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1.
Blood Adv ; 5(20): 4031-4043, 2021 10 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34474478

RESUMO

Donor-specific anti-HLA antibodies (DSAs) are a major cause of engraftment failure in patients receiving haploidentical stem cell transplantation (HaploSCT). Effective treatments are needed for these patients, who often have no other donor options and/or are in need to proceed urgently to transplantation. We studied a multimodality treatment with alternate-day plasma exchange (PE), rituximab, intravenous γ globulin (IVIg) and an irradiated donor buffy coat for patients with DSAs at 2 institutions. Thirty-seven patients with a median age of 51 years were treated with this desensitization protocol. Treatment outcomes were compared with a control group of HaploSCT patients without DSAs (n = 345). The majority of patients in the DSA group were female (83.8% vs 37.1% in controls, P < .001) and received stem cells from a child as the donor (67.6% vs 44.1%, P = .002). Mean DSA level before and after desensitization was 10 198 and 5937 mean fluorescence intensity (MFI), respectively, with mean differences of 4030 MFI. Fourteen of 30 tested patients (46.7%) had C1q positivity, while 8 of 29 tested patients (27.6%) remained positive after desensitization. In multivariable analysis, patients with initial DSA > 20 000 MFI and persistent positive C1q after desensitization had a significantly lower engraftment rate, which resulted in significantly higher non-relapse mortality and worse overall survival (OS) than controls, whereas graft outcome and survival of patients with initial DSA < 20 000 MFI and those with negative C1q after treatment were comparable with controls. In conclusion, treatment with PE, rituximab, IVIg, and donor buffy coat is effective in promoting engraftment in patients with DSAs ≤20 000 MFI.


Assuntos
Antígenos HLA , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Rituximab/uso terapêutico , Doadores de Tecidos , Transplante Homólogo
2.
Transplant Cell Ther ; 27(11): 913.e1-913.e12, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34329753

RESUMO

Compared to reduced-intensity conditioning regimen, myeloablative conditioning (MAC) for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HCT) reduces relapse but is avoided in older patients because of higher non-relapse mortality (NRM). To meet the need for a myeloablative regimen for older patients, we developed a novel fludarabine and busulfan MAC regimen. We fractionated the dose of busulfan and gave it for 6 days over a 2-week period and demonstrated the feasibility and safety of this approach. However, the disease-specific efficacy of this regimen is not known. The purpose of this study was to estimate the efficacy of fractionated busulfan regimen by estimating diseases specific survival outcomes. The conditioning regimen consisted of busulfan and fludarabine. On days -13 and -12 before HCT, patients received 80 mg/m2 busulfan intravenously (IV) daily in an outpatient clinic. Additional chemotherapy was administered during inpatient treatment from day -6 through day -3, including fludarabine 40 mg/m2 and busulfan IV once daily. The dosing of busulfan was determined from pharmacokinetic analyses to achieve for the course a target area under the curve of 20,000 ± 12% µmol/min, which is close to the average exposure of myeloablative dose of busulfan. One hundred fifty patients with high-risk hematological malignancies up to 75 years were enrolled in this prospective phase II study. The objective was to evaluate NRM, relapse, survival, the rates of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), and long-term complications. The median age of the patient population was 61 years (interquartile range, 55-67). The most common diagnoses were acute myeloid leukemia (AML; N = 59 [39.3%]), myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS; n = 29 [19.3%]), and myelofibrosis (MF; N = 22 [14.7%]). Most had an unrelated donor (n = 93 [62%]) and received peripheral blood graft (n = 110 [73.3%]). Over half had an HCT-specific comorbidity index of ≥3 (n = 79 [52.7%]). The median follow-up among survivors was 43.4 months (interquartile range, 38.9-50.4). In patients with AML in complete remission, MDS, and myelofibrosis, 3-year overall survival was 66.7% (95% confidence interval [CI], 50.2-88.5%), 43.6% (95% CI, 28.6-66.4%), and 59.1% (95% CI, 41.7-83.7%) respectively. The cumulative incidence of NRM was 22% (15.3%-28.7%), extensive chronic GVHD was 27% (95% CI, 20-34%), bronchiolitis obliterans was 4.7% (95% CI, 1.3-8.1%), and secondary malignancy was 8.7% (95% CI, 4.1-13.2%) at 3 years. Lengthening the duration of busulfan (fractionation) permits safe delivery of myeloablative conditioning in older patients, leading to prolonged survival. © 2021 American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

3.
Cancer ; 127(10): 1598-1605, 2021 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33471943

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A myeloablative conditioning regimen can be safely given to older patients and those with comorbidities without increasing nonrelapse mortality (NRM) by fractionating the dose of intravenous busulfan. How this approach compares in efficacy with traditional, nonfractionated, lower dose regimens is unknown. METHODS: Outcomes were compared in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) or myelodysplastic syndrome who received either myeloablative, fractionated busulfan (f-Bu) dosed to achieve an area under the curve of 20,000 µmol per minute (f-Bu20K) over 2 weeks (n = 84) or a standard, nonfractionated, lower busulfan dose regimen of 16,000 µmol per minute (Bu16K) over 4 days (n = 78). Both groups also received fludarabine 40 mg/m2 intravenously for 4 days. Graft-versus-host disease prophylaxis was tacrolimus and methotrexate. Patients in the Bu16K group who had unrelated donors also received antithymocyte globulin. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival. RESULTS: Roughly one-half of the patients were aged >65 years, approximately 40% had poor-risk cytogenetics, approximately 40% of those with AML were not in complete remission, and approximately 40% had a comorbidity index >3. At 2 years, progression-free survival was significantly improved in the f-Bu20K group compared with the Bu16K group (45% vs 24%, respectively; hazard ratio [HR], 0.6; 95% CI, 0.4-0.8; P = .004). This was because of a significant reduction in progression (34% vs 59%, respectively; HR, 0.5; 95% CI, 0.3-0.8; P = .003) without any increase in NRM (21% vs 15%, respectively; HR, 1.4; 95% CI, 0.7-3; P = .3), which resulted in improved overall survival (51% vs 31%, respectively; HR, 0.6; 95% CI, 0.3-0.9; P = .01). CONCLUSIONS: A myeloablative, fractionated busulfan regimen reduces relapse and improves survival without increasing NRM in older patients with AML and myelodysplastic syndrome.

5.
Acta Haematol ; 144(1): 74-81, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32604096

RESUMO

Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients not in remission and beyond first or second complete remission are considered allogeneic stem cell transplant (SCT) candidates. We present 361 patients who underwent SCT from matched related or unrelated donors between 2005 and 2013. The purpose was to identify a subgroup of patients with active disease at the time of transplant that benefit. Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was used for univariate and multivariate analyses to predict overall survival (OS). Variables considered were age, sex, SWOG cytogenetic risk group, bone marrow (BM) and peripheral blood (PB) blast percentage, regimen intensity, and type of AML. At a median of 26 months after transplantation, OS, progression-free survival (PFS), non-relapse mortality, and relapse rates were 26, 24, 23, and 48%, respectively. In a univariate analysis, risk cytogenetics (p < 0.001) and BM blasts >4% (p = 0.006) or any blasts in PB (p < 0.001) indicated worse OS. In a multivariate analysis, patients with <5% BM blasts or absence of circulating blasts and good or intermediate risk cytogenetics had significantly superior OS (46%), PFS (44%), and disease progression at 3 years. Based on these findings, patients not in remission with good or intermediate risk cytogenetics and low blast counts should be considered for SCT.


Assuntos
Medula Óssea/patologia , Aberrações Cromossômicas , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/diagnóstico , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Biópsia , Análise Citogenética , Feminino , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/diagnóstico , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/etiologia , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Humanos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/mortalidade , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/terapia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Fatores de Tempo , Transplante Homólogo , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
6.
Am J Hematol ; 2020 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32619033

RESUMO

Relapse after allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (AHSCT) is associated with very poor outcomes. A second transplant offers the possibility of long-term disease control. We analyzed outcomes with haploidentical donors for second allograft at our institution. All consecutive patients with hematological malignancies (N = 29) who relapsed after AHSCT and underwent a haploidentical transplant (haploSCT) as second transplant between February 2009 and October 2018 were included. Median age was 36 years (interquartile range (IQR) 24-60); 83% of patients had high/very high disease risk index; 61% of AML/MDS patients had high-risk cytogenetics; and only 24% were in complete remission at transplant. With a median follow-up of 46.9 months, the 3-year relapse, non-relapse mortality (NRM), progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were 30%, 39%, 31% and 40%, respectively. In multivariable analysis (MVA), comorbidity index (HCT-CI) and detectable donor-specific anti-HLA antibodies (DSA) prior to second transplant were significantly associated with worse outcomes. Patients with HCT-CI <3 and without DSA had 3-year PFS and OS of 53% and 60.3%, respectively. Our findings suggest that haploSCT as second AHSCT is feasible and potentially curative. Lower HCT-CI and no DSA were associated with lower NRM and improved survival. Haploidentical grafts might be a preferred donor source for second AHSCT as these are high-risk patients who frequently need to proceed urgently to transplant.

8.
Biol Blood Marrow Transplant ; 26(8): 1439-1445, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32438043

RESUMO

Optimal conditioning regimens for older patients with myelofibrosis undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant are not known. Likewise, the role of dose intensity is not clear. We conducted a nonrandomized, prospective, phase II trial using low-dose, later escalated to high-dose (myeloablative conditioning), busulfan with fludarabine (Bu-Flu) in myelofibrosis patients up to age 74 years. The first 15 patients received i.v. busulfan 130 mg/m2/day on days -3 and -2 ("low dose"); 31 patients received high-dose conditioning, either 100 mg/m2/day (days -5 to -2; n = 4) or pharmacokinetic-guided area under the curve of 4000 µmol/min (days -5 to -2; n = 27). The primary endpoint was day 100 nonrelapse mortality (NRM). Median age was 58 years (interquartile range [IQR], 53-63). Dynamic international prognostic scoring system-plus was intermediate (n = 28) or high (n = 18). Donors were related (n = 19) or unrelated (n = 27). Cumulative incidence of NRM was 9.7% (95% confidence interval [CI], 0-20.3) at day 100 and at 3 years in the high-dose group and 0% in the low-dose group at day 100, which increased to 20% (95% CI, 0-41.9) at 3 years. With a median follow-up of 5.1 years (IQR, 3.8-6), 3-year relapse was 32.3% (95% CI, 15.4-49.1) in high dose versus 53.3% (95% CI, 26.6-80.1) in low dose. Event-free survival was 58% (95% CI, 43-78) versus 27% (95% CI, 12-62), and overall survival was 74% (95% CI, 60-91) versus 60% (95% CI, 40-91). In multivariate analysis, high-dose busulfan had a trend toward lower relapse (hazard ratio, .44; 95% CI, .18-1.07; P = .07), with no impact on NRM. Intensifying the Bu-Flu regimen using pharmacokinetic-monitoring appears to be promising in reducing relapse without increasing NRM.


Assuntos
Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda , Mielofibrose Primária , Idoso , Bussulfano , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Mielofibrose Primária/terapia , Estudos Prospectivos , Condicionamento Pré-Transplante , Vidarabina/uso terapêutico
9.
Blood Adv ; 4(7): 1296-1306, 2020 04 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32236526

RESUMO

At our center, we observed a series of patients who developed transudative refractory ascites secondary to noncirrhotic, non-veno-occlusive disease (VOD)-related portal hypertension after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). Patients were considered to have idiopathic portal hypertension-related refractory ascites (IRA) if they developed ascites secondary to intrahepatic portal hypertension (serum ascites albumin gradient ≥1.1 g/dL or hepatic venous pressure gradient [HVPG] >5 mm Hg), but did not meet the clinical criteria for classical VOD/sinusoidal obstructive syndrome (SOS) and did not have any alternate etiology of portal hypertension. From our institutional database, we identified 40 patients who developed IRA after allo-HSCT between 2004 and 2018. The patients' median age at the time of allo-HSCT was 54 years (range, 21-73 years). The median time to development of IRA after allo-HSCT was 80 days (range, 16-576 days). The median number of paracentesis was 3 (range, 1-11), and 15 (38%) patients had an intraperitoneal catheter placed for continued drainage of the rapidly accumulating ascites. Portal pressures were measured in 19 patients; 6 (15%) had moderate portal hypertension (HVPG 6-9 mm Hg), and 13 (33%) had severe portal hypertension (HVPG ≥ 10 mm Hg). Liver biopsy was performed in 24 patients. None of the patients met the criteria for classical VOD/SOS (clinical/histological) or cirrhosis (histological). The cumulative incidence of nonrelapse mortality was 63%, and the median survival duration after the development of the IRA was 7 months (range, 0.8-125.6 months). IRA is a poorly understood and often fatal complication of allo-HSCT.


Assuntos
Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Hepatopatia Veno-Oclusiva , Ascite/etiologia , Ascite/terapia , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/efeitos adversos , Hepatopatia Veno-Oclusiva/etiologia , Hepatopatia Veno-Oclusiva/terapia , Humanos , Incidência
10.
Cancer ; 126(10): 2183-2192, 2020 05 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32101640

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite the well-defined role of minimal residual disease (MRD) monitoring by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for RUNX1/RUNX1T1 and CBFB-MYH11 transcripts in core binding factor (CBF) acute myeloid leukemia (AML) after intensive chemotherapy, there has been a paucity of data assessing the utility of MRD monitoring at and after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). METHODS: Patients with CBF AML who underwent HSCT in complete remission (first or second) from January 2007 through December 2018 were included in this analysis. RESULTS: MRD by polymerase chain reaction at HSCT was assessed in 50 of 76 patients, and 44 (88%) had evidence of MRD (MRDpos). MRDpos patients had 3-year overall survival (OS) and leukemia-free survival (LFS) rates of 69.3% and 66.3%, respectively. Six MRD-negative patients had 3-year OS and LFS rates of 100% and 100%, respectively. Thirty-five of the 70 evaluable patients (50%) had a day +100 MRD assessment by RT-PCR, and 14 (40%) were MRDpos. The presence of MRD by RT-PCR on day +100 was not associated with lower estimates of LFS (75% vs 82.2%; P = .3) but was associated with a higher relapse incidence, although the difference did not reach statistical significance (27.6% vs 9.7%; P = .2). CONCLUSIONS: Durable complete remissions can be achieved in patients with CBF AML with HSCT even if they are MRDpos by RT-PCR at HSCT. The clinical impact of frequent MRD monitoring for identifying a group at high risk for early relapse and then for determining the best time point for therapeutic interventions to prevent impending relapse warrants investigation in prospectively designed clinical trials.


Assuntos
Fatores de Ligação ao Core/genética , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/diagnóstico , Neoplasia Residual/diagnóstico , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/métodos , Adulto , Subunidade alfa 2 de Fator de Ligação ao Core/genética , Subunidade beta de Fator de Ligação ao Core/genética , Feminino , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Humanos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/genética , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/terapia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cadeias Pesadas de Miosina/genética , Neoplasia Residual/genética , Neoplasia Residual/terapia , Proteínas de Fusão Oncogênica/genética , Prognóstico , Proteína 1 Parceira de Translocação de RUNX1/genética , Transplante Homólogo
11.
Biol Blood Marrow Transplant ; 26(5): 1013-1020, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32045652

RESUMO

Fluid overload (FO) grade ≥2 (more than 10% weight gain from baseline) has recently been recognized as an important toxicity associated with a high rate of nonrelapse mortality in recipients of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (AHCT). The causes for FO remain unclear. We hypothesized that endothelial damage, possibly due to treatments received prior to AHCT, may be associated with this toxicity and sought to determine whether the Endothelial Activation and Stress Index (EASIX) (defined as lactate dehydrogenase [U/L]â€ˆ× creatinine [mg/dL]/platelets [109 cells/L]) correlates with grade ≥2 FO in 2 cohorts of recipients of AHCT at our institution. We tested our hypothesis in a cohort of 145 consecutive recipients (study cohort) of AHCT transplant from HLA-haploidentical donors and validated the findings in a cohort of 449 (validation cohort) recipients of AHCT from HLA-matched donors who underwent transplantation between 2010 and 2015. Predictors of grade ≥2 FO were evaluated using competing risks regression in univariate analysis and classification and regression tree (CART) analysis in multivariate analysis. The cumulative incidence of grade ≥2 FO was estimated considering death as a competing risk. EASIX scores were evaluated based on log2-transformed values. Optimal predictive EASIX cutoff values were determined based on receiver operating characteristics curve analysis. Grade ≥2 FO occurred in 21% and 6% of the study and validation cohorts, respectively, with the majority of these cases being diagnosed before the day of AHCT. Median log2 EASIX score at admission was 2.4 (interquartile range [IQR], 1.3, 3.7) and 2.5 (IQR, 1.4, 3.9) in the 2 respective cohorts. In univariate analysis, high EASIX at admission was a significant predictor of grade ≥2 FO in the study (cutoff: 4.4, hazard ratio [HR] = 4.8, P < .001) and in the validation (cutoff: 4.3, HR = 4.8, P < .001) cohorts. The significant effect of EASIX persisted in multivariate CART analysis in the study (HR = 6.3, P < .001) and the validation (HR = 28, P = .002) cohorts. Additional predictors in multivariate analysis included body weight below 80 kg in recipients older than 55 years (HR = 4.5, P < .001) in the study cohort and diabetes (HR = 34, P = .001) and age >60 years (HR = 9.6, P = .04) in the validation cohort. At admission, the prevalence of EASIX score of >4.3 (18% versus 17%, P = .9) was not different between the diabetics and nondiabetics. EASIX score at admission is a significant predictor of grade ≥2 FO in recipients of AHCT from HLA-haploidentical or HLA-matched donors. Independently of EASIX, older patients with low weight were associated with increased risk of grade ≥2 FO for recipients of HLA-haploidentical transplants. For the HLA-matched cohort, diabetes and older age were associated with increased FO risk. These findings require validation in external cohorts.


Assuntos
Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Doadores de Tecidos , Transplante Homólogo
12.
Biol Blood Marrow Transplant ; 26(1): 197-203, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31518645

RESUMO

Molecular data and minimal residual disease (MRD) have been shown to influence outcomes in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (AHCT). Here we developed and validated a novel AML-specific disease risk group (AML-DRG) and revised our previously developed hematopoietic cell transplant-composite risk (HCT-CR) model by incorporating molecular data and MRD status to predict outcomes of patients with AML. The study included 1414 consecutively treated adult AML patients who received a first AHCT. Patients were randomly assigned into training (n = 944) and validation (n = 470) sets. To develop the AML-DRG model, the coefficient of all significant AML-related variables in multivariable Cox regression analysis in a training dataset was converted into scores, whereas the AML-HCT-CR was the sum of disease-related factors assessed by the AML-DRG model with the addition of weighted scores from patient-related factors. The AML-DRG was developed by assigning the following scores: 1 point to secondary AML, 1 point to the European LeukaemiaNet adverse genetic risk, 2 points to complete remission with MRD positive/unknown, and 4 points to active disease. These scores were used to generate 3 risk groups of the AML-DRG with significantly different overall survivals. By adding the score for significant patient-related factors (HCT-specific comorbidity index/age), we created 4 risk groups of AML-HCT-CR with distinct survival outcomes. Both the AML-DRG and AML-HCT-CR provided significantly better discriminative capacity compared with the disease risk index, European LeukaemiaNet genetic risk model, and cytogenetic risk model. Prognostic models incorporating molecular data and MRD status allow better stratification and improved survival estimates of AML patients post-transplant.


Assuntos
Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda , Modelos Biológicos , Condicionamento Pré-Transplante , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/sangue , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/genética , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/mortalidade , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/terapia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasia Residual , Medição de Risco , Taxa de Sobrevida
13.
Blood ; 135(6): 449-452, 2020 02 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31826244

RESUMO

The optimal conditioning regimen for older patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) remains unclear. In this study, we compared outcomes of AML patients >60 years of age undergoing allogenic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation at our institution. All 404 consecutively treated patients received 1 of the following conditioning regimens: (1) fludarabine+melphalan 100 mg/m2 (FM100), (2) fludarabine+melphalan 140 mg/m2 (FM140), (3) fludarabine+IV busulfan AUC ≥ 5000/d × 4 d (Bu≥20000), and (4) fludarabine+IV busulfan AUC 4000/d × 4 d (Bu16000). A propensity score analysis (PSA) was used to compare outcomes between these 4 groups. Among the 4 conditioning regimens, the FM100 group had a significantly better long-term survival with 5-year progression-free survival of 49% vs 30%, 34%, and 23%, respectively. The benefit of the FM100 regimen resulted primarily from the lower nonrelapse mortality associated with this regimen, an effect more pronounced in patients with lower performance status. The PSA confirmed that FM100 was associated with better posttransplantation survival, whereas no significant differences were seen between the other regimen groups. In summary, older patients with AML benefited from a reduced-intensity conditioning regimen with lower melphalan doses (FM100), which was associated with better survival, even though it was primarily used in patients who could not receive a more intense conditioning regimen.


Assuntos
Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/métodos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/terapia , Condicionamento Pré-Transplante/métodos , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Bussulfano/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Melfalan/uso terapêutico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transplante Homólogo/métodos , Resultado do Tratamento , Vidarabina/análogos & derivados , Vidarabina/uso terapêutico
14.
Blood Adv ; 3(12): 1858-1867, 2019 06 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31217161

RESUMO

Haplo-identical transplant with posttransplant cyclophosphamide (haplo) and umbilical cord blood transplant supported by third-party CD34 cells (haplo-cord) are competing approaches to alternative donor transplant. We compared, in adults younger than age 60 years, the outcomes of 170 haplo at 1 institution with that of 137 haplo-cord at 2 other institutions. All received reduced intensity conditioning with fludarabine and melphalan ± total body irradiation. GVHD prophylaxis for haplo consisted of cyclophosphamide, tacrolimus, and mycophenolate, whereas haplo-cord received antithymocyte globulin, tacrolimus, and mycophenolate. Haplo transplant used mostly bone marrow, and peripheral blood stem cells were used in haplo-cord transplants. Haplo-cord were older and had more advanced disease. Haplo-cord hastened median time to neutrophil (11 vs 18 days, P = .001) and platelet recovery (22 vs 25 days, P = .03). At 4 years, overall survival (OS) was 50% for haplo-cord vs 49% for haplo. Progression-free survival (PFS) was 40% for haplo-cord vs 45% for haplo. In multivariate analysis, the disease risk index was significant for OS (hazard ratio, 1.8; 95% confidence interval, 1.48-2.17; P = .00) and PFS. Total body irradiation was associated with decreased recurrence and improved PFS, age >40 with increased nonrelapse mortality. The type of transplant had no effect on OS, PFS, relapse, or nonrelapse mortality. Cumulative incidence of grade 2-4 acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) by day 100 was 16% after haplo-cord vs 33% after haplo (P < .0001), but grade 3-4 GVHD was similar. Chronic GVHD at 1 year was 4% after haplo-cord vs 16% after haplo (P < .0001). Haplo or haplo-cord results in similar and encouraging outcomes. Haplo-cord is associated with more rapid neutrophil and platelet recovery and lower acute and chronic GVHD. Institutional review board authorization for this retrospective study was obtained at each institution. Some patients participated in trials registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT01810588 and NCT01050946.


Assuntos
Transplante de Células-Tronco de Sangue do Cordão Umbilical/efeitos adversos , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/prevenção & controle , Neoplasias Hematológicas/terapia , Condicionamento Pré-Transplante/métodos , Transplante Homólogo/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Transplante de Medula Óssea/métodos , Transplante de Células-Tronco de Sangue do Cordão Umbilical/métodos , Ciclofosfamida/administração & dosagem , Ciclofosfamida/uso terapêutico , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Inibidores Enzimáticos/administração & dosagem , Inibidores Enzimáticos/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/tratamento farmacológico , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/epidemiologia , Haplótipos/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias Hematológicas/mortalidade , Neoplasias Hematológicas/radioterapia , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/métodos , Humanos , Imunossupressores/administração & dosagem , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Melfalan/administração & dosagem , Melfalan/uso terapêutico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ácido Micofenólico/administração & dosagem , Ácido Micofenólico/uso terapêutico , Agonistas Mieloablativos/administração & dosagem , Agonistas Mieloablativos/uso terapêutico , Neutrófilos/efeitos dos fármacos , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica/efeitos dos fármacos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tacrolimo/administração & dosagem , Tacrolimo/uso terapêutico , Condicionamento Pré-Transplante/estatística & dados numéricos , Transplante Homólogo/tendências , Vidarabina/administração & dosagem , Vidarabina/análogos & derivados , Vidarabina/uso terapêutico , Irradiação Corporal Total/efeitos adversos , Irradiação Corporal Total/métodos
15.
Acta Haematol ; 142(3): 176-184, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31112940

RESUMO

To characterize intracellular signaling in peripheral blood (PB) cells of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients undergoing pretransplant conditioning with CXCR4 inhibitor plerixafor, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), and busulfan plus fludarabine (Bu+Flu) chemotherapy, we profiled 153 proteins in 33 functional groups using reverse phase protein array. CXCR4 inhibition mobilized AML progenitors and clonal AML cells, and this was associated with molecular markers of cell cycle progression. G-CSF/plerixafor and G-CSF/plerixafor/Bu+Flu modulated distinct signaling networks in AML blasts of patients undergoing conditioning with active disease compared to nonleukemic PB cells of patients in remission. We identified AML-specific proteins that remained aberrantly expressed after chemotherapy, representing putative chemoresistance markers in AML.


Assuntos
Mobilização de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda , Proteínas de Neoplasias/metabolismo , Proteômica , Transdução de Sinais , Condicionamento Pré-Transplante , Adulto , Aloenxertos , Bussulfano/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Fator Estimulador de Colônias de Granulócitos/administração & dosagem , Compostos Heterocíclicos/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/metabolismo , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/terapia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Vidarabina/administração & dosagem , Vidarabina/análogos & derivados
18.
Bone Marrow Transplant ; 54(6): 839-848, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30258129

RESUMO

Outcomes after allogeneic stem-cell transplantation (AHSCT) are influenced by both disease- and patient-related factors. Here, we developed a novel prognostic model, hematopoietic cell transplant-composite risk (HCT-CR), by combining the refined disease risk index (DRI-R) and hematopoietic stem-cell transplant comorbidity/age index (HCT-CI/Age) to predict post-transplant survival for patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). The analysis included 942 AML/MDS patients treated with AHSCT. Patients were stratified into 4 HCT-CR risk groups: Low-risk-patients with low/intermediate DRI-R and HCT-CI/Age ≤3 (N = 272); Intermediate-risk-patients with low/intermediate DRI-R and HCT-CI/Age >3 (N = 168); High-risk-patients with high/very high DRI-R and HCT-CI/Age ≤3 (N = 284); and Very high-risk-patients with high/very high DRI-R and HCT-CI/Age >3 (N = 184). Compared with the low-risk group, intermediate, high, and very high-risk groups had a significantly increased risk of death [adjusted HR of 1.37 (P < 0.04), 2.08 (P < 0.001), and 2.92 (P < 0.001), respectively]. The concordance test showed that the HCT-CR model provided better discriminative capacity for OS prediction compared with all prior models independently, including cytogenetic risk group, DRI-R, and HCT-CI/Age model (C-indices: 0.62, 0.55, 0.60, and 0.54, respectively) (P < 0.001). In conclusion, combining disease- and patient-related factors provides better survival stratification for patients with AML/MDS receiving AHSCT.


Assuntos
Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/métodos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/terapia , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas/terapia , Condicionamento Pré-Transplante/métodos , Transplante Homólogo/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/mortalidade , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas/mortalidade , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas/patologia , Prognóstico , Taxa de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
19.
Bone Marrow Transplant ; 54(4): 601-606, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30337700

RESUMO

Allogeneic SCT for older patients remains challenging at least in part due to graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and higher non-relapse mortality (NRM). We conducted a prospective pilot study primarily for older patients undergoing matched unrelated donor (MUD) SCT using a reduced-intensity (RIC) melphalan-based conditioning and post-transplant cyclophosphamide (PTCy)-based GVHD prophylaxis with tacrolimus and mycophenolate mofetil. Twenty-two patients (median age 64, IQR 58, 66) underwent RIC MUD SCT for high-risk hematological malignancies including AML/MDS (73%), CML/MPD (18%), and other (10%). Two (9%) patients had early death; the rest (100%) engrafted. After a median follow-up of 17 months, 11 patients were alive and disease-free with an estimated 2-year progression-free (PFS) and overall (OS) survival of 48%. The cumulative incidences of grades 2-4 and 3-4 acute GVHD (aGVHD) at day + 100 and 2-years were 32 and 4%, and 59 and 24%, respectively. No cases of chronic GVHD (cGVHD) were noted. However, late acute GVHD was observed in 6 (27%) patients. In conclusion, RIC MUD SCT with melphalan-based conditioning and PTCy-based GVHD-based prophylaxis for older patients appears effective in controlling relapse. While cGVHD was not seen and early aGVHD appears controllable, a significant proportion developed late aGVHD responsible for higher NRM seen in these patients.


Assuntos
Ciclofosfamida/uso terapêutico , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/tratamento farmacológico , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/métodos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/terapia , Ácido Micofenólico/uso terapêutico , Tacrolimo/uso terapêutico , Condicionamento Pré-Transplante/métodos , Ciclofosfamida/farmacologia , Feminino , Humanos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ácido Micofenólico/farmacologia , Projetos Piloto , Estudos Prospectivos , Tacrolimo/farmacologia , Doadores não Relacionados
20.
Bone Marrow Transplant ; 54(8): 1245-1253, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30532055

RESUMO

Conditioning regimens contribute significantly to outcomes following allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT). Reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) regimens provide lower toxicity at the cost of reduced efficacy compared with myeloablative conditioning (MAC) regimens. However, because pre-transplant prognostic variables often determine the conditioning regimen, studies of RIC vs. MAC have been inconclusive. We present a retrospective analysis of 242 acute myeloid leukemia (AML) or myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) patients, 112 of whom were in 56 pairs matched using propensity scores, to account for variation that may confound clinical outcomes. The uniform conditioning regimens consisted of fludarabine with pharmacokinetic (PK)-guided intravenous busulfan (Bu). The RIC and MAC regimens were dosed at the average daily area under the concentration-vs-time curve (AUC) of 4000 µMol min and 5000-6000 µMol min, or total course AUC of 16,000 µMol min and 20,000-24,000 µMol min, respectively; PK-guided dosing removes overlap in systemic Bu exposure. When patients' data were propensity-matched, there was a trend toward significantly increased full donor chimerism and decreased chronic graft vs. host disease in RIC, and no significant differences in progression free survival and overall survival between RIC and MAC. Our results also elucidate the efficacy of PK-guided-dosing in the setting of allo-SCT for AML and MDS.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Alquilantes/uso terapêutico , Bussulfano/uso terapêutico , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/métodos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas/tratamento farmacológico , Condicionamento Pré-Transplante/métodos , Transplante Homólogo/métodos , Vidarabina/análogos & derivados , Antineoplásicos Alquilantes/farmacologia , Bussulfano/farmacologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Vidarabina/farmacologia , Vidarabina/uso terapêutico
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