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1.
Talanta ; 206: 120215, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31514903

RESUMO

This article described the fabrication of novel magnetic carbon nanotube modified with polymeric deep eutectic solvent (M-CNT@PDES) and its application as extractant for the magnetic solid phase extraction (MSPE) of bovine serum albumin (BSA). The physicochemical properties and morphology of M-CNT@PDES were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA), zeta potentials, fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FT-IR) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). Afterwards, several parameters such as pH value, initial concentration of BSA, extraction time, ionic strength and extraction temperature were optimized. The results indicated that the modification of PDES significantly improved the extraction performance for BSA, and the maximum extraction capacity was 225.15 mg/g under the optimized conditions. In addition, 0.20 mol/L NaCl-PBS solution was chosen as the appropriate eluent, and favourable elution rate (81.22%) was obtained. Circular dichroism spectroscopy (CD) indicated that the secondary structure of BSA has not changed during extraction and elution. The regenerative experiment and application in real calf serum confirmed the outstanding durability and practical application ability of M-CNT@PDES. All of above verified that the proposed M-CNT@PDES coupled with MSPE method has great application potential for the pre-concentration of biomolecules.

2.
Hum Factors ; : 18720819879311, 2019 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31593500

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The effectiveness of three types of in-vehicle warnings was assessed in a driving simulator across different noise conditions. BACKGROUND: Although there has been much research comparing different types of warnings in auditory displays and interfaces, many of these investigations have been conducted in quiet laboratory environments with little to no consideration of background noise. Furthermore, the suitability of some auditory warning types, such as spearcons, as car warnings has not been investigated. METHOD: Two experiments were conducted to assess the effectiveness of three auditory warnings (spearcons, text-to-speech, auditory icons) with different types of background noise while participants performed a simulated driving task. RESULTS: Our results showed that both the nature of the background noise and the type of auditory warning influenced warning recognition accuracy and reaction time. Spearcons outperformed text-to-speech warnings in relatively quiet environments, such as in the baseline noise condition where no music or talk-radio was played. However, spearcons were not better than text-to-speech warnings with other background noises. Similarly, the effectiveness of auditory icons as warnings fluctuated across background noise, but, overall, auditory icons were the least efficient of the three warning types. CONCLUSION: Our results supported that background noise can have an idiosyncratic effect on a warning's effectiveness and illuminated the need for future research into ameliorating the effects of background noise. APPLICATION: This research can be applied to better present warnings based on the anticipated auditory environment in which they will be communicated.

3.
Cancer Biomark ; 2019 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31594210

RESUMO

Accumulating evidence has shown that lncRNA GAS5 is a novel tumour-promoting RNA that contributes to tumour progression by sponging miRNAs. However, the detailed role of lncRNA GAS5 in B lymphocytic leukaemia is still unclear. A qRT-PCR assay was used to examine the levels of lncRNA GAS5 and miR-222 in leukomonocytes of patients with B lymphocytic leukaemia and in healthy donors. Raji cells were transfected with GAS5 overexpression or shRNA-GAS5 plasmids for 48⁢h, and cell proliferation was assessed by the CCK-8 assay, while apoptosis and cell cycle progression were assessed using flow cytometry. The Transwell assay was applied to detect the invasion of Raji cells with GAS5 overexpression or knockdown. The dual luciferase reporter assay and regression curve were conducted to evaluate the binding interaction between lncRNA GAS5 and miR-222. The results showed that the expression of lncRNA GAS5 was decreased in B lymphocytic leukaemia patients compared with the healthy group, and the levels of lncRNA GAS5 in B lymphocytic leukaemia cell lines were significantly higher than those in the normal B cell line, whereas the levels of miR-222 were increased in B lymphocytic leukaemia patients compared with the healthy group. Moreover, cell culture experiments indicated that lncRNA GAS5 overexpression decreased B lymphocytic leukaemia cell proliferation, promoted B lymphocytic leukaemia cell apoptosis, arrested B lymphocytic leukaemia cells in the G1 phase of the cell cycle, and inhibited B lymphocytic leukaemia cell invasion. Finally, the luciferase reporter assay showed a direct target interaction between lncRNA GAS5 and miR-222. The regression analysis showed a negative correlation between the levels of lncRNA GAS5 and miR-222. Thus, our data suggested that lncRNA GAS5 could effectively sponge miR-222 to modulate human B lymphocytic leukaemia cell tumourigenesis and metastasis. This work advances our understanding of the clinical significance of lncRNA GAS5 from the perspective of lncRNA-miRNA regulation.

4.
BMC Plant Biol ; 19(1): 415, 2019 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31590649

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Appropriate plant architecture can improve the amount of cotton boll opening and allow increased planting density, thus increasing the level of cotton mechanical harvesting and cotton yields. The internodes of cotton fruiting branches are an important part of cotton plant architecture. Thus, studying the molecular mechanism of internode elongation in cotton fruiting branches is highly important. RESULTS: In this study, we selected internodes of cotton fruiting branches at three different stages from two cultivars whose internode lengths differed significantly. A total of 76,331 genes were detected by transcriptome sequencing. By KEGG pathway analysis, we found that DEGs were significantly enriched in the plant hormone signal transduction pathway. The transcriptional data and qRT-PCR results showed that members of the GH3 gene family, which are involved in auxin signal transduction, and CKX enzymes, which can reduce the level of CKs, were highly expressed in the cultivar XLZ77, which has relatively short internodes. Genes related to ethylene synthase (ACS), EIN2/3 and ERF in the ethylene signal transduction pathway and genes related to JAR1, COI1 and MYC2 in the JA signal transduction pathway were also highly expressed in XLZ77. Plant hormone determination results showed that the IAA and CK contents significantly decreased in cultivar XLZ77 compared with those in cultivar L28, while the ACC (the precursor of ethylene) and JA contents significantly increased. GO enrichment analysis revealed that the GO categories associated with promoting cell elongation, such as cell division, the cell cycle process and cell wall organization, were significantly enriched, and related genes were highly expressed in L28. However, genes related to the sphingolipid metabolic process and lignin biosynthetic process, whose expression can affect cell elongation, were highly expressed in XLZ77. In addition, 2067 TFs were differentially expressed. The WRKY, ERF and bHLH TF families were the top three largest families whose members were active in the two varieties, and the expression levels of most of the genes encoding these TFs were upregulated in XLZ77. CONCLUSIONS: Auxin and CK are positive regulators of internode elongation in cotton branches. In contrast, ethylene and JA may act as negative regulators of internode elongation in cotton branches. Furthermore, the WRKY, ERF and bHLH TFs were identified as important inhibitors of internode elongation in cotton. In XLZ77(a short-internode variety), the mass synthesis of ethylene and amino acid conjugation of auxin led to the inhibition of plant cell elongation, while an increase in JA content and degradation of CKs led to a slow rate of cell division, which eventually resulted in a phenotype that presented relatively short internodes on the fruiting branches. The results of this study not only provide gene resources for the genetic improvement of cotton plant architecture but also lay a foundation for improved understanding of the molecular mechanism of the internode elongation of cotton branches.

5.
J Viral Hepat ; 2019 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31600845

RESUMO

The information regarding the effect of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection on gut microbiota and the relationship between gut microbiota dysbiosis and hepatitis B virus-induced chronic liver disease (HBVCLD) is limited. In this study, we aimed at characterizing the gut microbiota composition in the three different stages of hepatitis B virus-induced chronic liver disease patients and healthy individuals. Fecal samples and clinical data were collected from HBVCLD patients and healthy individuals. The 16S rDNA gene amplification products were sequenced. Bioinformatic analysis including alpha-diversity, PICRUSt, etc. was performed. A total of 19 phyla, 43 classes, 72 orders, 126 families, and 225 genera were detected. The beta-diversity showed a separate clustering of healthy controls and HBVCLD patients covering chronic hepatitis (CHB), liver cirrhosis (LC), and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC); and gut microbiota of healthy controls were more consistent, whereas those of CHB, LC and HCC varied substantially. The abundance of Firmicutes was lower, and Bacteroidetes was higher in patients with CHB, LC, and HCC than in healthy controls. Predicted metagenomics of microbial communities showed an increase in glycan biosynthesis and metabolism-related genes and lipid metabolism-related genes in HBVCLD than in healthy individuals. Our study suggested that HBVCLD is associated with gut dysbiosis, with characteristics including, a gain in potential bacteria and a loss in potential beneficial bacteria or genes. Further study of CHB, LC, and HCC based on microbiota may provide a novel insight into the pathogenesis of HBVCLD as well as a novel treatment strategy.

6.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 14542, 2019 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31601935

RESUMO

The standard high-flow tracheal (HFT) interface was modified by adding a 5-cm H2O/L/s resistor to the expiratory port. First, in a test lung simulating spontaneous breathing, we found that the modified HFT caused an elevation in airway pressure as a power function of flow. Then, three tracheal oxygen treatments (T-piece oxygen at 10 L/min, HFT and modified HFT at 40 L/min) were delivered in a random crossover fashion to six tracheostomized pigs before and after the induction of lung injury. The modified HFT induced a significantly higher airway pressure compared with that in either T-piece or HFT (p < 0.001). Expiratory resistance significantly increased during modified HFT (p < 0.05) to a mean value of 4.9 to 6.7 cm H2O/L/s. The modified HFT induced significant augmentation in end-expiratory lung volume (p < 0.05) and improved oxygenation for lung injury model (p = 0.038) compared with the HFT and T-piece. There was no significant difference in esophageal pressure swings, transpulmonary driving pressure or pressure time product among the three treatments (p > 0.05). In conclusion, the modified HFT with additional expiratory resistance generated a clinically relevant elevation in airway pressure and lung volume. Although expiratory resistance increased, inspiratory effort, lung stress and work of breathing remained within an acceptable range.

7.
Mol Cell ; 2019 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31564558

RESUMO

Intermediary metabolism in cancer cells is regulated by diverse cell-autonomous processes, including signal transduction and gene expression patterns, arising from specific oncogenotypes and cell lineages. Although it is well established that metabolic reprogramming is a hallmark of cancer, we lack a full view of the diversity of metabolic programs in cancer cells and an unbiased assessment of the associations between metabolic pathway preferences and other cell-autonomous processes. Here, we quantified metabolic features, mostly from the 13C enrichment of molecules from central carbon metabolism, in over 80 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines cultured under identical conditions. Because these cell lines were extensively annotated for oncogenotype, gene expression, protein expression, and therapeutic sensitivity, the resulting database enables the user to uncover new relationships between metabolism and these orthogonal processes.

8.
Circ J ; 2019 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31564697

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), a key determinant of extracellular matrix degradation, might cause cerebral damage after stroke and be involved in the development of depressive symptoms. This study aimed to evaluate the association of serum MMP-9 levels and post-stroke depression (PSD).Methods and Results:Serum MMP-9 levels were determined in 558 acute ischemic stroke patients from 7 hospitals comprising the China Antihypertensive Trial in Acute Ischemic Stroke. We assessed depression status using the 24-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale and defined PSD as a cutoff score of 8. Logistic regression was performed to estimate the risk of PSD associated with serum MMP-9. Discrimination and reclassification for PSD by MMP-9 were analyzed. A total of 222 (39.8%) stroke patients were categorized as PSD within 3 months. Serum MMP-9 concentrations were higher among PSD patients than those without PSD (658.8 vs. 485.7 ng/mL; P<0.001). The multiple-adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence interval) for the highest MMP-9 quartile compared with the lowest quartile was 4.36 (2.49-7.65) for PSD, and 1 standard deviation higher log-MMP-9 was associated with 68% (37-106%) increased odds of PSD. Adding MMP-9 to the conventional risk factors model substantially improved discrimination and reclassification for PSD (all P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Elevated serum MMP-9 levels in the acute phase of ischemic stroke were associated with increased risk of PSD, suggesting an important prognostic role of MMP-9 for PSD.

9.
Comput Math Methods Med ; 2019: 9250129, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31565070

RESUMO

Background: The aim of the study was to identify key long noncoding RNAs (lncRNA) and related subpathways in the periodontal ligament tissue following orthodontic force. Methods: We adopt a novelty subpathway strategy to identify lncRNAs competitively regulated functions and the key competitive lncRNAs in periodontal ligament disorders after undergoing orthodontic force. To begin with, patients with orthodontics in our hospital were enrolled in our research. The relationship of lncRNA-mRNA was established through shared predicted miRNA by using the hypergeometric test, Jaccard coefficient standardization, and the Pearson coefficient to determine the valid interaction relationship. After embedding screened lncRNA interactions to pathways, the significant subpathways were recognized by lenient distance and Wallenius approximation methods to calculate the false discovery rate value of each subpathway. Results: The lncRNA-mRNA intersections including 263 lncRNAs, 1,599 mRNAs, and 3,762 interacting pairs were obtained. The enriched mRNAs were further enriched into various candidate pathways such as the PI3K-Akt signaling pathway. Several subpathways were screened, including the PI3K-Akt signaling pathway, 04510_1 focal adhesion, and p53 signaling pathway, respectively. The network of pathway-lncRNA-mRNA was constructed. Several key lncRNAs including DNAJC3-AS1, WDFY3-AS2, LINC00482, and DLEU2 were screened. Conclusions: DNAJC3-AS1, WDFY3-AS2, LINC00482, and DLEU2 as aberrantly expressed lncRNAs involved in orthodontic force might play crucial roles in periodontal ligament disease pathogenesis.

11.
Inorg Chem ; 2019 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31566372

RESUMO

Heterogeneous catalysts facilitate various chemical reactions through the changing of their surface charge density. Herein, we demonstrate an interface engineering strategy to enhance the Ir catalytic performance for oxidation of CO by constructing Ir/CeO2 nanojunctions using a wet chemical reduction process. The as-prepared Ir/CeO2 nanojunctions show a complete CO conversion temperature (T100) of 110 °C under 1 vol % CO and retains long-term durability even after 24 h. The Ir atoms and CeO2 supports were connected by O atoms, which changes the surface electronic structure of Ir atoms. DFT calculations demonstrate that the significant increase in electron density at the interface between Ir and CeO2 plays a pivotal role in the enhancement of CO oxidation.

12.
J Proteome Res ; 2019 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31599150

RESUMO

Advancements in studies on the evolutionary mechanisms underlying bacterial antibiotic resistance are unclear. This study aimed to investigate the evolutionary mechanism underlying bacterial antibiotic resistance using iTRAQ-based quantitative proteomics along with functional validation. Quantitative analysis revealed 101, 325, and 428 differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) at three drug resistance levels (Low-R, 0.2 µg/mL; Medium-R, 5 µg/mL; High-R, 15 µg/mL). Continuous adjustment of metabolic patterns to enhance nucleotide synthesis and energy generation may underlie evolution. Indeed, nucleotide levels were elevated and strengthened ciprofloxacin resistance. Quorum sensing (QS) genes were upregulated in the early growth phase, thus potentially improving survival. Further, a thicker cell wall potentially serves as a stronger barrier and reduces drug permeation. The aforementioned three drug resistance levels displayed continuity and differences; the low resistant level displayed no prominent mechanism; medium, a more focused change in nucleotide metabolism; high, thorough evolution to a complete systematic mechanism with higher ATP levels, serving as a defense mechanism for reducing drug-induced stress. Thus, gradual increments in nucleotide synthesis, energy synthesis, cell wall synthesis, QS, and biofilm formation may direct the evolution of bacterial resistance.

13.
Nanoscale ; 2019 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31599909

RESUMO

Seeking novel superatoms with tunable electronic and magnetic properties has attracted much interest due to their potential application in cluster assembly nanomaterials. By employing density functional theory (DFT) calculations, the recently observed superatomic WC cluster was adopted as the basic unit to construct larger polymeric clusters, namely (WC)n (n = 2-7), and their structural evolution was explored to understand the growth pattern of these superatomic clusters into nanoscale materials. An unusual odd-even pattern in structural evolution was disclosed, in which the (WC)2 unit is considered as the basic building block. Moreover, W4C4 is found to possess a cubic structure, based on which the CO and PH3 ligands were attached to examine their ligation effects on W4C4. Theoretical results show that the electronic properties of W4C4 can be dramatically altered during the ligation process. Intriguingly, the continuous attachment of CO and PH3 ligands strongly increases and decreases the electron affinities (EA) and ionization potentials (IP) of the ligated W4C4 clusters, respectively, leading to the formation of superhalogen and superalkali species with high magnetic moments. The observed ligand induced strategy highlighted here could serve as an effective way to tune the electronic and magnetic properties of clusters resulting in the formation of novel superatoms. Finally, studies on the geometrical and electronic structures of the W4C4 cluster solid unveil its special 3-D cubic honeycomb geometry and metallic properties with predominant contribution from the 5d of W, which may have potential applications in electro-catalysis.

14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31591286

RESUMO

Objective: Numerous studies have proved the importance of Evidence-Based Medicine (EBM) in daily clinical practice, however, clinicians' attitudes play an important role in determining its implementation. The objective of this study was to investigate Chinese clinical physicians' perception of and attitude towards EBM and their Evidence-Based Practice (EBP) as well as the barriers towards EBP. Methods: Using a cross-sectional design, self-response questionnaires were distributed to clinical physicians (internal medicine and surgery departments) across three tertiary hospitals in Wuhan, China. Results: In total, 131 out of 195 (67.2%) physicians completed and returned the questionnaire. A total of 64.9% of the physicians either knew moderately or a lot about EBM. The mean score of physicians' attitude toward EBM was 2.35 ± 0.35, and that of their EBP skill/ competency was 1.51 ± 0.56 (on 0-3 Likert scale). In total, 76.0% of physicians often or sometimes applied EBM in routine daily practice. The largest barrier preventing implementation was the varying individual differences in diseases (61.0%), followed by a lack of investment from the hospital/department (39.8%), and a lack of patient cooperation (37.4%). Chinese physicians in tertiary hospitals possessed expressed positive attitudes towards EBM; however, they only retained a moderate level of clinical evidence competency. Both an individual factor (personal interest) and organizational factors (workload, hospital requirement) had an effect on physicians' attitudes and their EBP skills. Management and organizational efforts, in addition to time dedicated for EBP projects could help reduce barriers that prevent EBP.

15.
Mol Cell ; 2019 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31586547

RESUMO

The oxidative pentose phosphate pathway (oxiPPP) contributes to cell metabolism through not only the production of metabolic intermediates and reductive NADPH but also inhibition of LKB1-AMPK signaling by ribulose-5-phosphate (Ru-5-P), the product of the third oxiPPP enzyme 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6PGD). However, we found that knockdown of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), the first oxiPPP enzyme, did not affect AMPK activation despite decreased Ru-5-P and subsequent LKB1 activation, due to enhanced activity of PP2A, the upstream phosphatase of AMPK. In contrast, knockdown of 6PGD or 6-phosphogluconolactonase (PGLS), the second oxiPPP enzyme, reduced PP2A activity. Mechanistically, knockdown of G6PD or PGLS decreased or increased 6-phosphogluconolactone level, respectively, which enhanced the inhibitory phosphorylation of PP2A by Src. Furthermore, γ-6-phosphogluconolactone, an oxiPPP byproduct with unknown function generated through intramolecular rearrangement of δ-6-phosphogluconolactone, the only substrate of PGLS, bound to Src and enhanced PP2A recruitment. Together, oxiPPP regulates AMPK homeostasis by balancing the opposing LKB1 and PP2A.

16.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 2019 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31589234

RESUMO

Hybridisation of one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) materials to enhance charge storage has received considerable attention, but a fundamental understanding of the inherent ratio-dependent charge transfer mechanisms associated with the modulation of their molecular interactions is still within the community. Herein, we examined 1D surface oxidised carbon nanotubes (Ox-CNTs) and 2D reduced graphene oxide (rGO) to understand their ratio-dependent charge transfer and molecular interaction dynamics. We found that stepwise ultrasonication and the self-assembly process can control the thermodynamic molecular interactions, which result in rGO and Ox-CNT suspensions not only well dispersed in N,N-dimethylformamide but also self-organised into sandwiched nanoarchitectures. We reveal that the enhanced charge storage performance originated from the Ox-CNT-mediated low contact resistance between the active material and the current collector, and the incorporation of rGO leads to a significant ion diffusion coefficient and gives rise to numerous ion diffusion channels for high rate retention. Through a systematic electrochemical characterisation, we found that the GC5 : 5 hybrids (mass ratio of rGO to Ox-CNT) provide the best compromise-balance ratio between rGO and Ox-CNT for realising a champion energy density (9 W h kg-1) and power density (10 kW kg-1) beyond the state-of-the-art performance of the individual materials. Our results herald the advent of molecular level hybridisation of 1D-2D materials for high-performance electrochemical energy storage.

17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31486209

RESUMO

Surface recombination at the photoanode/electrolyte junction seriously impedes photoelectrochemical (PEC) performance. Through coating of photoanodes with oxygen evolution catalysts, the photocurrent can be enhanced; however, current systems for water splitting still suffer from high recombination. We describe herein a novel charge transfer system designed with BiVO4 as a prototype. In this system, porphyrins act as an interfacial-charge-transfer mediator, like a volleyball setter, to efficiently suppress surface recombination through higher hole-transfer kinetics rather than as a traditional photosensitizer. Furthermore, we found that the introduction of a "setter" can ensure a long lifetime of charge carriers at the photoanode/electrolyte interface. This simple interface charge-modulation system exhibits increased photocurrent density from 0.68 to 4.75 mA cm-2 and provides a promising design strategy for efficient photogenerated charge separation to improve PEC performance.

18.
Mol Cell Biol ; 2019 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31481451

RESUMO

Stress granules (SGs) are ribonucleoprotein aggregates that form in response to stress conditions. The regulation of SG dynamics is not fully understood. Permanent pathological SG-like structures were reported in neurodegenerative diseases such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. The Ras GTPase-activating protein-binding protein G3BP1 is a central regulator of SG dynamics. We found that the lysine 376 residue (K376) of G3BP1, which is in the RRM RNA binding domain, was acetylated. Consequently G3BP1 RNA binding was impaired by K376 acetylation. In addition, the acetylation-mimicking mutation K376Q impaired the RNA-dependent interaction of G3BP1 with PABP1, but its RNA-independent interactions with Caprin-1 and USP10 were little affected. The formation of G3BP1 SGs depended on G3BP1 RNA binding, thus replacement of endogenous G3BP1 with the K376Q mutant or the RNA binding deficient F380L/F382L mutant interfered with SG formation. Significant G3BP1 K376 acetylation was detected during SG resolution, and K376-acetylated G3BP1 was seen outside of SGs. G3BP1 acetylation is regulated by HDAC6 and CBP/p300. Our data suggest that the acetylation of G3BP1 facilitates the disassembly of SGs, offering a potential avenue to mitigate hyperactive stress responses in pathological conditions.

19.
Opt Express ; 27(15): 20583-20596, 2019 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31510149

RESUMO

In this paper, an effective wavelength detection approach based on long short-term memory (LSTM) network is proposed for fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensor networks. The FBG sensor network utilizes a model-sharing mechanism, where the whole spectral wavelength is divided into several shareable regions and spectral overlap is allowed in each region. LSTM, a representative recurrent neural network in deep learning, is applied to learn the features directly from the spectra of FBGs and build the wavelength detection model. By feeding the spectra sequentially into the well-trained model, the Bragg wavelengths of FBGs can be quickly determined under overlap. The obtained LSTM model can be repeatedly used without re-training to improve the multiplexing capability. The results demonstrate that the LSTM-based method can realize high-accuracy and high-speed wavelength detection in the spectral overlapping situations. The proposed approach offers a flexible tool to enhance the sensing capacity of FBG sensor networks.

20.
BMJ Open ; 9(8): e028803, 2019 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31471437

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To examine variation in outcomes, outcome measurement instruments (OMIs) and measurement times in clinical trials of non-valvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF) and to identify outcomes for prioritisation in developing a core outcome set (COS) in this field. DESIGN: This study was a systematic review. DATA SOURCES: Clinical trials published between January 2015 and March 2019 were obtained from PubMed, the Cochrane Library, Web of Science, Wanfang Database, the China National Knowledge Infrastructure and SinoMed. ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and observational studies were considered. Interventions included traditional Chinese medicine and Western medicine. The required treatment duration or follow-up time was ≥4 weeks. The required sample size was ≥30 and≥50 in each group in RCTs and observational studies, respectively. We excluded trials that aimed to investigate the outcome of complications of NVAF, to assess the mechanisms or pharmacokinetics, or for which full text could not be acquired. DATA EXTRACTION AND SYNTHESIS: The general information and outcomes, OMIs and measurement times were extracted. The methodological and outcome reporting quality were assessed. The results were analysed by descriptive analysis. RESULTS: A total of 218 articles were included from 25 255 articles. For clinical trials of antiarrhythmic therapy, 69 outcomes from 16 outcome domains were reported, and 28 (31.82%, 28/88) outcomes were reported only once; the most frequently reported outcome was ultrasonic cardiogram. Thirty-one outcomes (44.93%, 31/69) were provided definitions or OMIs; the outcome measurement times ranged from 1 to 20 with a median of 3. For clinical trials of anticoagulation therapy, 82 outcomes from 18 outcome domains were reported; 38 (29.23%, 38/130) outcomes were reported only once. The most frequently reported outcome was ischaemic stroke. Forty (48.78%, 40/82) outcomes were provided OMIs or definitions; and the outcome measurement times ranged from 1 to 27 with a median of 8. CONCLUSION: Outcome reporting in NVAF is inconsistent. Thus, developing a COS that can be used in clinical trials is necessary.

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