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J Sex Res ; : 1-20, 2020 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31902238


Gender-based violence (GBV) against women and girls is pervasive and has negative consequences for sexual and reproductive health (SRH). In this systematic review of reviews, we aimed to synthesize research about the SRH outcomes of GBV for adolescent girls and young women in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). GBV exposures were child abuse, female genital mutilation/cutting, child marriage, intimate partner violence (IPV), and non-partner sexual violence. PsycINFO, PubMed, and Scopus searches were supplemented with expert consultations, reference-list searches, and targeted organizational website searches. Reviews had to contain samples of girls and young women ages 10-24, although inclusion criteria were expanded post-hoc to capture adolescent-adult combined samples. Twenty-seven reviews were quality-rated. Study-level data were extracted from the 10 highest quality reviews (62 unique studies, 100 samples). Reviews were mostly from Africa and Asia and published between 2011 and 2015. We found consistent associations between GBV and number of sexual partners, gynecological conditions (e.g., sexually transmitted infections [STIs]), unwanted/unplanned pregnancy, and abortion. Some types of IPV also were associated with greater use of contraception/STI prevention. Addressing GBV is essential to improve SRH for girls and women in LMICs.

Glob Public Health ; : 1-13, 2019 Dec 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31869280


Women comprise two-thirds of the global-health (GH) workforce but are underrepresented in leadership. GH departments are platforms to advance gender equality in GH leadership. Using a survey of graduates from one GH department, we compared women's and men's post-training career agency and GH employment and assessed whether gender gaps in training accounted for gender gaps in career outcomes. Master-of-Public-Health (MPH) and mid-career-fellow alumni since 2010 received a 31-question online survey. Forty-four per cent of MPH alum and 24% of fellows responded. Using logistic regression, we tested gender gaps in training satisfaction, career agency, and GH employment, unadjusted and adjusted for training received. Women (N = 293) reported lower satisfaction with training (M7.6 vs 8.2) and career agency (leadership ability: M6.3 vs 7.4) than men (N = 60). Women more often than men acquired methods-related skills (95% vs 78%), employment recommendations (42% vs 18%), and group membership. Men more often than women acquired leadership training (43% vs 23%), award recommendations (53% vs 17%), and conference support (65% vs 35%). Women and men had similar odds of GH employment. Accounting for confounders and gender-gaps in training eliminated gender gaps in five of six career-agency outcomes. Panel studies of women's and men's career trajectories in GH are needed.