Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 371
Filtrar
1.
Chemosphere ; 280: 130627, 2021 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33964751

RESUMO

Serious harmful effects have been reported for thiophenols, which are widely used industrial materials. To date, little information is available on whether such chemicals can elicit endocrine-related detrimental effects. Herein the potential binding affinity and underlying mechanism of action between human transthyretin (hTTR) and seven halogenated-thiophenols were examined experimentally and computationally. Experimental results indicated that the halogenated-thiophenols, except for pentafluorothiophenol, were powerful hTTR binders. The differentiated hTTR binding affinity of halogenated-thiophenols and halogenated-phenols were observed. The hTTR binding affinity of mono- and di-halo-thiophenols was higher than that of corresponding phenols; while the opposite relationship was observed for tri- and penta-halo-thiophenols and phenols. Our results also confirmed that the binding interactions were influenced by the degree of ligand dissociation. Molecular modeling results implied that the dominant noncovalent interactions in the molecular recognition processes between hTTR and halogenated-thiophenols were ionic pair, hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions. Finally, a model with acceptable predictive ability was developed, which can be used to computationally predict the potential hTTR binding affinity of other halogenated-thiophenols and phenols. Taken together, our results highlighted that more research is needed to determine their potential endocrine-related harmful effects and appropriate management actions should be taken to promote their sustainable use.

2.
Environ Sci Technol ; 2021 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33914508

RESUMO

Chemicals may cause adverse effects on human health through binding to peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ). Hence, binding affinity is useful for evaluating chemicals with potential endocrine-disrupting effects. Quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) regression models with defined applicability domains (ADs) are important to enable efficient screening of chemicals with PPARγ binding activity. However, lack of large data sets hindered the development of QSAR models. In this study, based on PPARγ binding affinity data sets curated from various sources, 30 QSAR models were developed using molecular fingerprints, two-dimensional descriptors, and five machine learning algorithms. Structure-activity landscapes (SALs) of the training compounds were described by network-like similarity graphs (NSGs). Based on the NSGs, local discontinuity scores were calculated and found to be positively correlated with the cross-validation absolute prediction errors of the models using the different training sets, descriptors, and algorithms. Moreover, innovative ADs were defined based on pairwise similarities between compounds and were found to outperform some conventional ADs. The curated data sets and developed regression models could be useful for evaluating PPARγ-involved adverse effects of chemicals. The SAL analysis and the innovative ADs could facilitate understanding of prediction results from QSAR models.

3.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc ; 255: 119669, 2021 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33812239

RESUMO

Seven isatin-thiosemicarbazone analogues bearing different substituents (R) attached at C-5 of the indoline ring, TSC-ISA-R (R = -H, -CH3, -OCH3, -OCF3, -F, -Cl and -NO2), were synthesized and evaluated as inhibitors of mushroom tyrosinase (TYR). The inhibitory behaviour and performance of TSC-ISA-R were investigated spectroscopically in relation to the substituent modifications through examining their inhibition against the diphenolase activity of TYR using L-DOPA as a substrate. The IC50 values of TSC-ISA-R were determined to be in the range of 81-209 µM. The kinetic analysis showed that TSC-ISA-R were reversible and mixed type inhibitors. Three potential non-covalent interactions rather than complexation including the binding of TSC-ISA-R with free TYR, TYR-L-DOPA complex, and with substrate L-DOPA were found to be involved in the inhibition. The substituent modifications affected these interactions by varying the characters of the resulting TSC-ISA-R in different degrees. The thiosemicarbazido moiety of each TSC-ISA-R contributed predominantly to the inhibition, and the isatin moiety seemed to play a regulatory role in the binding of TSC-ISA-R to the target molecules. The results of theoretical calculations using density functional theory method indicated a different effect of -R on the electron distribution in HOMO of TSC-ISA-R. The LUMO-HOMO energy gap of TSC-ISA-R almost accords with the trend of their experimental inhibition potency.

4.
Environ Sci Technol ; 55(8): 4399-4409, 2021 04 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33769798

RESUMO

The atmospheric chemistry of isoprene has broad implications for regional air quality and the global climate. Allylic radicals, taking 13-17% yield in the isoprene oxidation by •Cl, can contribute as much as 3.6-4.9% to all possible formed intermediates in local regions at daytime. Considering the large quantity of isoprene emission, the chemistry of the allylic radicals is therefore highly desirable. Here, we investigated the atmospheric oxidation mechanism of the allylic radicals using quantum chemical calculations and kinetics modeling. The results indicate that the allylic radicals can barrierlessly combine with O2 to form peroxy radicals (RO2•). Under ≤100 ppt NO and ≤50 ppt HO2• conditions, the formed RO2• mainly undergo two times "successive cyclization and O2 addition" to finally form the product fragments 2-alkoxy-acetaldehyde (C2H3O2•) and 3-hydroperoxy-2-oxopropanal (C3H4O4). The presented reaction illustrates a novel successive cyclization-driven autoxidation mechanism. The formed 3-hydroperoxy-2-oxopropanal product is a new isomer of the atmospheric C3H4O4 family and a potential aqueous-phase secondary organic aerosol precursor. Under >100 ppt NO condition, NO can mediate the cyclization-driven autoxidation process to form C5H7NO3, C5H7NO7, and alkoxy radical-related products. The proposed novel autoxidation mechanism advances our current understanding of the atmospheric chemistry of both isoprene and RO2•.


Assuntos
Butadienos , Hemiterpenos , Aerossóis , Ciclização
5.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 13(9): 10845-10854, 2021 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33648335

RESUMO

Cross-dehydrogenative coupling (CDC) is an effective tool for carbon-carbon bond formation in chemical synthesis. Herein, we report a metal-organic framework (MOF) possessing dual Lewis acidic Cr sites and sulfonic acid sites (MIL-101(Cr)-SO3H) as an efficient catalytic material for direct cross-coupling of xanthene and different nucleophiles using O2 as the oxidant. The highly porous structure of MIL-101(Cr)-SO3H enables the free access of reactants to the catalytic active sites inside MOF pores. Kinetic studies indicated that the Cr sites of MOF accelerate the rate-limiting autoxidation reaction of xanthene, which synergistically work with the sulfonic acid group on MOF ligands in promoting the CDC reactions. Besides, the catalytic system shows excellent functional group compatibility, and a variety of valuable xanthene derivatives were synthesized with satisfactory yields. Furthermore, MIL-101(Cr)-SO3H can be reused and its catalytic activity and crystal structure remain after six consecutive runs.

6.
Environ Sci Technol ; 55(9): 6022-6031, 2021 05 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33565873

RESUMO

Parabens for which the molecules contain hydrolytic and ionizable groups, are emerging pollutants due to their ubiquity in the environment. However, lack of pKa and second-order base-catalyzed hydrolysis kinetics (kB) values limits their environmental persistence assessment. Herein, six parabens were selected as reference compounds for which the pKa and kB values were measured experimentally. A semiempirical quantum chemical (QC) method was selected to calculate pKa of the parabens, and density functional theory (DFT) methods were selected to calculate kB for neutral and anionic forms of the parabens, by comparing the QC-calculated and determined values. Combining the QC-calculated and experimental pKa and kB values, quantitative structure-activity relationships with determination coefficients (R2) being 0.947 and 0.842 for the pKa and kB models, respectively, were developed, which were validated and could be employed to efficiently fill the kB and pKa data gaps of parabens within applicability domains. The base-catalyzed hydrolysis half-lives were estimated to range from 6 h to 1.52 × 106 years (pH 7-9, 25 °C), further necessitating the in silico models due to the tedious and onerous experimental determination, and the huge number of hydrolyzable and ionizable chemicals that may be released into the environment.


Assuntos
Parabenos , Teoria Quântica , Catálise , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Hidrólise , Cinética
7.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 2037, 2021 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33479390

RESUMO

Transverse-tubules (T-tubules) play pivotal roles in Ca2+-induced, Ca2+ release and excitation-contraction coupling in cardiomyocytes. The purpose of this study was to uncover mechanisms where sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ ATPase (SERCA2a) improved cardiac function through T-tubule regulation during myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R). SERCA2a protein expression, cytoplasmic [Ca2+]i, calpain activity, junctophilin-2 (JPH2) protein expression and intracellular localization, cardiomyocyte T-tubules, contractility and calcium transients in single cardiomyocytes and in vivo cardiac functions were all examined after SERCA2a knockout and overexpression, and Calpain inhibitor PD150606 (PD) pretreatment, following myocardial I/R. This comprehensive approach was adopted to clarify SERCA2a mechanisms in improving cardiac function in mice. Calpain was activated during myocardial I/R, and led to the proteolytic cleavage of JPH2. This altered the T-tubule network, the contraction function/calcium transients in cardiomyocytes and in vivo cardiac functions. During myocardial I/R, PD pretreatment upregulated JPH2 expression and restored it to its intracellular location, repaired the T-tubule network, and contraction function/calcium transients of cardiomyocytes and cardiac functions in vivo. SERCA2a suppressed calpain activity via [Ca2+]i, and ameliorated these key indices. Our results suggest that SERCA2a ameliorates cardiomyocyte T-tubule remodeling via the calpain/JPH2 pathway, thereby improving cardiac function in myocardial I/R mice.

8.
Water Res ; 192: 116857, 2021 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33517044

RESUMO

Dissolved organic matter (DOM) is a ubiquitous component in effluents, DOM discharged with an effluent can affect the composition and properties of natural DOM in the receiving waters. As the photophysical and photochemical properties of effluent DOM can be changed by wastewater treatment processes, the effect of UV/chlorine treatment on the photophysical and photochemical properties of DOM was investigated using Suwannee River fulvic acid (SRFA) and Suwannee River natural organic matter (SRNOM) as representatives. Results showed that the absorbance of the two DOM was significantly decreased. The evolution trends of three representative photophysical parameters upon increase of chlorine dosages were observed. Also, a decrease in DOM aromaticity, molecular weight and electron-donating capacity was observed upon increasing chlorine dosage. Quantum yields of excited triplet state of DOM (3DOM*), singlet oxygen (1O2) and hydroxyl radicals (·OH) first decreases and then increased in the UV/chlorine systems upon increasing chlorine dosages due to the different reaction pathways of the two DOM. Moreover, 3DOM* can not only be regarded as a "controller" of other reactive intermediates, but also effectively promote the photodegradation of bezafibrate, which is classified as a persistent organic contaminant. This study gives deep insights into effects of UV/chlorine on the photophysical and photochemical properties of DOM, and is helpful for understanding the dynamic roles of DOM in the photodegradation of micropollutants.


Assuntos
Poluentes Químicos da Água , Purificação da Água , Cloro , Radical Hidroxila , Fotólise , Rios
9.
Chemosphere ; 273: 129207, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33349467

RESUMO

Tertiary amines are one kind of identified amines in the atmosphere. Here, the atmospheric oxidation mechanism and kinetics of tertiary amines were investigated by using computational methods. As proxies of these amines, trimethylamine (TMA) and triethylamine (TEA) have been selected. Results indicate that N-containing peroxy radicals (NRO2⋅), which are key intermediates in ⋅OH initiated oxidation of TMA and TEA, can follow a so-called autoxidation mechanism (a chain reaction of H-shift followed by O2 addition) even on the condition of high NO/HO2⋅ concentration. Such unique mechanism can be ascribed to the ability of N-atom in facilitating the unimolecular H-shift of NRO2⋅ and the absence of H-atoms on N-atom. However, different from TMA reaction system, the pathway dissociating into fragmental products can compete with the autoxidation pathway for TEA system. More importantly, TEA reaction system cannot lead to the formation of products with high O/C ratio due to the autoxidation pathway terminated by the release of fragmental molecules. Such difference can be corroborated by previously observing lower secondary organic aerosol yield of TEA oxidation than that of TMA oxidation. The unveiled mechanism enhances current understanding on atmospheric fate of amines and autoxidation mechanism.


Assuntos
Aminas , Atmosfera , Aerossóis , Cinética , Oxirredução
10.
Water Res ; 188: 116568, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33137523

RESUMO

Coastal seawater constitutes an important ecosystem receiving inputs of organic micropollutants (OMPs) such as sulfa antibiotics from land-based sources or mariculture activities. It is necessary to investigate photodegradation of OMPs in coastal seawaters for assessing their environmental fate and risks. However, effects of coastal seawater dissolved organic matter (S-DOM) on OMPs photodegradation are largely unknown, given that chemical compositions of S-DOM are different from those of freshwater DOM. Herein, photochemical characteristics of S-DOM extracted from Dalian coastal seawaters were investigated by simulating photochemical experiment adopting sulfachloropyridazine as a case. Results show that S-DOM accelerates the photodegradation mainly through excited triplet-state DOM (3DOM*) with an apparent rate constant (4.43 × 108 M-1 s-1) ten folds of that of freshwater DOM, which is mainly due to much lower phenol contents detected in the S-DOM (0.022 mg-Gallic acid mg-C-1). The S-DOM impacted by mariculture can photogenerate more high-energy 3DOM* than those less impacted by mariculture, further contributing to the high 3DOM* reactivity. The study shows that to accurately predict photolytic persistence of OMPs in field water bodies, it is of significance to determine the second-order reaction rate constants between 3DOM* and target OMPs using DOM extracted from relevant water bodies.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Fenóis , Fotólise , Água do Mar
11.
J Hazard Mater ; 408: 124845, 2021 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33360699

RESUMO

Persulfate-based chemical oxidation of petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs) in soils usually varies drastically with soil sites. Complex effects of soil components on persulfate oxidation of TPHs remains poorly understood, impeding the understanding of persulfate oxidation in practical systems. Here we provided empirical evidence for the interrelated effects of natural soils components and target TPHs on persulfate oxidation of TPHs. Inputs of TPHs led to notable alterations of organic matter, minerals and pH of soils, which in turn influenced distributions and availability of TPHs in soils. These soil/TPH properties and oxidant dose constituted five interrelated terms that were used to develop a predictive model of persulfate oxidation of TPHs. Such interrelation accounted for ilmenite-base coupling activation of persulfate oxidation, Fe/Mn mineral activation of persulfate oxidation, chemical oxidant demand of soils, mass transfer-reactivity limiting of TPHs, and applicable parameters of persulfate oxidation, respectively. The interrelation-based model of persulfate oxidation of TPHs displayed high predictive accuracy of 43% for a factor of 0.3 above and below the ideal fit, despite large differences in contaminated sites and applicable parameters. This finding may have practical interests in the optimization of persulfate oxidation.

12.
Chemosphere ; 268: 129343, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33359989

RESUMO

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous environmental pollutants associated with adverse human effects including cancer, and the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a key ligand-activated transcription factor mediating their toxicity. However, there is presently a lack of data on AhR potencies of PAHs. Simple, transparent, interpretable and predictive quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) models are helpful, especially with the consideration of freely dissolved concentrations linked to bioavailability. Here, QSAR models on AhR-mediated luciferase activity of PAHs were developed with nominal median effect concentrations (EC50, nom) and freely dissolved concentration (EC50, free) as endpoints, and quantum chemical and Dragon descriptors as predictor variables. Results indicated that only the EC50, free model met the acceptable criteria of QSAR model (determination coefficient (R2) > 0.600, leave-one-out cross validation (QLOO2) > 0.500, and external validation coefficient (QEXT2) > 0.500), implying that it has good goodness-of-fit, robustness and external predictive power. Molecular polarizability and aromaticity index reflecting the partition behavior and intermolecular interactions can effectively predict AhR-mediated potencies of PAHs. The results highlight the necessity of adoption of the freely dissolved concentration in the QSAR modeling and more in silico models need to be further developed for different animal models (in vivo or in vitro).


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Animais , Humanos , Luciferases , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/toxicidade , Relação Quantitativa Estrutura-Atividade , Receptores de Hidrocarboneto Arílico/metabolismo
13.
Front Cell Dev Biol ; 8: 611222, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33304907

RESUMO

Colon cancer is one of the most common cancers, great progress was taken place in the treatment of colon cancer, however, the prognostic assessment system remains lagging. Cell cycle plays a vital role in the whole procedure of cancers. In this study, we firstly identified cell cycle-related genes specific in colon cancer. Functional enrichment analysis proved our analysis reliable. Furthermore, we constructed a robust signature based on the cell cycle-related genes. The AUC of the signature to predict the overall survival was 0.808, 0.807, and 0.831 of AUC at 1, 3, and 5 years, respectively. Internal and external validation proved the signature efficient. The 9 genes involved in the signature also showed a great job in molecular subgrouping which indicated the significant value of the 9 genes for further experimental research. In conclusion, the present research provided a novel robust signature predicting the prognosis of colon cancer.

14.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2020: 4828256, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33149810

RESUMO

Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a progressive, irreversible lung disease of unknown etiology with limited survival. IPF incidence and prevalence increase significantly with aging, which is associated with an age-related accumulation of oxidative DNA damage. The Mutyh gene is involved in the base excision repair (BER) system, which is critical for repairing the misincorporated adenine that is opposite to the oxidized guanine base, 8-oxoguanine, and maintaining the fidelity of DNA replication. We used Mutyh knockout mice and a bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis model to test the effect of MUTYH deficiency on lesion progression. Unexpectedly, a much less severe lesion of pulmonary fibrosis was observed in Mutyh -/- than in Mutyh +/+ mice, which was supported by assay on protein levels of TGF-ß1 and both fibrotic markers, α-SMA and Vimentin, in pulmonary tissues of the model animals. Mechanically, MUTYH deficiency prevented the genomic DNA of pulmonary tissue cells from the buildup of single-strand breaks (SSBs) of DNA and maintained the integrity of mtDNA. Furthermore, increased mitochondrial dynamic regulation and mitophagy were detected in pulmonary tissues of the bleomycin-induced Mutyh -/- model mice, which could reduce the pulmonary epithelial cell apoptosis. Our results suggested that MUTYH deficiency could even induce protective responses of pulmonary tissue under severe oxidative stress.

15.
Ann Surg ; 2020 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33214446

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of the addition of preoperative hepatic and regional arterial chemotherapy (PHRAC) on prognosis of stage II and III colorectal cancer (CRC) in a multicenter setting. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Our previous single-center pilot trial suggested that PHRAC in combination with surgical resection could reduce the occurrence of liver metastasis (LM) and improve survival in CRC patients. METHODS: A prospective multi-center randomized controlled trial was conducted from December 2008 to December 2012 at 5 hospitals in China. Eligible patients with clinical stage II or III CRC who underwent curative resection were randomized to receive PHRAC plus adjuvant therapy (PHRAC arm) or adjuvant therapy alone (control arm). The primary endpoint was disease-free survival (DFS). Secondary endpoints were cumulative LM rates, overall survival (OS) and safety (NCT00643877). RESULTS: A total of 688 patients from 5 centers in China were randomly assigned (1:1) to each arm. The five-year DFS rate was 77% in the PHRAC arm and 65% in the control arm (HR = 0.61, 95% CI 0.46 to 0.81; P = 0.001). The five-year LM rates were 7% and 16% in the PHRAC and control arms, respectively (HR = 0.37, 95% CI 0.22 to 0.63; P < 0.001). The five-year OS rate was 84% in the PHRAC arm and 76% in the control arm (HR = 0.61, 95% CI 0.43 to 0.86; P = 0.005). There were no significant differences regarding treatment related morbidity or mortality between the two arms. CONCLUSIONS: The addition of PHRAC could improve DFS in patients with stage II and III CRC. It reduced the incidence of LM and improved OS without compromising patient safety. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00643877.

16.
Neurotoxicology ; 2020 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33115663

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lead exposure is one of the most concerning public health problems worldwide, particularly among children. Yet the impact of chronic lead exposure on the thyroid status and related intelligence quotient performance among school-age children remained elusive. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of lead exposure on the thyroid hormones, amino acid neurotransmitters balances, and intelligence quotient (IQ) among school-age children living nearby a lead-zinc mining site. Other factors such as rice lead levels, mothers' smoking behavior, and diet intake were also investigated. METHODS: A total of 255 children aged 7-12 years old were recruited in this study. Blood lead level (BLL), thyroid hormones including free triiodothyronine (FT3), free thyroxine (FT4) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), and amino acid neurotransmitters such as glutamate (Glu), glutamine (Gln), and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) were measured using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy (GFAAS), chemiluminescence immunoassay, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Raven's standard progressive matrices (SPM) and the questionnaire were used to determine IQ and collect related influence factors. RESULTS: The average BLL of children was 84.8 µg/L. The occurrence of lead intoxication (defined as the BLL ≥ 100 µg/L) was 31.8%. Serum TSH levels and IQ of lead-intoxicated children were significantly lower than those without lead toxicity. The GABA level of girls with the lead intoxication was higher than those with no lead-exposed group. Correlation analyses revealed that BLL were inversely associated with the serum TSH levels (R= -0.186, p < 0.05), but positively related with IQ grades (R = 0.147, p < 0.05). Moreover, BLL and Glu were inversely correlated with IQ. In addition, this study revealed four factors that may contribute to the incidence of lead intoxication among children, including the frequency of mother smoking (OR = 3.587, p < 0.05) and drinking un-boiled stagnant tap water (OR = 3.716, p < 0.05); eating fresh fruits and vegetables (OR = 0.323, p < 0.05) and soy products regularly (OR = 0.181, p < 0.05) may protect against lead intoxication. CONCLUSION: Lead exposure affects the serum TSH, GABA levels and IQ of school-aged children. Developing good living habits, improving environment, increasing the intake of high-quality protein and fresh vegetable and fruit may improve the condition of lead intoxication.

17.
Environ Sci Technol ; 54(21): 13498-13508, 2020 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33091300

RESUMO

Atmospheric amines can enhance methanesulfonic acid (MSA)-driven new particle formation (NPF), but the mechanism is fundamentally different compared to that of the extensively studied sulfuric acid (SA)-driven process. Generally, the enhancing potentials of amines in SA-driven NPF follow the basicity, while this is not the case for MSA-driven NPF, where structural effects dominate, making MSA-driven NPF more prominent for methylamine (MA) compared to dimethylamine (DMA). Therefore, probing structural factors determining the enhancing potentials of amines on MSA-driven NPF is key to fully understanding the contribution of MSA to NPF. Here, we performed a comparative study on DMA and MA enhancing MSA-driven NPF by examining cluster formation using computational methods. The results indicate that DMA-MSA clusters are more stable than the corresponding MA-MSA clusters for cluster sizes up to (DMA)2(MSA)2, indicating that the basicity of amines dominates the initial cluster formation. The methyl groups of DMA were found to present significant steric hindrance beyond the (DMA)2(MSA)2 cluster and this adds to the lower hydrogen bonding capacity of DMA, making the cluster growth less favorable compared to MA. This study implies that several amines could synergistically enhance MSA-driven NPF by maximizing the advantage of different amines in different amine-MSA cluster growth stages.

18.
Environ Health Perspect ; 128(10): 107010, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33124919

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Groundwater is a main drinking-water source for Chinese rural residents. The overall pollution status of organic micropollutants (OMPs) and metals in the groundwater and corresponding health risks are unknown. OBJECTIVES: Our objective was to comprehensively screen for and assess the health risks of OMPs and metals in groundwater of rural areas in China where groundwater is used for drinking so as to provide a benchmark for monitoring and improving groundwater quality in future developments. METHODS: One hundred sixty-six groundwater samples were collected in the rural areas of China, and 1,300 OMPs and 25 metals were screened by GC-MS, LC-QTOF/MS, and ICP-MS analysis. To assess the noncarcinogenic and carcinogenic risks of the detected pollutants, missing toxicity threshold values were extrapolated from existing databases or predicted by quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) models. Monte Carlo simulation was performed to account for uncertainties in the exposure parameters and toxicity thresholds. RESULTS: Two hundred thirty-three OMPs and 25 metals were detected from the 166 samples. The concentration summation for the detected OMPs ranged from 2.9 to 1.7×105ng/L among the different sampling sites. Cumulative noncarcinogenic risks for the OMPs were estimated to be negligible. However, high metal risks were calculated in 23% of the sites. Forty-two carcinogens (including 38 OMPs) were identified and the cumulative carcinogenic risks in 34% of the sites were calculated to be >10-4 (i.e., one excess cancer case in a population of 10 thousand people). The carcinogenic risks were estimated to be mainly associated with exposures to the metals, which were calculated to contribute 79% (0-100%) of the cumulative carcinogenic risks. DISCUSSION: The overall status of OMPs and metals pollution in the groundwater and the corresponding health risks were determined preliminarily, which may provide a benchmark for future efforts in China to ensure the safety of drinking water for the local residents in rural areas. The joint application of QSARs and Monte Carlo simulation provided a feasible way to comprehensively assess the health risks of the large and ever-increasing number of pollutants detected in the aquatic environment. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP6483.

19.
Sci Total Environ ; : 142891, 2020 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33109368

RESUMO

Wetlands have attracted much attention due to releases of organophosphate esters (OPEs) and other emerging contaminants into this particular environment. Here, Suaeda salsa plants and wetland soils collected from Laizhou Bay, North China, were analyzed to investigate the levels, distribution, and soil-plant transfer of OPEs in these ecosystems. The Σ18OPEs concentrations ranged from 137 to 386 ng/g dry weight (dw), whereas in rhizosphere the concentrations were between 99.8 and 198 ng/g dw. Suaeda salsa rhizosphere could promote the absorption of OPEs in wetlands, and Suaeda salsa root presents a greater rate of absorption. The Σ18OPEs concentrations ranged from 32.9 to 56.8 ng/g dw in roots, 3.93 to 7.51 ng/g dw in stems, and 2.79 to 4.06 ng/g dw in leaves. Log RCFs, log TFr-s and log TFs-l showed no significant correlations with their log KOW, indicating the complexity of uptake and translocation in the natural environment. Predictive model for the OPEs availability to Suaeda salsa was established from the experimental data. The field-based BCFs of all OPEs were dependent on KOW, decreased with increasing KOW. This study provides important insights into the phytoremediation potential of OPEs using Suaeda salsa as an effective strategy and their role in environmental risk assessment of OPEs in wetlands.

20.
Environ Sci Technol ; 54(20): 13175-13185, 2020 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32985863

RESUMO

Extensive application of antibiotics leads to their ubiquitous occurrence in coastal aquatic environments. However, it remains largely unknown whether antibiotics can be bioaccumulated and biotransformed in major mariculture organisms such as sea cucumbers and toxicokinetic models for Echinodermata are lacking. In this study, laboratory exposure experiments on juvenile sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus) were performed for seven antibiotics (sulfadiazine, sulfamethoxazole, trimethoprim, enrofloxacin, ofloxacin, clarithromycin, and azithromycin). Field sea cucumber and surrounding seawater samples were also analyzed. Results show that the sea cucumbers tend to accumulate high concentrations of the antibiotics with kinetic bioconcentration factors (BCFs) up to 1719.7 L·kg-1 for ofloxacin. The BCFs determined in the laboratory agree well with those estimated from the field measurements. Seven biotransformation products (BTPs) of the antibiotics were identified, four of which were not reported previously in aquatic organisms. The BTPs were mainly found in the digestive tract, indicating its high capacity in the biotransformation. A multicompartmental toxicokinetic model based on the principles of passive diffusion was developed, which can successfully predict time-course concentrations of the antibiotics in different compartments of the juvenile sea cucumbers. The findings may offer a scientific basis for assessing health risks and guiding healthy mariculture of sea cucumbers.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...