080, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34422796

RESUMO

The tumor microenvironment (TME) plays an important role in the growth and invasion of glioma. This study aimed to analyze the composition of the immune microenvironment in glioma samples and analyze the important differentially expressed genes to identify novel immune-targeted therapy for glioma. We downloaded transcriptomic data of 669 glioma samples from The Cancer Genome Atlas database. CIBERSORT and ESTIMATE methods were used to calculate the proportion of tumor-infiltrating immune cells and ratio of immune and stromal components in the TME. The differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were screened by comparing the genes expressed by both stromal and immune cells. Annexin A1 (ANXA1) was determined to be an important prognostic indicator through the common overlap of univariate Cox regression analysis and protein-protein interaction network analysis. The proportion of tumor-infiltrating immune cells, calculated by CIBERSORT algorithm, had a significant difference in distribution among the high and low ANXA1 expression groups, indicating that ANXA1 could be an important immune marker of TME. Furthermore, ANXA1 level was positively correlated with the histopathological factors and negatively related to the survival of glioma patients based on the analysis of multiple databases. Finally, in vitro experiments verified that antagonizing ANXA1 expression promoted cell apoptosis and inhibited the invasion and migration capacities of glioma cells. Therefore, ANXA1 due to its immune-related functions, can be an important prognostic indicator and immune microenvironmental marker for gliomas. Further studies are warranted to confirm ANXA1 as a potential immunotherapeutic target for gliomas.

16.
Aging Cell ; 20(9): e13466, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34448534

RESUMO

Parental age at first pregnancy is increasing worldwide. The offspring of aged father has been associated with higher risk of several neuropsychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia and autism, but the underlying mechanism remains elusive. Here we report that advanced paternal age in mice alters the profile of transfer RNA-derived small RNAs (tsRNAs). Injection of sperm tsRNAs from aged male mice into zygotes induced anxiety-like behaviors in F1 males. RNA sequencing of the cerebral cortex and hippocampus of those F1 male mice altered the gene expression of dopaminergic synapse and neurotrophin. tsRNAs from aged male mice injection also altered the neuropsychiatry-related gene expression in two-cell and blastocyst stage embryos. More importantly, the sperm tsRNA profile changes significantly during aging in human. The up-regulated sperm tsRNA target genes were involved in neurogenesis and nervous system development. These results suggest that aging-related changes of sperm tsRNA may contribute to the intergenerational transmission of behavioral traits.

17.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 13(29): 34202-34212, 2021 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34270206

RESUMO

Piezoelectrically polarized electric field can provide a strong driving force for the separation of the photoinduced charge carriers that has attracted a wide attention in the field of photocatalysis. In this paper, a new type of piezoelectric borate material CsCdBO3 exhibits a high efficiency for the degradation of typical organic pollutants under the synergistic effects of strain and light conditions. The oxidation rate constant of the synergistic effect is 0.653 min-1, which is 3.77 times that of just under visible light irradiation. Further, the material shows a higher efficiency when treated both under the clockwise stirring direction and a high stirring speed. A characteristic piezoresponse hysteresis loop was detected using the piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM) approach. The strain-driven polarized electric field facilitates to promote the photoinduced electron-hole pair separation, thus enhancing the photocatalytic activity. The present work provides a new direction of the borate with a noncentrosymmetric structure in the environmental remediation.

18.
Am J Crit Care ; 30(4): e71-e79, 2021 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34195781

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Few population-based studies assess the impact of cancer on sepsis incidence and mortality. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate epidemiological trends of sepsis in patients with cancer. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study included adults (≥20 years old) identified using sepsis-indicator International Classification of Diseases codes from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample database (2006-2014). A generalized linear model was used to trend incidence and mortality. Outcomes in patients with cancer and patients without cancer were compared using propensity score matching. Cox regression modeling was used to calculate hazard ratios for mortality rates. RESULTS: The study included 13 996 374 patients, 13.6% of whom had cancer. Gram-positive infections were most common, but the incidence of gram-negative infections increased at a greater rate. Compared with patients without cancer, those with cancer had significantly higher rates of lower respiratory tract (35.0% vs 31.6%), intra-abdominal (5.5% vs 4.6%), fungal (4.8% vs 2.9%), and anaerobic (1.2% vs 0.9%) infections. Sepsis incidence increased at a higher rate in patients with cancer than in those without cancer, but hospital mortality rates improved equally in both groups. After propensity score matching, hospital mortality was higher in patients with cancer than in those without cancer (hazard ratio, 1.25; 95% CI, 1.24-1.26). Of patients with sepsis and cancer, those with lung cancer had the lowest survival (hazard ratio, 1.65) compared with those with breast cancer, who had the highest survival. CONCLUSIONS: Cancer patients are at high risk for sepsis and associated mortality. Research is needed to guide sepsis monitoring and prevention in patients with cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias , Sepse , Adulto , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Incidência , Neoplasias/complicações , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sepse/epidemiologia , Sepse/mortalidade , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
19.
J Biomater Sci Polym Ed ; 32(16): 2071-2087, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34266365

RESUMO

Animal derived biomaterials have attracted much attentions in treating large size bone defect due to their excellent biocompatibility and potent bioactivities offered by the biomacromolecules and growth factors contained in these materials. Dermis-derived matrix (ADM) has been used as skin grafts and wound dressings for decades, however its application in bone tissue engineering has been largely limited as ADM possesses a dense structure which does not support bone tissue ingrowth. Recently, we have successfully fabricated porous scaffold structure using an ADM with the aid of micronization technique. When integrated with inorganic components such as calcium phosphate, ADM could be transformed to bone graft substitutes with desirable osteogenic properties. While purified and chemically cross-linked collagen has lost its natural structure, our ADM successfully preserved natural tropocollagen structure, as well as other bioactive components. A composite scaffold was fabricated by incorporating dicalcium phosphate (DCP) microparticles into ADM microfibers and freeze-dried to form a highly porous structure. Unlike conventional ADM materials, this scaffold possesses high porosity with interconnected pores. More importantly, our evaluation data demonstrated that it performed much more effective in treating critical bone defects in comparison with best commercial product on the market. In a head-to-head comparison with a commercial bone graft material Bongold®, the ADM/DCP scaffold showed superior osteogenic capacity by filling the defect with well-organized new bone tissue in a rabbit radius segmental defect model. Put together, our results exhibited a novel bone graft substitute was developed by circumventing processing barriers associated with natural ADM, which offers another novel bone graft substitute for bone regeneration.

20.
Clin Epigenetics ; 13(1): 140, 2021 07 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34247653

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Major depression has been recognized as the most commonly diagnosed psychiatric complication of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). Moreover, major depression is associated with poor outcomes following mTBI; however, the underlying biological mechanisms of this are largely unknown. Recently, genomic and epigenetic factors have been increasingly implicated in the recovery following TBI. RESULTS: This study leveraged DNA methylation within the major depression pathway, along with demographic and behavior measures (features used in the clinical model) to predict post-concussive symptom burden and quality of life four-month post-injury in a cohort of 110 pediatric mTBI patients and 87 age-matched healthy controls. The results demonstrated that including DNA methylation markers in the major depression pathway improved the prediction accuracy for quality of life but not persistent post-concussive symptom burden. Specifically, the prediction accuracy (i.e., the correlation between the predicted value and observed value) of quality of life was improved from 0.59 (p = 1.20 × 10-3) (clinical model) to 0.71 (p = 3.89 × 10-5); the identified cytosine-phosphate-guanine sites were mainly in the open sea regions and the mapped genes were related to TBI in several molecular studies. Moreover, depression symptoms were a strong predictor (with large weights) for both post-concussive symptom burden and pediatric quality of life. CONCLUSION: This study emphasized that both molecular and behavioral manifestations of depression symptoms played a prominent role in predicting the recovery process following pediatric mTBI, suggesting the urgent need to further study TBI-caused depression symptoms for better recovery outcome.

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