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1.
J Endourol ; 2021 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34128382

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To compare preoperative midstream urine cultures (PMUC) and renal pelvic urine culture (RPUC) or stone culture (SC) in predicting systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and urosepsis after percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL). METHODS: We searched PubMed, Web of Science and EMBASE databases up to September 1, 2020 for relevant published studies. Two authors independently confirmed whether the literatures met the inclusion criteria and collected the data from the selected literatures. A meta-analysis was performed with Review Manager Software 5.4.1. A total of 14 studies with 3540 patients were selected and analyzed in the meta-analysis. RESULTS: Pooled data showed that SC was associated with a higher sensitivity (OR 2.36, 95% CI 1.31-4.25; P < 0.00001), PPV (OR 1.54, 95% CI 1.18-2.01; P =0.16) and NPV (OR 1.17, 95% CI 1.01-1.37; P =0.06) in the diagnosis of SIRS and urosepsis after PCNL, and RPUC provided a significantly higher specificity (OR 2.70, 95% CI 2.16-3.38; P =0.07) and PPV (OR 2.17, 95% CI 1.49-3.15; P =0.48) than PMUC in the diagnosis of SIRS and urosepsis after PCNL. CONCLUSION: Intraoperative SC and RPUC are more reliable than PMUC in predicting postoperative SIRS and urosepsis, identifying causative organisms and directing antibiotic therapy for patients underwent PCNL. PMUC, SC and RPUC should be routinely collected for the diagnosis and management of SIRS and urosepsis after PCNL.

2.
Cancer ; 2021 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34061353

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Identifying women at risk for advanced interval cancers would allow better targeting of mammography and supplemental screening. The authors assessed risk factors for advanced breast cancer within 2 years of a negative mammogram. METHODS: The authors included 293,520 negative mammograms performed from 2006 to 2015 among 74,736 women. Breast cancers were defined as advanced if they were >2 cm, were >1 cm and triple-negative or human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive, had positive lymph nodes, or were metastatic. Cox proportional hazards modeling was used to evaluate associations of age, breast density, menopause, mammogram type, prior breast biopsy, body mass index (BMI), and a family history of breast cancer with a cancer diagnosis within 2 years of a negative mammogram. Models were stratified by year since a negative mammogram. RESULTS: Among 1345 breast cancers, 357 were advanced (26.5%), and 988 (73.5%) were at an early stage. Breast density, prior biopsy, and family history were associated with an increased risk of both advanced and early-stage cancers. Overweight and obese women had a 40% higher risk of early-stage cancer only in year 2 (overweight hazard ratio [HR], 1.41; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.19-1.67; P < .001; obese HR, 1.41; 95% CI, 1.17-1.70; P < .001). Obese women had a 90% increased risk of advanced cancer in year 1 (HR, 1.90; 95% CI, 1.14-3.18; P = .014), and both overweight and obese women had a 40% or greater increased risk in year 2 (overweight HR, 1.55; 95% CI, 1.14-2.07; P = .005; obese HR, 1.42; 95% CI, 1.00-2.01; P = .051). CONCLUSIONS: A higher BMI was associated with an advanced breast cancer diagnosis within 2 years of a negative mammogram. These results have important implications for risk assessment, screening intervals, and use of supplemental screening.

3.
Aging Cell ; 20(6): e13387, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34053165

RESUMO

A substantial percentage of late-life depression patients also have an cognitive impairment, which severely affects the life quality, while the co-occurring mechanisms are still unclear. Physical exercise can ameliorate both depressive behaviors and cognitive dysfunction, but the molecular mechanisms underlying its beneficial effects remain elusive. In this study, we uncover a novel adipose tissue to hippocampus crosstalk mediated by Adiponectin-Notch pathway, with an impact on hippocampal neurogenesis and cognitive function. Adiponectin, an adipocyte-derived hormone, could activate Notch signaling in the hippocampus through upregulating ADAM10 and Notch1, two key molecules in the Notch signaling. Chronic stress inhibits the Adiponectin-Notch pathway and induces impaired hippocampal neurogenesis and cognitive dysfunction, which can be rescued by AdipoRon and running. Inhibition Notch signaling by DAPT mimics the adverse effects of chronic stress on hippocampal neurogenesis and cognitive function. Adiponectin knockout mice display depressive-like behaviors, associated with inhibited Notch signaling, impaired hippocampal neurogenesis and cognitive dysfunction. Physical exercise could activate Adiponectin-Notch pathway, and improve hippocampal neurogenesis and cognitive function, while deleting adiponectin gene or inhibiting Notch signaling blocks its beneficial effects. Together, our data not only suggest that Adiponectin-Notch pathway is involved in the pathogenesis of cognitive dysfunction associated with depression, but also contributes to the therapeutic effect of physical exercise. This work helps to decipher the etiology of cognitive impairment associated with depression and hence will provide a potential innovative therapeutic target for these patients.

4.
Micromachines (Basel) ; 12(3)2021 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33671034

RESUMO

ZnO nanomaterials have been widely used in micro/nano devices and structure due to special mechanical/electrical properties, and its characterization is still deficient and challenging. In this paper, ZnO nanomaterials, including nanorod and nanowire are characterized by atomic force microscope (AFM) and nanomanipulator embedded in scanning electron microscope (SEM) respectively, which can manipulate and observe simultaneously, and is efficient and cost effective. Surface morphology and mechanical properties were observed by AFM. Results showed that the average Young's modulus of ZnO nanorods is 1.40 MPa and the average spring rate is 0.08 N/m. Electrical properties were characterized with nanomanipulator, which showed that the ZnO nanomaterial have cut-off characteristics and good schottky contact with the tungsten probes. A two-probe strategy was proposed for piezoelectric property measurement, which is easy to operate and adaptable to multiple nanomaterials. Experiments showed maximum voltage of a single ZnO nanowire is around 0.74 mV. Experiment criteria for ZnO manipulation and characterization were also studied, such as acceleration voltage, operation duration, sample preparation. Our work provides useful references for nanomaterial characterization and also theoretical basis for nanomaterials application.

5.
Tomography ; 7(1): 66-79, 2021 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33704226

RESUMO

Respiratory motion and increased susceptibility effects at high magnetic fields pose challenges for quantitative diffusion-weighted MRI (DWI) of a mouse abdomen on preclinical MRI systems. We demonstrate the first application of radial k-space-sampled (RAD) DWI of a mouse abdomen using a genetically engineered mouse model of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) on a 4.7 T preclinical scanner equipped with moderate gradient capability. RAD DWI was compared with the echo-planar imaging (EPI)-based DWI method with similar voxel volumes and acquisition times over a wide range of b-values (0.64, 535, 1071, 1478, and 2141 mm2/s). The repeatability metrics are assessed in a rigorous test-retest study (n = 10 for each DWI protocol). The four-shot EPI DWI protocol leads to higher signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in diffusion-weighted images with persisting ghosting artifacts, whereas the RAD DWI protocol produces relatively artifact-free images over all b-values examined. Despite different degrees of motion mitigation, both RAD DWI and EPI DWI allow parametric maps of apparent diffusion coefficients (ADC) to be produced, and the ADC of the PDAC tumor estimated by the two methods are 1.3 ± 0.24 and 1.5 ± 0.28 × 10-3 mm2/s, respectively (p = 0.075, n = 10), and those of a water phantom are 3.2 ± 0.29 and 2.8 ± 0.15 × 10-3 mm2/s, respectively (p = 0.001, n = 10). Bland-Altman plots and probability density function reveal good repeatability for both protocols, whose repeatability metrics do not differ significantly. In conclusion, RAD DWI enables a more effective respiratory motion mitigation but lower SNR, while the performance of EPI DWI is expected to improve with more advanced gradient hardware.

6.
World J Urol ; 2021 Mar 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33725149

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To determine the incidence and risk factors of the venous thromboembolism (VTE) in patients undergoing percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL). METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the records of 896 consecutive cases receiving PCNL between July 2018 and August 2020 in our institution. Univariate analysis was performed to identify the risk factors of VTE, and multivariate logistic regression analysis was further performed to determine the independent risk factors. Furthermore, the corresponding nomogram was conducted to establish a predicted model for VTE. RESULTS: The overall incidence of VTE was 2.8%. The multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that discontinued anticoagulant or antiplatelet therapies (OR 4.505, 95% CI 1.410-14.401), increased postoperative 12-h D-dimer (OR 11.162, 95% CI 2.370-52.574), hydronephrosis (OR 3.303, 95% CI 1.303-8.375), higher Caprini risk assessment model (RAM) score (OR 3.233, 95% CI 1.207-8.659) and postoperative sepsis or septic shock (OR 3.784, 95% CI 1.163-12.306) were independent risk factors of VTE following PCNL. Moreover, the area under the curve of postoperative 12-h D-dimer, hydronephrosis and Caprini RAM score was 0.826, 0.621 and 0.660, respectively. Based on the identified independent risk factors, the well-calibrated nomogram showed a moderate discriminative ability with concordance index 0.731. CONCLUSIONS: 2.8% of patients developed VTE following PCNL. Regarding those patients who have independent risk factors in this study, due attention should be paid to the effective thromboprophylaxis and the early detection of VTE.

8.
Biostatistics ; 2021 Feb 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33616157

RESUMO

Validation of phenotyping models using Electronic Health Records (EHRs) data conventionally requires gold-standard case and control labels. The labeling process requires clinical experts to retrospectively review patients' medical charts, therefore is labor intensive and time consuming. For some disease conditions, it is prohibitive to identify the gold-standard controls because routine clinical assessments are performed for selective patients who are deemed to possibly have the condition. To build a model for phenotyping patients in EHRs, the most readily accessible data are often for a cohort consisting of a set of gold-standard cases and a large number of unlabeled patients. Hereby, we propose methods for assessing model calibration and discrimination using such "positive-only" EHR data that does not require gold-standard controls, provided that the labeled cases are representative of all cases. For model calibration, we propose a novel statistic that aggregates differences between model-free and model-based estimated numbers of cases across risk subgroups, which asymptotically follows a Chi-squared distribution. We additionally demonstrate that the calibration slope can also be estimated using such "positive-only" data. We propose consistent estimators for discrimination measures and derive their large sample properties. We demonstrate performances of the proposed methods through extensive simulation studies and apply them to Penn Medicine EHRs to validate two preliminary models for predicting the risk of primary aldosteronism.

9.
Theranostics ; 11(7): 3089-3108, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33537076

RESUMO

Rationale: Siglec15 is an emerging target for normalization cancer immunotherapy. However, pan-cancer anti-Siglec15 treatment is not yet validated and the potential role of Siglec15 in bladder cancer (BLCA) remains elusive. Methods: We comprehensively evaluated the expression pattern and immunological role of Siglec15 using pan-cancer analysis based on RNA sequencing data obtained from The Cancer Genome Atlas. We then systematically correlated Siglec15 with immunological characteristics in the BLCA tumor microenvironment (TME), including immunomodulators, cancer immunity cycles, tumor-infiltrating immune cells (TIICs), immune checkpoints, and T cell inflamed score. We also analyzed the role of Siglec15 in predicting the molecular subtype and the response to several treatment options in BLCA. Our results were validated in several public cohorts as well as our BLCA tumor microarray cohort, the Xiangya cohort. We developed an immune risk score (IRS), validated it, and tested its ability to predict the prognosis and response to cancer immunotherapy. Results: We found that Siglec15 was specifically overexpressed in the TME of various cancers. We hypothesize that Siglec15 designs a non-inflamed TME in BLCA based on the evidence that Siglec15 negatively correlated with immunomodulators, TIICs, cancer immunity cycles, immune checkpoints, and T cell inflamed score. Bladder cancer with high Siglec15 expression was not sensitive to cancer immunotherapy, but exhibited a higher incidence of hyperprogression. High Siglec15 levels indicated a luminal subtype of BLCA characterized by lower immune infiltration, lower response to cancer immunotherapy and neoadjuvant chemotherapy, but higher response to anti-angiogenic therapy and targeted therapies such as blocking Siglec15, ß-catenin, PPAR-γ, and FGFR3 pathways. Notably, a combination of anti-Siglec15 and cancer immunotherapy may be a more effective strategy than monotherapy. IRS can accurately predict the prognosis and response to cancer immunotherapy. Conclusions: Anti-Siglec15 immunotherapy might be suitable for BLCA treatment as Siglec15 correlates with a non-inflamed TME in BLCA. Siglec15 could also predict the molecular subtype and the response to several treatment options.

10.
Reprod Biol Endocrinol ; 19(1): 33, 2021 Feb 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33639974

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Leydig cells reflect the activation of inflammation, decrease of androgen production, inhibition of cell growth and promotion of cell apoptosis under orchitis. Maternally expressed gene 3 (MEG3) exerts a crucial role in various human diseases, but under orchitis, the role and underlying molecular mechanism of MEG3 in Leydig cells remain unclear. METHODS: Lipofectamine 2000 was used for the cell transfections. qPCR and western blots assay were applied to assess the gene expression. ELISA assay was used to measure the TNFα, IL6 and testosterone secretion. CCK8 and EdU assay was employ to test the cell viability and proliferation respectively. Luciferase reporter and RIP assay were introduced to detect the binding of miR-93-5p with MEG3 and PTEN. RESULTS: Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) induced TNFα and IL6 secretion, lowered testosterone production, inhibited cell viability and proliferation, and induced cell apoptosis in Leydig cells. MEG3 was upregulated in Leydig cells treated with LPS and that knockdown of MEG3 inhibited the role of LPS in Leydig cells. MEG3 absorbed miR-93-5p and that suppression of miR-93-5p restored the role of silenced MEG3 in Leydig cells under LPS treatment. miR-93-5p inhibited PTEN expression and that over-expressed PTEN alleviated the effect of miR-93-5p in Leydig cells treated with LPS. LPS activated the MEG3/miR-93-5p/PTEN signalling pathway in Leydig cells. CONCLUSIONS: This study revealed that MEG3 serves as a molecular sponge to absorb miR-93-5p, thus leading to elevation of PTEN expression in Leydig cells under LPS treatment, offering a theoretical basis on which to establish potential new treatment strategies for orchitis.

11.
Nat Med ; 27(1): 66-72, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33432171

RESUMO

The clinical impact of rare loss-of-function variants has yet to be determined for most genes. Integration of DNA sequencing data with electronic health records (EHRs) could enhance our understanding of the contribution of rare genetic variation to human disease1. By leveraging 10,900 whole-exome sequences linked to EHR data in the Penn Medicine Biobank, we addressed the association of the cumulative effects of rare predicted loss-of-function variants for each individual gene on human disease on an exome-wide scale, as assessed using a set of diverse EHR phenotypes. After discovering 97 genes with exome-by-phenome-wide significant phenotype associations (P < 10-6), we replicated 26 of these in the Penn Medicine Biobank, as well as in three other medical biobanks and the population-based UK Biobank. Of these 26 genes, five had associations that have been previously reported and represented positive controls, whereas 21 had phenotype associations not previously reported, among which were genes implicated in glaucoma, aortic ectasia, diabetes mellitus, muscular dystrophy and hearing loss. These findings show the value of aggregating rare predicted loss-of-function variants into 'gene burdens' for identifying new gene-disease associations using EHR phenotypes in a medical biobank. We suggest that application of this approach to even larger numbers of individuals will provide the statistical power required to uncover unexplored relationships between rare genetic variation and disease phenotypes.


Assuntos
Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde , Exoma , Genótipo , Fenótipo , Idoso , Biologia Computacional , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
12.
Front Oncol ; 10: 551985, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33194610

RESUMO

Objective: The purpose of this meta-analysis was to systematically assess the influence of three-dimensional (3D) printing technology in laparoscopic partial nephrectomy (LPN) of complex renal tumors. Methods: A systematic literature review was performed in June 2020 using the Web of Science, PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane library, the China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), and the Wanfang Databases to identify relevant studies. The data relative to operation time, warm ischemic time, intraoperative blood loss, positive surgical margin, reduction in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), and complications (including artery embolization, hematoma, urinary fistula, transfusion, hematuria, intraoperative bleeding, and fever) were extracted. Two reviewers independently assessed the quality of all included studies, and the eligible studies were included and analyzed using the Stata 12.1 software. A subgroup analysis was performed stratifying patients according to the complexity of the tumor and surgery type or to the nephrometry score. Results: One randomized controlled trial (RCT), two prospective controlled studies (PCS), and seven retrospective comparative studies (RCS) were analyzed, involving a total of 647 patients. Our meta-analysis showed that there were significant differences in operation time, warm ischemic time, intraoperative blood loss, reduction in eGFR, and complications between the LPN with 3D-preoperative assessment (LPN-3DPA) vs. LPN with conventional 2D preoperative assessment (LPN-C2DPA) groups. Positive surgical margin did not differ significantly. Conclusion: The LPN-3DPA group showed shorter operation time and warm ischemic time, as well as less intraoperative blood loss, reduction in eGFR, fewer complications for patients with complex renal tumor. Therefore, LPN assisted by three-dimensional printing technology should be a preferable treatment of complex renal tumor when compared with conventional LPN. However, further large-scale RCTs are needed in the future to confirm these findings.

13.
Transl Androl Urol ; 9(5): 2082-2093, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33209671

RESUMO

Background: The aim of this stay was to determine the effect of calcium ions in promoting osteogenic-like differentiation in human renal interstitial fibroblasts (hRIFs). The role of miRNA-410-3p in upregulating Msh homeobox 2 (MSX2) level in hRIFs was also investigated. Methods: Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) analysis was used to assess the expression levels of miRNA-410-3p in Randall's plaque (RP) and normal renal papillary (nRP) tissues. Furthermore, the expression levels of osteogenesis-related protein in the RP and nRP tissues were assessed with qPCR and immunohistochemistry (IHC). hRIFs were cultured from isolated human kidney papilla before treatment with calcium chloride or osteogenic medium, and 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay was performed at 1, 5, 9, and 14 days post-treatment. Alizarin red staining was used to estimate the deposits of calcium aggregates. After the overexpression or knockdown of miRNA-410-3p, we evaluated the changes in the osteogenic-like differentiation and osteogenesis-related protein by alizarin red staining and qPCR, respectively. A binding relationship between miRNA-410-3p and MSX2 was established through a dual-luciferase reporter gene assay. Rescue experiments demonstrated that miRNA-410-3p regulated the osteogenic-like differentiation by targeting MSX2. Results: miRNA-410-3p levels were lower in RP tissue than in control nRP tissues. qPCR and IHC showed that the level of runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2), osteocalcin (OCN), and osteopontin (OPN) were higher in RP tissues. The calcium deposition of hRIFs showed a time-dependent trend when treated with osteogenic medium or calcium chloride. The overexpression of miRNA-410-3p downregulated the levels of osteogenesis-related expression and attenuated mineralization. The knockdown of miRNA-410-3p yielded the opposite trend. Dual-luciferase reporter gene assay and rescue experiments indicated that miRNA-410-3p could target MSX2, while the overexpression of MSX2 reversed the effects of miRNA-410-3p on osteogenic-like differentiation. Conclusions: The current findings suggest that calcium ions could promote the osteogenic-like differentiation of hRIFs and miRNA-410-3p regulates hRIFs osteogenic-like differentiation by inhibiting MSX2.

14.
Transl Androl Urol ; 9(5): 2094-2106, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33209672

RESUMO

Background: The outcome of neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) has been established in bladder cancer but remains controversial in upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC). In this work, we explored the therapeutic effect of NAC in patients with locally advanced UTUC. Methods: We conducted a literature search on articles published from 1995 up to April 2020 in PubMed/Medline, the Cochrane Library, Embase, Google Scholar. A total of 19 eligible studies with 6,283 patients were identified, from which the overall survival (OS), cancer-specific survival (CSS), progression-free survival (PFS), disease-free survival (DFS), pathological complete response (pCR) rate and pathological partial response (pPR) rate were extracted. All analyses were conducted using Review Manager 5.3 and Stata statistical software (version 15). Results: In total, 6,283 UTUC patients were included from 19 eligible studies out of which 1,474 patients received NAC and subsequent radical nephroureterectomy (RNU), whereas 4,809 patients received RNU only. Compared with single RNU, patients with NAC and subsequent RNU exhibited longer OS, CSS, PFS, DFS by hazard ratio (HR) 2.14 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.75-2.63; P<0.001], HR 2.07 (95% CI: 1.49-2.87; P<0.001), HR 2.00 (95% CI: 1.42-2.83; P<0.001), and HR 3.76 (95% CI: 2.16-6.56; P<0.001). pCR rate and pPR rate of NAC are 0.10 (0.07-0.13) and 0.40 (95% CI: 0.32-0.49, P <0.001) respectively. Conclusions: This work revealed that NAC and subsequent RNU provided better survival outcomes in patients with locally advanced UTUC when compared with single RNU.

15.
JAMA Oncol ; 2020 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32970131

RESUMO

Importance: Machine learning (ML) algorithms can identify patients with cancer at risk of short-term mortality to inform treatment and advance care planning. However, no ML mortality risk prediction algorithm has been prospectively validated in oncology or compared with routinely used prognostic indices. Objective: To validate an electronic health record-embedded ML algorithm that generated real-time predictions of 180-day mortality risk in a general oncology cohort. Design, Setting, and Participants: This prognostic study comprised a prospective cohort of patients with outpatient oncology encounters between March 1, 2019, and April 30, 2019. An ML algorithm, trained on retrospective data from a subset of practices, predicted 180-day mortality risk between 4 and 8 days before a patient's encounter. Patient encounters took place in 18 medical or gynecologic oncology practices, including 1 tertiary practice and 17 general oncology practices, within a large US academic health care system. Patients aged 18 years or older with outpatient oncology or hematology and oncology encounters were included in the analysis. Patients were excluded if their appointment was scheduled after weekly predictions were generated and if they were only evaluated in benign hematology, palliative care, or rehabilitation practices. Exposures: Gradient-boosting ML binary classifier. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was the patients' 180-day mortality from the index encounter. The primary performance metric was the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). Results: Among 24 582 patients, 1022 (4.2%) died within 180 days of their index encounter. Their median (interquartile range) age was 64.6 (53.6-73.2) years, 15 319 (62.3%) were women, 18 015 (76.0%) were White, and 10 658 (43.4%) were seen in the tertiary practice. The AUC was 0.89 (95% CI, 0.88-0.90) for the full cohort. The AUC varied across disease-specific groups within the tertiary practice (AUC ranging from 0.74 to 0.96) but was similar between the tertiary and general oncology practices. At a prespecified 40% mortality risk threshold used to differentiate high- vs low-risk patients, observed 180-day mortality was 45.2% (95% CI, 41.3%-49.1%) in the high-risk group vs 3.1% (95% CI, 2.9%-3.3%) in the low-risk group. Integrating the algorithm into the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group and Elixhauser comorbidity index-based classifiers resulted in favorable reclassification (net reclassification index, 0.09 [95% CI, 0.04-0.14] and 0.23 [95% CI, 0.20-0.27], respectively). Conclusions and Relevance: In this prognostic study, an ML algorithm was feasibly integrated into the electronic health record to generate real-time, accurate predictions of short-term mortality for patients with cancer and outperformed routinely used prognostic indices. This algorithm may be used to inform behavioral interventions and prompt earlier conversations about goals of care and end-of-life preferences among patients with cancer.

16.
Genet Epidemiol ; 44(8): 893-907, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32783273

RESUMO

Genetic matching between transplant donor and recipient pairs has traditionally focused on the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) regions of the genome, but recent studies suggest that matching for non-HLA regions may be important as well. We assess four genetic matching scores for use in association analyses of transplant outcomes. These scores describe genetic ancestry distance using identity-by-state, or genetic incompatibility or mismatch of the two genomes and therefore may reflect different underlying biological mechanisms for donor and recipient genes to influence transplant outcomes. Our simulation studies show that jointly testing these scores with the recipient genotype is a powerful method for preliminary screening and discovery of transplant outcome related single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and gene regions. Following these joint tests with marginal testing of the recipient genotype and matching score separately can lead to further understanding of the biological mechanisms behind transplant outcomes. In addition, we present results of a liver transplant data analysis that shows joint testing can detect SNPs significantly associated with acute rejection in liver transplant.

17.
Int J Surg ; 81: 132-139, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32795609

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Day care percutaneous nephrolithotomy is being performed rapidly. This meta-analysis aimed to assess the safety and efficacy of PCNL as a day care surgical procedure compared to conventional inpatient PCNL. METHODS: Randomized controlled trials and clinical controlled trials involving day care percutaneous nephrolithotomy were included by searching PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) and EMBASE up to Jan 2020. We completed a meta-analysis to assess the two surgical procedures. RESULTS: Four retrospective case-controlled trials, one prospective cohort study and one randomized controlled trial were included in the meta-analysis. The meta-analysis revealed that there was no significant difference between the day care PCNL and inpatient PCNL groups in the stone-free rate (OR = 1.49; 95% CI, 0.83 to 2.67; P = 0.18). The mean overall complication rates were 13.6% and 24.4% in the day care and inpatient PCNL groups, respectively (OR = 0.47; 95% CI, 0.30 to 0.72; P < 0.001). The two groups had similar readmission rates (OR = 1.73, 95% CI, 0.67 to 4.50, P = 0.26). In addition, day care PCNL was associated with a shorter operative time (WMD = -11.89 min; 95% CI, -20.37 to -3.42; P = 0.006) and shorter hospital stay (WMD = -61.01 h; 95% CI, -107.54 to -12.48; P = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Our meta-analysis demonstrated that PCNL can be performed safely and efficiently in selected patients as a day care surgical procedure.

18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32747382

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Several adipokines are implicated in the pathophysiology of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), however, longitudinal data in early pregnancy on many adipokines are lacking. We prospectively investigated the association of a panel of adipokines in early and mid-pregnancy with GDM risk. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Within the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) Fetal Growth Studies-Singletons cohort (n=2802), a panel of 10 adipokines (plasma fatty acid binding protein-4 (FABP4), chemerin, interleukin-6 (IL-6), leptin, soluble leptin receptor (sOB-R), adiponectin, omentin-1, vaspin, and retinol binding protein-4) were measured at gestational weeks (GWs) 10-14, 15-26, 23-31, and 33-39 among 107 GDM cases (ascertained on average at GW 27) and 214 non-GDM controls. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate ORs of each adipokine and GDM, controlling for known GDM risk factors including pre-pregnancy body mass index. RESULTS: Throughout pregnancy changes in chemerin, sOB-R, adiponectin, and high-molecular-weight adiponectin (HMW-adiponectin) concentrations from 10-14 to 15-26 GWs were significantly different among GDM cases compared with non-GDM controls. In early and mid-pregnancy, FABP4, chemerin, IL-6 and leptin were positively associated with increased GDM risk. For instance, at 10-14 GWs, the OR comparing the highest versus lowest quartile (ORQ4-Q1) of FABP4 was 3.79 (95% CI 1.63 to 8.85). In contrast, in both early and mid-pregnancy adiponectin (eg, ORQ4-Q1 0.14 (0.05, 0.34) during 10-14 GWs) and sOB-R (ORQ4-Q1 0.23 (0.11, 0.50) during 10-14 GWs) were inversely related to GDM risk. At 10-14 GWs a model that included conventional GDM risk factors and FABP4, chemerin, sOB-R, and HMW-adiponectin improved the estimated prediction (area under the curve) from 0.71 (95% CI 0.66 to 0.77) to 0.77 (95% CI 0.72 to 0.82). CONCLUSIONS: A panel of understudied adipokines including FABP4, chemerin, and sOB-R may be implicated in the pathogenesis of GDM with significant associations detected approximately 10-18 weeks before typical GDM screening.

19.
Mol Cell Biochem ; 472(1-2): 259-261, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32638258

RESUMO

In the original article, Fig. 2c was published incorrectly. The correct version of Fig. 2c is provided in this correction.

20.
JNCI Cancer Spectr ; 4(4): pkaa029, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32676552

RESUMO

Background: Use of risk-reducing Salpingo-oophorectomy (RRSO) substantially reduces the risk of ovarian and breast cancer for women who carry a BRCA1/2 mutation. It is important to adjust for RRSO use in the estimation of BRCA1/2 penetrance of breast and ovarian cancer. Methods: We searched PubMed for penetrance estimates of breast and ovarian cancer from studies that genotyped individual patients and explicitly adjusted for RRSO use by censoring follow-up at the age of RRSO. We meta-analyzed penetrance estimates from 7 identified studies. We implemented the resulting penetrance estimates in a Mendelian risk prediction model as iplemented in the software package BRCAPRO, which we applied to estimate carrier probabilities in 2 BRCA cohorts. Results: Penetrance estimates by age 70 years for breast cancer were 64.6% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 59.5% to 69.4%) for BRCA1 mutation carriers and 61.0% (95% CI = 48.1% to 72.5%) for BRCA2 mutation carriers, and for ovarian cancer they were 48.3% (95% CI = 38.8% to 57.9%) and 20.0% (95% CI = 13.3% to 29.0%), respectively. When integrated into BRCAPRO, our estimates led to good calibration and different estimates of carrier probabilities for some individuals when evaluating the models in 2 cohorts. Conclusions: The report updates penetrance estimates for BRCA1/2-associated cancer. We report higher estimates than previously reported, which did not adjust for RRSO. Differential use of RRSO may partially explain heterogeneity in the currently available penetrance estimates. For some individuals, using our estimates in BRCAPRO may result in changes in estimated carrier probabilities, which warrants validation in future studies.

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