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1.
Environ Health Prev Med ; 26(1): 72, 2021 Jul 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34253165

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Particulate matter (PM), a major component of ambient air pollution, accounts for a substantial burden of diseases and fatality worldwide. Maternal exposure to PM during pregnancy is particularly harmful to children's health since this is a phase of rapid human growth and development. METHOD: In this review, we synthesize the scientific evidence on adverse health outcomes in children following prenatal exposure to the smallest toxic components, fine (PM2.5) and ultrafine (PM0.1) PM. We highlight the established and emerging findings from epidemiologic studies and experimental models. RESULTS: Maternal exposure to fine and ultrafine PM directly and indirectly yields numerous adverse birth outcomes and impacts on children's respiratory systems, immune status, brain development, and cardiometabolic health. The biological mechanisms underlying adverse effects include direct placental translocation of ultrafine particles, placental and systemic maternal oxidative stress and inflammation elicited by both fine and ultrafine PM, epigenetic changes, and potential endocrine effects that influence long-term health. CONCLUSION: Policies to reduce maternal exposure and health consequences in children should be a high priority. PM2.5 levels are regulated, yet it is recognized that minority and low socioeconomic status groups experience disproportionate exposures. Moreover, PM0.1 levels are not routinely measured or currently regulated. Consequently, preventive strategies that inform neighborhood/regional planning and clinical/nutritional recommendations are needed to mitigate maternal exposure and ultimately protect children's health.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/induzido quimicamente , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/epidemiologia , Adulto , Poluição do Ar/prevenção & controle , Animais , Doenças Cardiovasculares/induzido quimicamente , Saúde da Criança , Pré-Escolar , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Doenças do Sistema Endócrino/induzido quimicamente , Epigenômica , Feminino , Humanos , Doenças do Sistema Imunitário/induzido quimicamente , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/induzido quimicamente , Estresse Oxidativo , Tamanho da Partícula , Placenta , Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez/epidemiologia , Doenças Respiratórias/induzido quimicamente , Adulto Jovem
2.
Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol ; 41(9): 2399-2416, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34289702

RESUMO

Objective: Vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) plasticity plays a critical role in the development of atherosclerosis. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are emerging as important regulators in the vessel wall and impact cellular function through diverse interactors. However, the role of lncRNAs in regulating VSMCs plasticity and atherosclerosis remains unclear. Approach and Results: We identified a VSMC-enriched lncRNA cardiac mesoderm enhancer-associated noncoding RNA (CARMN) that is dynamically regulated with progression of atherosclerosis. In both mouse and human atherosclerotic plaques, CARMN colocalized with VSMCs and was expressed in the nucleus. Knockdown of CARMN using antisense oligonucleotides in Ldlr−/− mice significantly reduced atherosclerotic lesion formation by 38% and suppressed VSMCs proliferation by 45% without affecting apoptosis. In vitro CARMN gain- and loss-of-function studies verified effects on VSMC proliferation, migration, and differentiation. TGF-ß1 (transforming growth factor-beta) induced CARMN expression in a Smad2/3-dependent manner. CARMN regulated VSMC plasticity independent of the miR143/145 cluster, which is located in close proximity to the CARMN locus. Mechanistically, lncRNA pulldown in combination with mass spectrometry analysis showed that the nuclear-localized CARMN interacted with SRF (serum response factor) through a specific 600­1197 nucleotide domain. CARMN enhanced SRF occupancy on the promoter regions of its downstream VSMC targets. Finally, knockdown of SRF abolished the regulatory role of CARMN in VSMC plasticity. Conclusions: The lncRNA CARMN is a critical regulator of VSMC plasticity and atherosclerosis. These findings highlight the role of a lncRNA in SRF-dependent signaling and provide implications for a range of chronic vascular occlusive disease states.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose/metabolismo , Plasticidade Celular , Músculo Liso Vascular/metabolismo , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/metabolismo , RNA Longo não Codificante/metabolismo , Fator de Resposta Sérica/metabolismo , Animais , Aterosclerose/genética , Aterosclerose/patologia , Linhagem Celular , Movimento Celular , Proliferação de Células , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Músculo Liso Vascular/patologia , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/patologia , Fenótipo , Placa Aterosclerótica , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , Receptores de LDL/deficiência , Receptores de LDL/genética , Fator de Resposta Sérica/genética , Transdução de Sinais
3.
Environ Manage ; 66(4): 709-721, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32725384

RESUMO

In recent years, the development of sewage treatment technologies has made many treatment options available in towns. Selecting the most appropriate alternative (MAA) can make the best use of existing resources to achieve the optimal effect, which has become a topical issue in academic circles. The Liao River basin in China is an important area for agricultural cultivation and animal husbandry, but it also suffers from water shortages and pollution. In this study, the fuzzy set theory (FST), the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP), and the Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to an Ideal Solution (TOPSIS) were combined as a scientific and effective multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) model to optimize the sewage treatment technologies in town areas of the Liao River basin. It was found that compared with natural treatment technologies (such as constructed wetlands, stabilization ponds, etc.) and combination technologies (i.e., a combination of various technologies), single small-scale sewage treatment plant technologies (such as activated sludge process or sequencing batch reactor with small daily capacity) were more suitable for those areas. The indicator of construction costs was critical in this model, and the fluctuation of its weight might change the MAA. This study aims to provide a decision support framework for the future optimization of sewage treatment technologies in towns by combining economic, environmental, and social issues, rather than just focusing on the technical aspects.


Assuntos
Lógica Fuzzy , Esgotos , Animais , China , Cidades , Rios
4.
Patient Prefer Adherence ; 14: 191-202, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32099337

RESUMO

Purpose: This study aimed to evaluate outpatient satisfaction in tertiary hospitals in Shiyan, China, to predict which items had highest priorities for outpatient satisfaction, and to identify population groups on which the medical institutions should focus. Patients and Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted at three tertiary hospitals in Shiyan city of China, from March to June 2018. An 18-item outpatient satisfaction questionnaire was applied. We conducted matrix analysis to describe the distribution of satisfaction score and the degree of influence of the items. Outpatient satisfaction was classified into the lowest and highest groups according to the 80/20 rule. Logistic regression model was used to identify demographic factors which might influence outpatient satisfaction. Results: A total of 2109 valid questionnaires were completed. The "waiting time", "diagnosis and treatment time" and "medical charges" items showed relatively higher degrees of influence but earned lower levels of satisfaction. Outpatients with a college level or above educational background (AOR=1.36, 95% CI=1.03-1.79) and with a family per-capita monthly income (FPMI)>7000 CNY (AOR=3.30, 95% CI=1.60-6.81) were more prevalent in the lowest satisfaction group. Outpatients with college level or above education background (COR=0.77, 95% CI=0.60-0.99), FPMI of 3001-5000 CNY (AOR=0.76, 95% CI=0.60-0.96), non-local residents (AOR=1.48, 95% CI=1.07-2.04), and urban workers with medical insurance (AOR=1.74, 95% CI=1.27-2.39) were more prevalent in the highest satisfaction group. Conclusion: The survey indicated that "long time to wait for treatment", "short treatment time", and "medical charges too expensive" were the top three aspects that need to be improved with priority by medical institutions. Education level, income level, residence and type of health insurance were the sociodemographic characteristics that significantly affect the outpatient satisfaction in tertiary hospitals. These factors need to be paid more attention by healthcare professionals to improve the patients' satisfaction.

5.
Toxicol Lett ; 321: 131-137, 2020 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31877331

RESUMO

Prior exposures to chemicals/agents may alter epigenome in such a way that subsequent exposure to the same or different xenobiotic would produce different responses. Understanding the mechanism for this "priming" effect is of clinical significance in avoiding adverse drug-drug interactions. Here we reported a dramatic priming effect of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) on pregnane X receptor (PXR)-mediated gene regulations and analyzed the underpinning epigenetic mechanism. We showed that DMSO (1.25-2.5 %) pretreatment has a profound effect in enhancing the expression of PXR target genes. This priming effect persisted up to 48 h. Mechanistically, DMSO pretreatment reduced H4K12 acetylation and therefore enhanced the subsequent rifampicin stimulated histone H4R3 methylation on the regulatory region of PXR target gene CYP3A4. We showed that protein arginine methyltransferase 1 (PRMT1), which methylates H4R3, was important for priming by DMSO. Inhibition of methyltransferase by the pharmacological inhibitor adenosine dialehyde (AdoX), or RNAi knockdown of PRMT1, abolished the DMSO priming effects. On the other hand, Trichostation A (TSA) pretreatment, which increases histone acetylation and therefore suppresses H4R3 methylation, also abolished the DMSO priming effects. Based on the above observation, we proposed a model of sequential order of histone methylation and acetylation on the transcription "relay".


Assuntos
Montagem e Desmontagem da Cromatina/efeitos dos fármacos , Metilação de DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Dimetil Sulfóxido/toxicidade , Epigênese Genética/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepatócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Histonas/metabolismo , Receptor de Pregnano X/agonistas , Acetilação , Pontos de Checagem do Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Citocromo P-450 CYP3A/genética , Citocromo P-450 CYP3A/metabolismo , Células Hep G2 , Hepatócitos/metabolismo , Hepatócitos/patologia , Humanos , Metilação , Receptor de Pregnano X/genética , Receptor de Pregnano X/metabolismo , Proteína-Arginina N-Metiltransferases/genética , Proteína-Arginina N-Metiltransferases/metabolismo , Proteínas Repressoras/genética , Proteínas Repressoras/metabolismo , Fatores de Tempo
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31817303

RESUMO

This study examined the cross-sectional association among a number of daily health-related behavioral risk factors and sleep among Chinese elderly. A sample of 4993 adults, aged 60 years and older, from the China's Health-Related Quality of Life Survey for Older Adults 2018 was included in this study. Five daily health-related behaviors, which included smoking, drinking, unhealthy eating habits, insufficient leisure activities, and physical inactivity were measured. Sleep disturbances and sleep quality were used to represent the respondents' sleep status. Multiple logistic regression models and multiple linear regression models were established. The odds ratios (ORs) of sleep disturbances for those with one to five health-related risk behaviors were 1.41 (95% CI = 1.11 to 1.78), 2.09 (95% CI = 1.66 to 2.63), 2.54 (95% CI = 1.99 to 3.25), 2.12 (95% CI = 1.60 to 2.80), and 2.49 (95% CI = 1.70 to 3.65), respectively. Individuals with one health-related risk behavior (B = 0.14, 95% CI = -0.23 to -0.06), two health-related risk behaviors (B = 0.21, 95% CI = -0.30 to -0.13), three health-related risk behaviors (B = 0.46, 95% CI = -0.55 to -0.37), four health-related risk behaviors (B = 0.50, 95% CI = -0.62 to -0.39), and five health-related risk behaviors (B = 0.83, 95% CI = -1.00 to -0.66) showed lower scores of self-perceived sleep quality. Having multiple health-risk behaviors was positively correlated with a higher risk of sleep disturbances among Chinese elderly. Moreover, elderly individuals with multiple health-related risk behaviors were significantly associated with poorer sleep quality.


Assuntos
Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/etiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Qualidade de Vida , Fatores de Risco , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/diagnóstico , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/epidemiologia
7.
Biochimie ; 165: 131-140, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31356846

RESUMO

Swainsonine is a major toxic ingredients of locoweed plants, ingestion of these plants may cause locoism in livestock characterized by extensive cellular vacuolar degeneration of multiple tissues. However, so far, the mechanisms responsible for vacuolar degeneration induced by SW are not known. In this study, we investigated the role of autophagy in SW-induced TCMK-1 cells using Western blotting, transmission electron microscopy, immunofluorescent microscopy and qRT-PCR. The results showed that SW treatment increased the levels of LC3-II. The co-localization of LC3-II and lysosomal protein LAMP-2 results suggested that SW treatment does not interfere with fusion between autophagosome and lysosome. TEM results indicated that SW induced aggregation of the lysosome around the autophagosome. In addition, SW treatment suppressed p-PI3K, p-Akt, p-mTOR, p-p70S6K and p-4EBP1 level. In conclusion, SW induced autophagy via pI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway and revealed the role of autophagy in causing the SW toxicity characterized by the vacuolar degeneration.


Assuntos
Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Epiteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Túbulos Renais/efeitos dos fármacos , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Swainsonina/toxicidade , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Células Epiteliais/patologia , Túbulos Renais/patologia , Transdução de Sinais
8.
Toxins (Basel) ; 11(1)2019 01 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30650580

RESUMO

T-2 toxin is a mycotoxin generated by Fusarium species which has been shown to be highly toxic to human and animals. T-2 toxin induces apoptosis in various tissues/organs. Apoptosis and autophagy are two closely interconnected processes, which are important for maintaining physiological homeostasis as well as pathogenesis. Here, for the first time, we demonstrated that T-2 toxins induce autophagy in human liver cells (L02). We demonstrated that T-2 toxin induce acidic vesicular organelles formation, concomitant with the alterations in p62/SQSTM1 and LC3-phosphatidylethanolamine conjugate (LC3-II) and the enhancement of the autophagic flux. Using mRFP-GFP-LC3 by lentiviral transduction, we showed T-2 toxin-mediated lysosomal fusion and the formation of autophagosomes in L02 cells. The formation of autophagosomes was further confirmed by transmission electron microcopy. While T-2 toxin induced both autophagy and apoptosis, autophagy appears to be a leading event in the response to T-2 toxin treatment, reflecting its protective role in cells against cellular damage. Activating autophagy by rapamycin (RAPA) inhibited apoptosis, while suppressing autophagy by chloroquine greatly enhanced the T-2 toxin-induced apoptosis, suggesting the crosstalk between autophagy and apoptosis. Taken together, these results indicate that autophagy plays a role in protecting cells from T-2 toxin-induced apoptosis suggesting that autophagy may be manipulated for the alleviation of toxic responses induced by T-2 toxin.


Assuntos
Fígado/citologia , Toxina T-2/toxicidade , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular , Humanos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos
9.
J Vis Exp ; (136)2018 06 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29985354

RESUMO

Exposure to certain environmental chemicals in human and animals has been found to cause cellular damage of the pancreatic ß cells which will lead to the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Although the mechanisms for the chemical-induced ß cell damage were unclear and likely to be complex, one recurring finding is that these chemicals induce oxidative stress leading to the generation of excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) which induce damage to the ß cell. To identify potential diabetogenic environmental chemicals, we isolated pancreatic islet cells from C57BL/6 mice and cultured islet cells in 96-well cell culture plates; then, the islet cells were dosed with chemicals and the ROS generation was detected by 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein (DCFH-DA) fluorescent dye. Using this method, we found that bisphenol A (BPA), Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), could induce high levels of ROS, suggesting that they may potentially induce damage in islet cells. This method should be useful for screening diabetogenic xenobiotics. In addition, the cultured islet cells may also be adapted for in vitro analysis of chemical-induced toxicity in pancreatic cells.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Células Secretoras de Insulina/metabolismo , Animais , Humanos , Células Secretoras de Insulina/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio , Xenobióticos
10.
Biochem Pharmacol ; 152: 94-103, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29577871

RESUMO

The metastasis-associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1 (MALAT1) is a long noncoding RNA and its overexpression is associated with the development of many types of malignancy. MALAT1 null mice show no overt phenotype. However, in transcriptome analysis of MALAT1 null mice we found significant upregulation of nuclear factor-erythroid 2 p45-related factor 2 (Nrf2) regulated antioxidant genes including Nqo1 and Cat with significant reduction in reactive oxygen species (ROS) and greatly reduced ROS-generated protein carbonylation in hepatocyte and islets. We performed lncRNA pulldown assay using biotinylated antisense oligonucleotides against MALAT1 and found MALAT1 interacted with Nrf2, suggesting Nrf2 is transcriptionally regulated by MALAT1. Exposure to excessive ROS has been shown to cause insulin resistance through activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) which leads to inhibition of insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1) and insulin-induced phosphorylation of serine/threonine kinase Akt. We found MALAT1 ablation suppressed JNK activity with concomitant insulin-induced activation of IRS-1 and phosphorylation of Akt suggesting MALAT1 regulated insulin responses. MALAT1 null mice exhibited sensitized insulin-signaling response to fast-refeeding and glucose/insulin challenges and significantly increased insulin secretion in response to glucose challenge in isolated MALAT1 null islets, suggesting an increased insulin sensitivity. In summary, we demonstrate that MALAT1 plays an important role in regulating insulin sensitivity and has the potential as a therapeutic target for the treatment of diabetes as well as other diseases caused by excessive exposure to ROS.


Assuntos
Insulina/farmacologia , RNA Longo não Codificante/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Animais , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Estresse Oxidativo , Carbonilação Proteica , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , Transdução de Sinais
11.
Toxicol Lett ; 275: 67-76, 2017 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28428138

RESUMO

Pregnane X receptor (PXR) plays an important role in protecting cells from mutagenic DNA damages induced by endogenous and exogenous toxicants. This protective function is often attributed to the PXR-regulated metabolic detoxification. Here we report a novel potential mechanism that PXR reduces benzo-[α]-pyrene(BaP)-induced DNA damage through inhibiting the transcriptional activity of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) which plays a pivotal role in the bioactivation of BaP. We have utilized three well-characterized cell lines, i.e. Hepa1c1c7, AhR +/+; Bpr lacks AhR obligatory partner ARNT; Tao, lacks AhR, to analyze pivotal role of AhR/ARNT complex in mediating the BaP-induced DNA damages using comet assay (single-cell gel electrophoresis). We found that PXR activation could significantly inhibit BaP-induced DNA damage in the HepG2 cells as well as mouse hepatocytes. Using PXR-null and wild type mouse hepatocytes we showed that PXR activation by pregnenolone 16α-carbonitrile (PCN) significantly inhibited BaP-induced DNA damage and this protective effect was abolished in PXR-null hepatocytes. Mechanistically, PXR activation inhibited expression of AhR-target genes for CYP1A1, CYP1B1 and CYP1A2 that are required for BaP biotransformation in cultured liver cells, or in the livers of C57BL/6J mice. Using an AhR-responsive reporter assay as well as chromatin immunoprecipitation assay we found that PXR activation transcriptionally represses AhR-regulated gene expression. Furthermore, we found that PXR directly bound AhR at its DNA-binding domain, and this association may play a role in preventing of the AhR from binding to its target genes as shown in the ChIP assay. Taken together, our study has revealed a novel mechanism by which PXR protects liver cells from BaP-induced DNA damage through inhibiting the BaP biotransformation.


Assuntos
Benzo(a)pireno/toxicidade , Citocromo P-450 CYP1A1/metabolismo , Dano ao DNA , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptores de Hidrocarboneto Arílico/metabolismo , Receptores de Esteroides/metabolismo , Animais , Técnicas de Cultura de Células , Ensaio Cometa , Citocromo P-450 CYP1A1/genética , Células Hep G2 , Hepatócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepatócitos/metabolismo , Humanos , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Receptor de Pregnano X , Receptores de Hidrocarboneto Arílico/genética , Receptores de Esteroides/genética , Transdução de Sinais
12.
Protein Pept Lett ; 24(5): 449-455, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28240159

RESUMO

This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of flavors on reproductive performance of sows and we also studied its effect on gut barrier function. Forty-eight Landrace × Yarkshire sows were randomly allotted and fed a basal diet added 0%, 0.05% or 0.10% flavor feed, respectively from parturition to day 28 of weaning. The results showed that supplementation of 0.05% or 0.10% flavors increased average daily feed intake (ADFI) of sows and average daily gain (ADG) of piglets, decreased the weight losses of sows, increased the survival ratio of weaning piglets (P < 0.05), especially shorten the post-weaning estrus interval significantly (P < 0.05). Supplementation of flavor additives tend to reduce the weight losses of sows and raise the survival ratio of piglet weaned (P > 0.05). Moreover, addition of flavors in diets reduced the intestinal permeability and enhanced digestibility of dry matter, crude protein, and energy (P < 0.05). Flavors supplementation significantly increased the level of gonadotropin releasing hormne (GnRH) of serum in sows after weaning. In conclusion, the results suggested that supplementation of dietary flavors could improve digestibility of nutrients and the reproductive performance of sows as well as the gut barrier function.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Suplementos Nutricionais , Lactação/fisiologia , Modelos Biológicos , Reprodução/fisiologia , Animais , Animais Lactentes , Feminino , Absorção Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Hormônio Liberador de Gonadotropina/sangue , Sus scrofa , Suínos , Ganho de Peso
13.
Curr Protein Pept Sci ; 18(6): 532-540, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27356940

RESUMO

Biogenic amines in the gastrointestinal tract are important metabolites of dietary protein and amino acids with the help of gut digestive enzymes and microbes, which play a crucial role in the regulation of intestinal functions, including digestion, absorption, and local immunity. However, high concentrations of biogenic amines can induce adverse reactions and are harmful to animal's health. Therefore, it is crucial to have a clear understanding of how different biogenic amines interact with a body's intestinal function signaling pathways and to monitor the content of biogenic amines in the gastrointestinal tract. And in turn, the proper concentration of dietary protein and balanced amino acids for humans and livestock could be given. Though numerous methods have been developed and improved for the detection of biogenic amines in foods or wines much less attention has been paid directly to the determination of amine levels in the gastrointestinal tract. In this article, we mainly focus on the interaction of amines with the intestinal function signaling pathway and the broad impacts on animal physiology, and our modified method to accurately and quickly detect the biogenic amines in the digesta of an animal intestine.


Assuntos
Aminas Biogênicas/metabolismo , Trato Gastrointestinal/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Aminas Biogênicas/análise , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Proteínas na Dieta/metabolismo , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo
14.
Curr Protein Pept Sci ; 16(7): 592-603, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26122779

RESUMO

The mammalian gut, the site of digestion and nutrients absorption, harbors diverse microbes that play an essential role in maintaining physiological homeostasis of the gastrointestinal system. These commensal microbes are important for the normal development of the host immune system and alteration of the microbiota of gastrointestinal system has been found to play an important role in the development of obesity, metabolic syndromes such as type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases. Several recent studies with mouse models and in humans have demonstrated that intestinal microbiota has important role in host metabolism by regulating energy absorption and modulating the endocrine functions. A variety of nutrients and metabolites derived from commensal bacteria have been proved to be important regulators in improving gut barrier functions and immune homeostasis. Here we review current literature on the interactions between microbes and host in the Gastrointestinal (GI) tract and based on these interactions we proposed a hypothesis in which the microbiota interacts with the host gastrointestine through a gut-brainendocrine- immune system. By understanding this system, we should be in better position to develop treatment for metabolic diseases and inflammation in human and animals.


Assuntos
Trato Gastrointestinal/imunologia , Interações Microbianas , Animais , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Trato Gastrointestinal/microbiologia , Humanos , Obesidade/metabolismo , Obesidade/microbiologia , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas G , Receptores de Reconhecimento de Padrão/fisiologia , Transdução de Sinais
15.
Arch Anim Nutr ; 69(1): 30-45, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25608731

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of particle size and drying methods of corn on growth performance of weaned piglets. Crossbreed weaned piglets (n = 192; Duroc × Landrace × Large White) were assigned to one of four treatments (2 × 2 factorial arrangement). All piglets were fed corn-soybean meal diets and treatments were (1) hot air-dried and coarsely ground corn, (2) hot air-dried and finely ground corn, (3) sun-dried and coarsely ground corn and (4) sun-dried and finely ground corn. The results showed that finely ground corn (FGC) improved the performance of piglets. Additionally, the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of gross energy (GE) and ether extract (EE) were increased by FGC, but the drying methods did not affect the performance of piglets or ATTD. Furthermore, smaller particle size significantly decreased the intestinal permeability, which was also not influenced by drying methods. FGC increased the total number of white blood cells, but not other blood parameters. Finally, the level of serum interleukin-1 was decreased by fine grinding and that of serum tumour necrosis factor α was decreased by sun drying. Conversely, these characteristics of weaned piglets can hardly have been affected either by the corn drying method or its interaction with grinding methods.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Dieta/veterinária , Digestão/fisiologia , Suínos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Zea mays/química , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Feminino , Intestinos/efeitos dos fármacos , Intestinos/fisiologia , Masculino , Suínos/sangue , Suínos/imunologia
16.
J Cell Physiol ; 230(4): 752-7, 2015 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25294580

RESUMO

The pregnane X receptor (PXR, NR1I2) is a ligand-activated nuclear receptor which plays an essential role in organism's metabolic detoxification system by sensing the presence of xenobiotics and triggering detoxification responses. In addition to its role in xenobiotic metabolism, PXR has pleiotropic functions in regulating immune/inflammatory responses, cell proliferation, bile acid/cholesterol metabolism, glucose and lipid metabolism, steroid/endocrine homeostasis, and bone metabolism. Recent research suggests that the PXR is required for maintaining healthy commensalism between microbiota and gut. Interestingly, the metabolites such as indole derivatives from commensal microbes serve as the ligands for the PXR in intestinal epithelium forming an intricate mutualistic interaction between host and microbiota. PXR-regulated gene responses are controlled at epigenetic level by chromatin modifications, DNA methylation and noncoding RNA. Developmental alterations of the epigenome by exposure to the xenobiotics or diseases may produce persistent changes in PXR-regulated physiological responses. These new areas of research promise to vastly increase our understanding of PXR-regulated responses. In this review we highlight recent results on the epigenetic mechanisms for the PXR-regulated gene expression and discuss the physiological significance of these findings.


Assuntos
Epigênese Genética/genética , Receptores de Esteroides/genética , Animais , Genoma , Humanos , Receptor de Pregnano X , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Xenobióticos/metabolismo
17.
J Anim Sci Biotechnol ; 5(1): 39, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25343026

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of supplemental magnesium (Mg) on the performance of gilts and parity 3 sows and their piglets. Fifty-six gilts (Trial 1) and 56 sows (Trial 2) were assigned to one of 4 treatments according to their mating weight, respectively. The treatments comprised corn-soybean meal based gestation and lactation diets (0.21% magnesium) supplemented with 0, 0.015, 0.03, or 0.045% Mg from mating until weaning. The results showed that magnesium supplementation significantly (P < 0.05) reduced the weaning to estrus interval in both gilts and sows. There were significant effects (P < 0.05) of supplemental magnesium on the total number of piglets born, born alive and weaned in sows. In late gestation and lactation, the digestibility of crude fiber (quadratic effects, P < 0.05), and crude protein (P < 0.05), were significantly influenced by magnesium in gilts and sows, respectively. There were differences among the 4 groups in terms of the apparent digestibility of dry matter and crude fiber in sows (P < 0.05) during both early and late gestation. The apparent digestibility of gross energy was increased for sows in late gestation (P < 0.05), and lactation (quadratic effects, P < 0.05). At farrowing and weaning, serum prolactin levels and alkaline phosphate activities linearly increased in sows as the Mg supplementation increased (P < 0.05). Serum Mg of sows at farrowing and serum urea nitrogen of sows at weaning was significantly influenced by Mg supplementation (P < 0.05). The Mg concentration in sow colostrum and the serum of their piglets were increased by supplemental magnesium (P < 0.05). In addition, growth hormone levels were linearly elevated (P < 0.05) in the serum of piglets suckling sows. Our data demonstrated that supplemental magnesium has the potential to improve the reproduction performance of sows, and the suitable supplemental dose ranged from 0.015% to 0.03%.

18.
Food Chem ; 162: 27-33, 2014 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24874353

RESUMO

This study performs a sandwich ELISA for detection of trace amounts of glycinin in soybean products. We designed a soy-free mouse model to produce anti-glycinin monoclonal antibodies with high affinity and specificity. Using the monoclonal antibody as coating antibody, with the rabbit anti-glycinin polyclonal antibody as a detected antibody, the established sandwich ELISA showed high specificity for glycinin with minimum cross-reactions with other soy proteins. The practical working range of the determination was 3-200 ng/mL with detection limit of 1.63 ng/mL. The regaining of glycinin in spiked soybean samples were between 93.8% and 103.3% with relative standard deviation less than 8.3% (intra-day) and 10.5% (inter-day). The developed assay was used in analysing 469 soybean samples and five soybean products under different processing. The assay provides a specific and sensitive method for screening of glycinin and allows for further investigation into hypersensitive mechanisms to soybean proteins.


Assuntos
Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/métodos , Globulinas/química , Proteínas de Soja/química , Soja/química , Animais , Anticorpos Monoclonais , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Coelhos
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