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1.
Eur J Neurol ; 2020 Mar 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32147879

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There are limited data on the association between uric acid (UA) and symptomatic intracranial haemorrhage (SICH) in patients who have undergone mechanical thrombectomy (EVT). In the present study, we aimed to investigate the role of serum UA level in SICH after EVT in a real-world practice. METHODS: Patients were selected from the Endovascular Treatment for Acute Anterior Circulation Ischemic Stroke Registry (ACTUAL). SICH was identified using the Heidelberg Bleeding Classification. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to explore the relationship between serum UA and SICH. RESULTS: Among 611 enrolled patients, 90 (14.7%) were diagnosed with SICH within 72 hours after EVT. Patients with SICH had a significantly higher level of serum UA (median, 341.0 µmol/L versus 302.0 µmol/L; P = 0.003) than those without SICH. Univariate logistic regression analysis indicated that patients with UA levels in the fourth quartile, compared with the first quartile, were more likely to have SICH (odds ratio, 2.846; 95% confidence interval, 1.429-6.003; P = 0.003). The association remained significant after multivariable adjustment for potential confounders. Furthermore, the multiple-adjusted spline regression model showed an inverted U-shape association between UA and SICH (P = 0.047 for nonlinearity). CONCLUSION: Our study indicated that increased serum UA level was independently associated with SICH after EVT in acute ischemic stroke.

2.
Curr Eye Res ; : 1-6, 2020 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32141346

RESUMO

Purpose: To evaluate the choroidal thickness (CT) in children with congenital aniridia in comparison with age-matched controls.Methods: This was a cross-sectional, observational study that included 64 eyes of 32 children with congenital aniridia (aged 5-12 years) and 80 eyes of 40 healthy subjects who were age-matched. In all subjects, subfoveal choroidal thickness (SFCT) was assessed at 750-µm intervals from the fovea to 1.5 mm in the temporal and nasal directions with spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT).Results: The mean SFCT was 207.67 ± 30.99 µm in the aniridic eyes. This SFCT was significantly thinner than that in control eyes (288.55 ± 30.06 µm) (P < .001). The SFCTs at 1.5 mm and 0.75 mm intervals in the temporal and nasal directions from the fovea were also significantly thinner in eyes with aniridia than control eyes (P < .001).There was a significant negative correlation between the SFCT and axial length in eyes with aniridia (B = -10.60, 95%CI = -19.31~-1.89, P = .017).Conclusions: The subfoveal and parafoveal CTs were significantly thinner in eyes with congenital aniridia than in control eyes. These choroidal changes could open up a new way for the research related to the pathophysiology of congenital aniridia.

3.
Dalton Trans ; 2020 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32129413

RESUMO

Luminescence thermal quenching of phosphors is one of the prominent problems in restricting their application in high-power LED devices. In the current work, tunable luminescence thermal quenching behaviors, including abnormal negative thermal quenching and normal thermal quenching, were demonstrated for Na3Sc2(PO4)3:Eu2+ phosphors tailored by phase transformation details. A series of ionic substitution schemes were employed to synthesize α-, ß- and γ-Na3Sc2(PO4)3:Eu2+ phosphors, which show discrepant phase transformations during heating. The thermal event associated with phase transformation is perceived to be responsible for the observations of abnormal negative thermal quenching performances, in view of the suppression of non-radiative paths by consuming thermal energy during the phenomenon of phase transformation. Our results provide an insight into the relationship between the thermal quenching behaviors and phase transformation details of the Na3Sc2(PO4)3:Eu2+ phosphor and offer a useful clue to exploit high thermal stability phosphors.

4.
Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces ; 190: 110910, 2020 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32126358

RESUMO

In this work, different concentrations of Se-incorporated mesoporous silica nanospheres (MSNs) (5Se/MSNs and 10Se/MSNs) were successfully synthesized via an in-situ one-pot method. Their physicochemical properties were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The release behaviors of Se and Si were investigated in a phosphate-buffered saline (pH = 5.5, 7.4) solution (PBS). In vitro antibacterial properties of the prepared samples were evaluated with Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and Escherichia coli (E. coli). The cytocompatibilities of the samples were then assessed using L929 cells. Se nanoparticles were successfully loaded onto the outer and inner surfaces of hierarchical mesoporous silica. The sizes of the Se/MSNs nanoparticles were approximately 120 nm for 5Se/MSNs and 210 nm for 10Se/MSNs. The XRD and XPS results showed that Se mainly existed in the form of Se0 in the samples. The Se/MSNs exhibited stable and sustained release of both Si and Se in PBS solution. In vitro antibactericidal tests indicated that the Se/MSNs could exhibit better antibacterial activity against S. aureus than pure Se nanoparticles after 6 and 24 h of culturing. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 10Se/MSN was 100 µg mL-1. However, the Se/MSNs exhibited no inhibitory effect on E. coli bacteria. Furthermore, all the samples exhibited excellent cell viability. These studies demonstrate initial in vitro antibacterial activity and good cytocompatibility of Se/MSNs and their potential application in antibacterial nanomedicine.

5.
BMC Complement Med Ther ; 20(1): 76, 2020 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32143612

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The embryos of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn seeds, lianzixin, are used in China as food and traditional herbal medicine. Principal therapeutic indications are insomnia, anxiety and pyrexia. Caffeine is a psychostimulant and excessive use predisposes to cell damage and neurotoxicity. We aimed to investigate the potential protect effect of Neferine and lianzixin extracts on undifferentiated caffeine-damaged phaeochromocytoma cells (PC12 cells). METHODS: A cell damage model based on undifferentiated PC12 was established with caffeine. Effect of Lianzixin extracts (total alkaloids, alcohol extract and water extract) and neferine on caffeine-damaged PC12 cells was evaluated. Cell viability was assessed using the methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) assay, cellular morphology by inverted microscope, the nucleus by Hoechst 33342 staining and cleaved poly ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP) expression by western blot analysis. RESULTS: Lianzixin extracts (total alkaloids, alcohol extract and water extract) and neferine improved the viability of PC12 cells damaged by caffeine. The morphology of PC12 cells pretreated with neferine, or alcohol or water extract of lianzixin aggregated and attached better than caffeine-damaged cells, but cells pretreated with total alkaloids of lianzixin showed abnormal morphology. Compared with caffeine-damaged cells, cells pretreated with neferine, or alcohol or water extract of lianzixin showed a notable increase in nucleus staining and an obvious decrease in cleaved PARP expression. CONCLUSIONS: Lianzixin extracts and neferine have protective effects against caffeine-induced damage in PC12 cells, which laid a foundation for finding a new medicine value of Lianzixin.

6.
Phys Rev Lett ; 124(2): 027601, 2020 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32004043

RESUMO

The transition metal thiophosphates MPS_{3} (M=Mn, Fe, Ni) are a class of van der Waals stacked insulating antiferromagnets that can be exfoliated down to the ultrathin limit. MnPS_{3} is particularly interesting because its Néel ordered state breaks both spatial-inversion and time-reversal symmetries, allowing for a linear magnetoelectric phase that is rare among van der Waals materials. However, it is unknown whether this unique magnetic structure of bulk MnPS_{3} remains stable in the ultrathin limit. Using optical second harmonic generation rotational anisotropy, we show that long-range linear magnetoelectric type Néel order in MnPS_{3} persists down to at least 5.3 nm thickness. However an unusual mirror symmetry breaking develops in ultrathin samples on SiO_{2} substrates that is absent in bulk materials, which is likely related to substrate induced strain.

7.
Environ Pollut ; 261: 114180, 2020 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32088438

RESUMO

Chinese dark tea is widely enjoyed for its multiple health-promoting effects and pleasant taste. However, its production involves fermentation by microbiota in raw tea, some of which are filamentous fungi and thus potential mycotoxin producers. Accordingly, whether mycotoxins pose health risk on dark tea consumption has become a public concern. In this study, a cleaning method of multi-functional column (MFC) and immunoaffinity column (IAC) in tandem combined to HPLC detection was developed and validated for determining ten mycotoxins of six groups (i.e., aflatoxins of B1, B2, G1 and G2, ochratoxin A, zearalenone, deoxynivalenol, fumonisins of B1, B2, and T-2) in dark teas. The interferences from secondary metabolites were effectively reduced, and the sensitivities and recoveries of the method were qualified for tea matrices. Six groups mycotoxins were determined in 108 samples representing the major Chinese dark teas by using the new method. Subsequently, the dietary exposure and health risks were evaluated for different age and gender groups in Kunming and Pu'er in China and Ulan Bator in Mongolia. The occurrence of zearalenone was 4.63% and that of ochratoxin A was 1.85%, with the other four groups mycotoxins were below the limits of quantification. The hazard index values for the five groups' non-carcinogenic mycotoxins were far below 1.0. The deterministic risk assessment indicated no non-carcinogenic risks for dark tea consumption in the three areas. Probabilistic estimation showed that the maximum value of 95th percentile carcinogenic risk value for the aflatoxins was 2.12 × 10-8, which is far below the acceptable carcinogenic risk level (10-6). Hereby, six groups mycotoxins in Chinese dark tea showed no observed risk concern to consumers.

8.
Perit Dial Int ; 40(2): 164-170, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32072873

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Exit-site infection (ESI) is a common complication in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. Clearly understanding the risk factors may be useful for the prevention of ESI. This study was to explore the prevalence and risk factors of ESI in incident PD patients. METHODS: We evaluated ESI in incident PD patients who had catheter insertion in our center between 1 January 2009 and 31 December 2013, with follow-up for 1 year. We collected data on demographics, clinical features, and nursing care methods of the exit site (ES). RESULTS: We recruited 1133 incident PD patients (687 male (60.6%); mean age 47.0 ± 15.1 years), and 245 (21.6%) had diabetes. Median follow-up was 12.0 months. One hundred and thirty-one patients had 139 episodes of ESI with a rate of 92.8 patient-months per episode (0.13 episodes per year). Coagulase-negative staphylococcus was the main pathogen, accounting for 33.8% of the ESIs. Gram-positive rods, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas, fungi, and other organisms accounted for 23.0%, 15.8%, 1.4%, 1.4%, and 2.9%, respectively. No bacterial growth was found in 15.1%. There were no differences in demographic and laboratory data (age, gender, primary kidney disease, hemoglobin, white blood cell, serum albumin, blood urea nitrogen, serum creatinine, and C-reactive protein) between the ESI and non-ESI groups. Poor competency of ES care, poor catheter immobilization, history of catheter-pulling injury, and mechanical stress on the ES were significantly associated with increased risk of ESI. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of ESI was 0.13 episodes per year. Poor competency of ES care, catheter mobilization, history of catheter-pulling injury, and mechanical stress by waist belt or the protective bag of PD on ES were risk factors for ESI.

9.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 81: 106229, 2020 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32014710

RESUMO

Suitable and efficient treatments for Henoch-Schönlein purpura nephritis (HSPN) with proteinuria remains unclear. Whether steroids combined with immunosuppressive agents improves prognosis compared to steroid therapy alone also remains controversial. This study explored whether combined therapy reduces proteinuria in HSPN patients with different pathological features. Chinese patients (n = 84) diagnosed with HSPN with proteinuria by renal biopsy between 2010 and 2019 were retrospectively studied. Patients were grouped into the steroid group (control) or the combined steroid and immunosuppressant group. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) (mL/min/1.73 m2/y) and proteinuria were measured. The primary outcome progression was analyzed using Kaplan-Meier survival curves. The effect of the combined therapy on renal outcome was analyzed by multivariable Cox regression. Propensity score matching and sensitivity analysis were used to explore whether pathological features impacted prognosis. Patients who received combined steroid and immunosuppressant therapy were more likely to recover from HSPN and had proteinuria <3 g/24 h (P = 0.02) or 1 g/24 h (P = 0.03). Multiple Cox regression analysis confirmed that this decrease was independent of renin-angiotensin system blockers. Further sensitivity analysis showed that combined therapy was effective in patients with crescents (P = 0.02). However, combined steroid and immunosuppressant therapy was not more effective in patients with endocapillary hypercellularity (E), tubular atrophy/interstitial fibrosis (T), or segmental sclerosis (S). Combined steroid and immunosuppressant therapy was significantly associated with HSPN remission, and more effectively decreased proteinuria during the initial disease phase.

10.
BMC Microbiol ; 20(1): 24, 2020 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32005152

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fusarium wilt of banana is one of the most destructive diseases in banana-growing regions worldwide. Soil-borne diseases and soil microbial communities are closely related. The screening of antagonistic bacteria from soil microorganisms in areas with Fusarium wilt of banana is of great practical significance for controlling this disease. RESULTS: A strain designated FS-4 was isolated from healthy banana rhizosphere soil in an area affected by Fusarium wilt. This strain exhibited a significant antagonistic effect on the pathogen. Pot experiments revealed that the fermentation broth of strain FS-4 not only decreased the incidence of banana Fusarium wilt, but also promoted the growth of banana seedlings. The strain was identified as Streptomyces ma. by its morphological, physiological, and biochemical characteristics and 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. The culture and fermentation conditions for this strain were optimized by single-factor and response surface experiments. The optimum culture conditions for Streptomyces ma. FS-4 were as follows: peptone 0.5%, saccharose 2.4, 0.05% K2HPO4, 0.05% MgCl2, and 0.05% NaCl at an initial pH of 7.0; 180 g at 28 °C; and inoculation size of 6% for 62 h. The diameter of bacteriostasis circle for Bacillus subtilis reached 26.7 mm. CONCLUSION: Streptomyces ma. FS-4 is an important microbial resource as a biological agent for the control of plant pathogenic fungi and can be used to promote banana growth.

11.
Cancer Imaging ; 20(1): 20, 2020 Feb 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32093786

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a radiomics nomogram for preoperative differentiating focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH) from hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in the non-cirrhotic liver. METHODS: A total of 156 patients with FNH (n = 55) and HCC (n = 101) were divided into a training set (n = 119) and a validation set (n = 37). Radiomics features were extracted from triphasic contrast CT images. A radiomics signature was constructed with the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator algorithm, and a radiomics score (Rad-score) was calculated. Clinical data and CT findings were assessed to build a clinical factors model. Combined with the Rad-score and independent clinical factors, a radiomics nomogram was constructed by multivariate logistic regression analysis. Nomogram performance was assessed with respect to discrimination and clinical usefulness. RESULTS: Four thousand two hundred twenty-seven features were extracted and reduced to 10 features as the most important discriminators to build the radiomics signature. The radiomics signature showed good discrimination in the training set (AUC [area under the curve], 0.964; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.934-0.995) and the validation set (AUC, 0.865; 95% CI, 0.725-1.000). Age, Hepatitis B virus infection, and enhancement pattern were the independent clinical factors. The radiomics nomogram, which incorporated the Rad-score and clinical factors, showed good discrimination in the training set (AUC, 0.979; 95% CI, 0.959-0.998) and the validation set (AUC, 0.917; 95% CI, 0.800-1.000), and showed better discrimination capability (P < 0.001) compared with the clinical factors model (AUC, 0.799; 95% CI, 0.719-0.879) in the training set. Decision curve analysis showed the nomogram outperformed the clinical factors model in terms of clinical usefulness. CONCLUSIONS: The CT-based radiomics nomogram, a noninvasive preoperative prediction tool that incorporates the Rad-score and clinical factors, shows favorable predictive efficacy for differentiating FNH from HCC in the non-cirrhotic liver, which might facilitate clinical decision-making process.

12.
Water Res ; 171: 115450, 2020 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31901684

RESUMO

Reclaiming abundant phosphorus from sewage sludge (SS) via pyrolysis for use as a fertilizer has gained increasing attention owing to the rapid depletion of global P reserves. In this study, the enhancement effect of Ca-based additives on sludge P transformation to hydroxylapatite through pyrolysis was systematically investigated. Three Ca-based additives were added in the pyrolysis of SS, and they were found to promote the conversion of sludge P to hydroxylapatite, which is bioavailable to plants. The characterization of the sludge-derived pyrochars indicated that the addition of 10% CaO, 5% Ca(OH)2, or 10% Ca3(PO4)2 facilitated peak hydroxylapatite production. The thermodynamic simulation of the production of hydroxylapatite during pyrolysis showed that these additives increased the enthalpy of the pyrolysis system. Furthermore, the pyrolysis with CaO addition had the lowest enthalpy, thereby suggesting that the addition of CaO during sludge pyrolysis was preferable for recovering sludge P in the form of hydroxylapatite. Moreover, the hydroxylapatite produced with these additives was unstable when the pyrolysis temperature was above 900 °C. The pot experiment demonstrated the feasibility using the sludge-derived pyrochars as P fertilizer for plant growth. Therefore, changing the Ca form and/or Ca/P ratio with the addition of Ca-based additives could be an effective strategy for reclaiming P from SS in the form of hydroxylapatite, and this demonstrates a pathway for global P sustainability by recycling P from P-abundant wastes.


Assuntos
Fósforo , Esgotos , Cálcio , Durapatita , Fertilizantes
13.
Artif Intell Med ; 102: 101780, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31980086

RESUMO

The general public's attitudes, demands, and expectations regarding medical AI could provide guidance for the future development of medical AI to satisfy the increasing needs of doctors and patients. The objective of this study is to investigate public perceptions, receptivity, and demands regarding the implementation of medical AI. An online questionnaire was designed to investigate the perceptions, receptivity, and demands of general public regarding medical AI between October 13 and October 30, 2018. The distributions of the current achievements, public perceptions, receptivity, and demands among individuals in different lines of work (i.e., healthcare vs non-healthcare) and different age groups were assessed by performing descriptive statistics. The factors associated with public receptivity of medical AI were assessed using a linear regression model. In total, 2,780 participants from 22 provinces were enrolled. Healthcare workers accounted for 54.3 % of all participants. There was no significant difference between the healthcare workers and non-healthcare workers in the high proportion (99 %) of participants expressing acceptance of AI (p = 0.8568), but remarkable distributional differences were observed in demands (p < 0.001 for both demands for AI assistance and the desire for AI improvements) and perceptions (p < 0.001 for safety, validity, trust, and expectations). High levels of receptivity (approximately 100 %), demands (approximately 80 %), and expectations (100 %) were expressed among different age groups. The receptivity of medical AI among the non-healthcare workers was associated with gender, educational qualifications, and demands and perceptions of AI. There was a very large gap between current availability of and public demands for intelligence services (p < 0.001). More than 90 % of healthcare workers expressed a willingness to devote time to learning about AI and participating in AI research. The public exhibits a high level of receptivity regarding the implementation of medical AI. To date, the achievements have been rewarding, and further advancements are required to satisfy public demands. There is a strong demand for intelligent assistance in many medical areas, including imaging and pathology departments, outpatient services, and surgery. More contributions are imperative to facilitate integrated and advantageous implementation in medical AI.

14.
Int Heart J ; 61(1): 145-152, 2020 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31956148

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of exendin-4 (Ex-4) on ventricular arrhythmias and calcium sparks-mediated calcium leak in a myocardial infarction-heart failure model.We studied the influence of exendin-4 on ventricular arrhythmogenesis in a rat myocardial infarction-heart failure model. In vivo arrhythmia studies (electrocardiogram [ECG] telemetry studies), ex vivo arrhythmia studies calcium sparks tests, and analysis of total and phosphorylated ryanodine receptor (RyR) 2 and CaMK-II were carried out in sham group, myocardial infarction (MI) group, MI + Ex-4 and MI + Ex-4 + Exendin9-39 (Ex9-39) groups.ECG telemetry studies showed an antiarrhythmic effect of exendin-4 with reduction of spontaneous ventricular arrhythmias. Exendin-4 abbreviated the APD90, which was longer in the heart failure model, and increase the APD alternans thresholds. Exendin-4 also reduced the susceptibility to burst pacing-induced arrhythmia ex vivo. Subcellular sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) calcium leak characteristics were tested in four groups of rat cardiomyocytes. Exendin-4 reduced calcium spark mass, spark frequency, and calcium leak, which may be due to reduced S2814-RyR2 and CaMK-II phosphorylation. Co-administration of exendin 9-39 with exendin-4 partly abolished the above-mentioned effect of exendin-4.These findings suggest that exendin-4 exerts an antiarrhythmic effect through decreasing SR calcium leak in spontaneous and burst pacing-induced ventricular arrhythmias, which may be due to reduced RyR2 phosphorylation and suppressed CaMK-II activity. Exendin-4 may act as a novel antiarrhythmic strategy in heart failure.


Assuntos
Arritmias Cardíacas/fisiopatologia , Exenatida/metabolismo , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Retículo Sarcoplasmático/metabolismo , Animais , Sinalização do Cálcio , Proteína Quinase Tipo 2 Dependente de Cálcio-Calmodulina/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Eletrocardiografia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/metabolismo , Masculino , Ratos , Canal de Liberação de Cálcio do Receptor de Rianodina/metabolismo
15.
World Neurosurg ; 2020 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31931252

RESUMO

This article retrospectively studies patients undergoing radiofrequency ablation of atrial fibrillation, analyses the characteristics of heart rate variability in patients, and explores the role of DE-MRI imaging and autonomic nerve function, changes in autonomic nerve function, and recurrence after radiofrequency ablation of AF To understand the effect of denervation of autonomic nerves on the efficacy of radiofrequency ablation of AF. The study found that there were no significant differences in clinical baseline characteristics, MeanHR, and HRV indicators between patients without relapse and those with relapse (P> 0.05). The overall HRV index was significantly reduced after surgery and before surgery; in the relapse-free group, the HF that responded to vagal tone was more significant, LF / HF increased, and other HRV indicators were significantly reduced; in the relapse group, MeanHR increased, and sympathetic response The LF of nerve tension was significantly reduced, and the LF / HF was decreased. The difference was statistically significant (P <0.05). Therefore, sympathetic and parasympathetic nerve function were significantly reduced after radiofrequency ablation of the pulmonary veins in patients with AF. Reducing vague nerve tension may inhibit early recurrence of left atrial ring pulmonary vein ablation in patients with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation.

17.
EBioMedicine ; 51: 102621, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31901869

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Approximately 1 in 33 newborns is affected by congenital anomalies worldwide. We aimed to develop a practical model for identifying infants with a high risk of congenital cataracts (CCs), which is the leading cause of avoidable childhood blindness. METHODS: This case-control study was performed in the Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center and involved 2005 subjects, including 1274 children with CCs and 731 healthy controls. The CC identification models were established based on birth conditions, family medical history, and family environmental factors using the random forest (RF) and adaptive boosting methods (trained by 1129 CC cases and 609 healthy controls), which were tested by internal 4-fold cross-validation and external validation (145 CC cases and 122 healthy controls). The models were also tested using 4 datasets with gradually reduced proportions of CC patients (bilateral cases) to validate their performance in an approximate simulation of a clinical environment with a relatively low disease prevalence. FINDINGS: The CC identification models showed high discrimination in both the 4-fold cross validation (area under the curve (AUC)=0.91 [95% confidence interval: 0.88-0.94] in bilateral cases; 0.82 [0.77-0.89] in unilateral cases) and external validation (AUC=0.93±0.05 in bilateral cases; 0.86±0.01 in unilateral cases), and achieved stable performance in the clinical tests (AUC=0.94-0.96 in the four subgroups by RF). Furthermore, family history of CC, low parental education level, and comorbidity were identified as the top three most relevant factors to both bilateral and unilateral CC diagnosis. INTERPRETATION: Our CC identification models can accurately discriminate CC patients from healthy children and have the potential to serve as a complementary screening procedure, especially in undeveloped and remote areas.

18.
Commun Biol ; 3(1): 22, 2020 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31925310

RESUMO

LXYL-P1-2 is one of the few xylosidases that efficiently catalyze the reaction from 7-ß-xylosyl-10-deacetyltaxol (XDT) to 10-deacetyltaxol (DT), and is a potential enzyme used in Taxol industrial production. Here we report the crystal structure of LXYL-P1-2 and its XDT binding complex. These structures reveal an enzyme/product complex with the sugar conformation different from the enzyme/substrate complex reported previously in GH3 enzymes, even in the whole glycohydrolases family. In addition, the DT binding pocket is identified as the structural basis for the substrate specificity. Further structure analysis reveals common features in LXYL-P1-2 and Taxol binding protein tubulin, which might provide useful information for designing new Taxol carrier proteins for drug delivery.

19.
J Glaucoma ; 29(1): 46-52, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31688374

RESUMO

PRéCIS:: The overall incidence of postoperative suspected glaucoma and glaucoma after congenital cataract surgery is low; however, the identification of the associated risk factors helps to monitor susceptible individuals and to provide real-time surveillance and timely intervention. PURPOSE: Pediatric patients who have undergone surgery for congenital or infantile cataracts have a risk of developing suspected glaucoma and glaucoma, but the current evidence does not address our understanding of the incidence and associated risk factors of suspected glaucoma/glaucoma for application in clinical standard care. Therefore, this study investigated the incidence of and risk factors for suspected glaucoma/glaucoma in patients who have undergone surgery for congenital/infantile cataracts. METHODS: This study used a prospective cohort of 241 eyes from 241 patients who were 10 years of age or younger and who had undergone congenital/infantile cataract surgeries and were recruited from January 2011 to December 2016 at the Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center. Pediatric patients who underwent cataract surgery were classified into 2 groups according to intraocular lens (IOL) implantation. The patients' baseline characteristics and the incidence and risk factors for suspected glaucoma/glaucoma were assessed. RESULTS: The incidence of suspected glaucoma after cataract surgery was 10.70% [26 of 241 eyes; 95% confidence interval (CI), 6.88%-14.70%]. The rate of suspected glaucoma developing into glaucoma was 26.92% (7 of 26 eyes; 95% CI, 9.87%-43.97%), and the incidence of glaucoma was 2.90% (7 of 241 eyes; 95% CI, 0.79%-5.03%). Our study revealed that the incidence of suspected glaucoma/glaucoma in patients who did not receive IOL implantation was 13.91% (21 of 151 eyes; 95% CI, 8.39%-19.42%), and the incidence in patients who received IOL implantation was 5.56% (5 of 90 eyes; 95% CI, 8.23%-10.28%). The preoperative central corneal thickness (hazard ratio, 1.003; 95% CI, 1.001 to 1.004; P=0.004) and a family history of congenital cataracts (hazard ratio, 2.314; 95% CI, 1.004-5.331; P=0.049) were significant risk factors in patients without IOL implantation. Patient age at the time of cataract surgery was not a statistically significant risk factor for the development of suspected glaucoma/glaucoma in patients without IOL implantation. CONCLUSIONS: Identification of the incidence of and risk factors for suspected glaucoma/glaucoma may help clinicians monitor susceptible individuals and provide timely surveillance and interventions in a clinical setting. Age at the time of cataract surgery was not a risk factor for suspected glaucoma/glaucoma in patients without IOL implantation, and this may allow the timing window for pediatric cataract surgery to be expanded and support new insights into the optimal timing of surgery for standard care.

20.
Clin Exp Nephrol ; 24(1): 73-81, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31605314

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Crescent formation in immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN) has been demonstrated to be a risk factor for worse outcomes. For IgAN patients with 0-25% crescentic glomeruli (C1), whether corticosteroids (CS) can improve the prognosis remains unclear. We tried to investigate the need for using CS in IgAN patients with C1 in different proteinuria levels. METHODS: A total of 120 eligible IgAN patients with C1 from two academic medical centers were retrospectively studied, and 57 (47.5%) received CS. Patients were grouped according to with or without CS. The outcomes were the rate of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) decline (ml/min per 1.73 m2/year) and a composite outcome (50% decrease in eGFR, end stage renal disease (ESRD) or death due to kidney disease). The progression of adverse outcome among them were analyzed in Kaplan-Meier curve. The independent significance of CS on renal outcome or eGFR decline rate were analyzed by multivariable Cox regression or linear regression. RESULTS: Unadjusted Kaplan-Meier showed that the outcome of treated patients was better than that of the untreated patients. Multiple Cox regression and linear regression analysis found that CS independently protected the renal outcome and decreased the eGFR decline rate. In the subgroup analysis, multivariate linear regression showed that CS decreased the eGFR decline rate both in proteinuria ≥ 1 g/day and < 1 g/day. CONCLUSIONS: CS protected the renal outcome and slowed the eGFR decline rate of IgAN patients with C1, it also decreased the eGFR decline rate even in those with initial proteinuria < 1 g/day.

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