Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 66
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
Cells ; 9(3)2020 Mar 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32192190

RESUMO

Background: Insulin resistance (IR), considered a hallmark of diabetes at the cellular level, is implicated in pre-diabetes, results in type 2 diabetes, and negatively affects mitochondrial function. Diabetes is increasingly associated with enhanced risk of developing Parkinson's disease (PD); however, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. This study investigated the probable culpability of IR in the pathogenesis of PD. Methods: Using MitoPark mice in vivo models, diabetes was induced by a high-fat diet in the in vivo models, and IR was induced by protracted pulse-stimulation with 100 nM insulin treatment of neuronal cells, in vitro to determine the molecular mechanism(s) underlying altered cellular functions in PD, including mitochondrial dysfunction and α-synuclein (SNCA) aberrant expression. Findings: We observed increased SNCA expression in the dopaminergic (DA) neurons of both the wild-type and diabetic MitoPark mice, coupled with enhanced degeneration of DA neurons in the diabetic MitoPark mice. Ex vivo, in differentiated human DA neurons, IR was associated with increased SNCA and reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, as well as mitochondrial depolarization. Moreover, we demonstrated concomitant hyperactivation of polo-like kinase-2 (PLK2), and upregulated p-SNCA (Ser129) and proteinase K-resistant SNCA proteins level in IR SH-SY5Y cells, however the inhibition of PLK2 reversed IR-related increases in phosphorylated and total SNCA. Similarly, the overexpression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator 1-alpha (PGC)-1α suppressed ROS production, repressed PLK2 hyperactivity, and resulted in downregulation of total and Ser129-phosphorylated SNCA in the IR SH-SY5Y cells. Conclusions: These findings demonstrate that IR-associated diabetes promotes the development and progression of PD through PLK2-mediated mitochondrial dysfunction, upregulated ROS production, and enhanced SNCA signaling, suggesting the therapeutic targetability of PLK2 and/or SNCA as potential novel disease-modifying strategies in patients with PD.

2.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 15: 97-114, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32021167

RESUMO

Background: Regenerative medicine field is still lagging due to the lack of adequate knowledge regarding the homing of therapeutic cells towards disease sites, tracking of cells during treatment, and monitoring the biodistribution and fate of cells. Such necessities require labeling of cells with imaging agents that do not alter their biological characteristics, and development of suitable non-invasive imaging modalities. Purpose: We aimed to develop, characterize, and standardize a facile labeling strategy for engineered mesenchymal stem cells without altering their viability, secretion of FGF21 protein (neuroprotective), and differentiation capabilities for non-invasive longitudinal MRI monitoring in live mice brains with high sensitivity. Methods: We compared the labeling efficiency of different commercial iron oxide nanoparticles towards our stem cells and determined the optimum labeling conditions using prussian blue staining, confocal microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and flow cytometry. To investigate any change in biological characteristics of labeled cells, we tested their viability by WST-1 assay, expression of FGF21 by Western blot, and adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation capabilities. MRI contrast-enhancing properties of labeled cells were investigated in vitro using cell-agarose phantoms and in mice brains transplanted with the therapeutic stem cells. Results: We determined the nanoparticles that showed best labeling efficiency and least extracellular aggregation. We further optimized their labeling conditions (nanoparticles concentration and media supplementation) to achieve high cellular uptake and minimal extracellular aggregation of nanoparticles. Cell viability, expression of FGF21 protein, and differentiation capabilities were not impeded by nanoparticles labeling. Low number of labeled cells produced strong MRI signal decay in phantoms and in live mice brains which were visible for 4 weeks post transplantation. Conclusion: We established a standardized magnetic nanoparticle labeling platform for stem cells that were monitored longitudinally with high sensitivity in mice brains using MRI for regenerative medicine applications.

3.
J Neurotrauma ; 37(1): 14-26, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31298621

RESUMO

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a progressive and complex pathological condition that results in multiple adverse consequences, including impaired learning and memory. Transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) has produced limited benefits in experimental TBI models. Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is a novel metabolic regulator that has neuroprotective effects, promotes remyelination, enhances angiogenesis, and elongates astrocytic processes. In this study, MSCs were genetically engineered to overexpress FGF21 in order to improve their efficacy in TBI. MSCs overexpressing FGF21 (MSC-FGF21) were transplanted to mouse brain by intracerebroventricular injection 24 h after TBI was induced by controlled cortical impact (CCI). Hippocampus-dependent spatial learning and memory, assessed by the Morris water maze test, was markedly decreased 3-4 weeks after TBI, a deficit that was robustly recovered by treatment with MSC-FGF21, but not MSC-mCherry control. Hippocampus-independent learning and memory, assessed by the novel object recognition test, was also impaired; these effects were blocked by treatment with both MSC-FGF21 and MSC-mCherry control. FGF21 protein levels in the ipsilateral hippocampus were drastically reduced 4 weeks post-TBI, a loss that was restored by treatment with MSC-FGF21, but not MSC-mCherry. MSC-FGF21 treatment also partially restored TBI-induced deficits in neurogenesis and maturation of immature hippocampal neurons, whereas MSC-mCherry was less effective. Finally, MSC-FGF21 treatment also normalized TBI-induced impairments in dendritic arborization of hippocampal neurons. Taken together, the results indicate that MSC-FGF21 treatment significantly improved TBI-induced spatial memory deficits, impaired hippocampal neurogenesis, and abnormal dendritic morphology. Future clinical investigations using MSC-FGF21 to improve post-TBI outcomes are warranted.

4.
J Biomed Sci ; 26(1): 94, 2019 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31787098

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) is an important pleiotropic hormone that exerts neuroprotective and neuroreparative effects after a brain injury. However, the roles of IGF-1 variants in mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) are not yet fully understood. This study attempted to elucidate the effects of IGF-1 variants on the risk and neuropsychiatric outcomes of mTBI. METHODS: Based on 176 recruited mTBI patients and 1517 control subjects from the Taiwan Biobank project, we first compared the genotypic distributions of IGF-1 variants between the two groups. Then, we analyzed associations of IGF-1 variants with neuropsychiatric symptoms after mTBI, including anxiety, depression, dizziness, and sleep disturbances. Functional annotation of IGF-1 variants was also performed through bioinformatics databases. RESULTS: The minor allele of rs7136446 was over-represented in mTBI patients compared to community-based control subjects. Patients carrying minor alleles of rs7136446 and rs972936 showed more dizziness and multiple neuropsychiatric symptoms after brain injury. CONCLUSIONS: IGF-1 variants were associated with the risk and neuropsychiatric symptoms of mTBI. The findings highlight the important role of IGF-1 in the susceptibility and clinical outcomes of mTBI.

5.
J Vis Exp ; (153)2019 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31814625

RESUMO

Stem cell-based therapies for brain injuries, such as traumatic brain injury (TBI), are a promising approach for clinical trials. However, technical hurdles such as invasive cell delivery and tracking with low transplantation efficiency remain challenges in translational stem-based therapy. This article describes an emerging technique for stem cell labeling and tracking based on the labeling of the mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) with superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) nanoparticles, as well as intranasal delivery of the labeled MSCs. These nanoparticles are fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-embedded and safe to label the MSCs, which are subsequently delivered to the brains of TBI-induced mice by the intranasal route. They are then tracked non-invasively in vivo by real-time magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Important advantages of this technique that combines SPIO for cell labeling and intranasal delivery include (1) non-invasive, in vivo MSC tracking after delivery for long tracking periods, (2) the possibility of multiple dosing regimens due to the non-invasive route of MSC delivery, and (3) possible applications to humans, owing to the safety of SPIO, non-invasive nature of the cell-tracking method by MRI, and route of administration.

6.
Behav Neurol ; 2019: 4829572, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31885725

RESUMO

Background: Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most prevalent neurodegenerative disorder affecting 7-10 million individuals. The pathologic hallmark of PD is nigrostriatal dopaminergic neuron loss, leading to several motor and nonmotor disturbances, such as akinesia, gait disturbance, depression, and anxiety. Recent animal studies have demonstrated that physical exercise improves behavioral and neuropathological deficits in PD. However, the exact underlying mechanism underlying this effect remains unclear. In this study, we investigated whether long-term exercise has neuroprotective effects on dopaminergic nigrostriatal neurons and whether it further alleviates impairment of the gait pattern, locomotor activity, akinesia, and anxiety-like behavior in PD rats. Methods: A hemiparkinsonian rat model, generated by unilateral injection of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) into the medial forebrain bundle, was applied to evaluate neuroprotective effects and motor behaviors. Comprehensive spatiotemporal gait analysis, open-field locomotor activity, akinesia, apomorphine-induced rotational analysis, and dopaminergic neuron degeneration level were assessed every week and up to 8 weeks after daily voluntary running wheel exercise. Results: Compared with the sham-treated group, we found that 10 weeks of voluntary exercise (i.e., 2-week exercise before PD lesion and 8-week exercise post-PD lesion) significantly reduced 6-OHDA-induced motor deficits in the gait pattern, akinesia, and rotational behavior in the exercise group. Immunohistochemically, a tyrosine hydroxylase-positive neuron in the substantia nigra was significantly preserved in the exercise group. Conclusions: Our results demonstrated that long-term exercise training is effective for neuroprotection and further attenuates motor declines induced by 6-OHDA in an experimental model of PD. Our data further highlighted potential therapeutic effects of long-term physical exercise relevant to clinical effects for further potential application on human PD subjects.

7.
Neuropsychol Rehabil ; : 1-20, 2019 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31696782

RESUMO

This study aims to evaluate the relationship between traumatic brain injury (TBI) and sleep disorders (SDs). We first initiated a questionnaire-based clinical survey to assess sleep problems in the early stage after a TBI, followed by a population-based cohort study to evaluate the long-term risk of SDs in TBI patients. For short-term clinical survey, mild (m)TBI patients and healthy controls were recruited to evaluate the sleep quality and daytime sleepiness using the Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) within two weeks after a TBI. For long-term observation, a 5-year nationwide population-based cohort study that utilized a large administrative database was conducted. In the short-term survey, 236 mTBI patients and 223 controls were analyzed. Total scores of the PSQI and ESS were significantly higher in mTBI patients than in the controls. In the long-term cohort study, 6932 TBI cases and 34,660 matched controls were included. TBI cases had a 1.36-fold greater risk of SDs compared to the non-TBI controls during the 5-year follow-up period. Results showed that patients with TBI had a significantly higher risk of SDs than did controls both in the early stage and during a 5-year follow-up period.

8.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 5230, 2019 11 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31745089

RESUMO

The Hengduan Mountains (HDM) biodiversity hotspot exhibits exceptional alpine plant diversity. Here, we investigate factors driving intraspecific divergence within a HDM alpine species Salix brachista (Cushion willow), a common component of subnival assemblages. We produce a high-quality genome assembly for this species and characterize its genetic diversity, population structure and pattern of evolution by resequencing individuals collected across its distribution. We detect population divergence that has been shaped by a landscape of isolated sky island-like habitats displaying strong environmental heterogeneity across elevational gradients, combined with population size fluctuations that have occurred since approximately the late Miocene. These factors are likely important drivers of intraspecific divergence within Cushion willow and possibly other alpine plants with a similar distribution. Since intraspecific divergence is often the first step toward speciation, the same factors can be important contributors to the high alpine species diversity in the HDM.

9.
Cell Rep ; 29(8): 2134-2143.e7, 2019 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31747588

RESUMO

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), the most common motor neuron disease, usually occurs in middle-aged people. However, the molecular basis of age-related cumulative stress in ALS pathogenesis remains elusive. Here, we found that mice deficient in NPGPx (GPx7), an oxidative stress sensor, develop ALS-like phenotypes, including paralysis, muscle denervation, and motor neurons loss. Unlike normal spinal motor neurons that exhibit elevated O-GlcNAcylation against age-dependent oxidative stress, NPGPx-deficient spinal motor neurons fail to boost O-GlcNAcylation and exacerbate ROS accumulation, leading to cell death. Mechanistically, stress-activated NPGPx inhibits O-GlcNAcase (OGA) through disulfide bonding to fine-tune global O-GlcNAcylation. Pharmacological inhibition of OGA rescues spinal motor neuron loss in aged NPGPx-deficient mice. Furthermore, expression of NPGPx in ALS patients is significantly lower than in unaffected adults. These results suggest that NPGPx modulates O-GlcNAcylation by inhibiting OGA to cope with age-dependent oxidative stress and protect motor neurons from degeneration, providing a potential therapeutic axis for ALS.

10.
Vaccine ; 37(43): 6566-6572, 2019 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31353258

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A hepatitis E (HepE) vaccine was developed and released in China in 2011. Uptake is currently very limited. The aims of this study were to characterize what public health professionals thought about promoting the HepE vaccine in Shanghai, China, and to develop realistic goals for the HepE vaccine based on this information. METHODS: Public health professionals from Shanghai and other jurisdictions of China were contacted to participate in in-depth qualitative interviews between October 2017 and August 2018. Participants were asked about their perception of the HepE vaccine roll-out. Codes were initially based on the structure of the questionnaire. Subsequently, similar ideas were further developed into themes based on what was present in the transcript data. RESULTS: Thirty-five individuals participated. Major topics of discussion included (1) clarifying the roles and responsibilities of private and public institutions in promoting and marketing the HepE vaccine, (2) identifying what methods of promotion were most efficient, and, (3) endeavoring to formulate a reasonable and realistic goal, if any, for HepE prevention and control in China. Participants emphasized that public sector sources can be trusted sources of information (although the private vaccination company can also be useful in disseminating information) and social media such as WeChat can be good ways to disseminate articles (although netizens may be worried about the spread of fake news). Vaccine promotion is restrained given limited levels of knowledge in the government, hospitals, and public health vaccination centers. CONCLUSION: Successful promotion and use of this vaccine in China, even in limited settings (for instance, certain workplaces, or certain groups) could provide additional information on long-term safety and could promote its adoption in other regions of the world where HepE has high morbidity among pregnant women and other populations.

11.
Brain Res ; 1720: 146301, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31226324

RESUMO

Although a good deal is known about the genetics and pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease (PD), and information is emerging about its cause, there are no pharmacological treatments shown to have a significant, sustained capacity to prevent or attenuate the ongoing neurodegenerative processes. However, there is accumulating clinical results to suggest that physical exercise is such a treatment, and studies of animal models of the dopamine (DA) deficiency associated with the motor symptoms of PD further support this hypothesis. Exercise is a non-pharmacological, economically practical, and sustainable intervention with little or no risk and with significant additional health benefits. In this study, we investigated the long-term effects of voluntary exercise on motor behavior and brain biochemistry in the transgenic MitoPark mouse PD model with progressive degeneration of the DA systems caused by DAT-driven deletion of the mitochondrial transcription factor TFAM in DA neurons. We found that voluntary exercise markedly improved behavioral function, including overall motor activity, narrow beam walking, and rotarod performance. There was also improvement of biochemical markers of nigrostriatal DA input. This was manifested by increased levels of DA measured by HPLC, and of the DA membrane transporter measured by PET. Moreover, exercise increased oxygen consumption and, by inference, ATP production via oxidative phosphorylation. Thus, exercise augmented aerobic mitochondrial oxidative metabolism vs glycolysis in the nigrostriatal system. We conclude that there are clear-cut physiological mechanisms for beneficial effects of exercise in PD.

12.
Behav Neurol ; 2019: 4364592, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31110595

RESUMO

Introduction. Over 1 million mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) cases are reported annually worldwide and may result in cognitive, physical, and emotional deterioration; depression; anxiety; and sleep problems. However, studies on long-term mTBI effects are limited. This study included 440 patients, and regular follow-ups of psychological assessments were performed for 2 years. Four questionnaires, including the Pittsburgh sleep quality index (PSQI), Epworth sleepiness scale (ESS), Beck's anxiety inventory (BAI), and Beck's depression inventory (BDI), were used to evaluate sleep problems, daytime sleepiness, anxiety, and depression, respectively. Results show that BAI and BDI scores considerably improved at the 6th-week, 1st-year, and 2nd-year follow-ups compared to baseline, yet these remained significantly different. In addition, anxiety and depression were prominent symptoms in a select subgroup of patients with poor initial evaluations, which improved over the 2 years. However, the ESS and PSQI scores fluctuated only mildly over the same time span. In conclusion, the mTBI patients showed a gradual improvement of anxiety and depression over the 2 years following injury. While anxiety and depression levels for mTBI patients in general did not return to premorbid status, improvements were observed. Sleep disorders persisted and were consistent with initial levels of distress.


Assuntos
Concussão Encefálica/complicações , Concussão Encefálica/psicologia , Adulto , Ansiedade/psicologia , Depressão/psicologia , Transtorno Depressivo , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Psicometria/métodos , Sono , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
13.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(11)2019 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31142002

RESUMO

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are emerging as a potential therapeutic intervention for brain injury due to their neuroprotective effects and safe profile. However, the homing ability of MSCs to injury sites still needs to be improved. Fibroblast Growth Factor 21 (FGF21) was recently reported to enhance cells migration in different cells type. In this study, we investigated whether MSCs that overexpressing FGF21 (MSC-FGF21) could exhibit enhanced homing efficacy in brain injury. We used novel Molday IONEverGreen™ (MIEG) as cell labeling probe that enables a non-invasive, high-sensitive and real-time MRI tracking. Using a mouse model of traumatic brain injury (TBI), MIEG labeled MSCs were transplanted into the contralateral lateral ventricle followed by real-time MRI tracking. FGF21 retained MSC abilities of proliferation and morphology. MSC-FGF21 showed significantly greater migration in transwell assay compared to control MSC. MIEG labeling showed no effects on MSCs' viability, proliferation and differentiation. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed that FGF21 significantly enhances the homing of MSC toward injury site. Histological analysis further confirmed the MRI findings. Taken together, these results show that FGF21 overexpression and MIEG labeling of MSC enhances their homing abilities and enables non-invasive real time tracking of the transplanted cells, provides a promising approach for MSC based therapy and tracking in TBI.


Assuntos
Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/terapia , Movimento Celular , Fatores de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/genética , Transplante de Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/métodos , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/fisiologia , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Fatores de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Masculino , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL
14.
Cell Transplant ; 28(4): 439-450, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31094216

RESUMO

Stroke is a leading cause of death and severe disability worldwide. After cerebral ischemia, inflammation plays a central role in the development of permanent neurological damage. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are involved in the mechanism of post-ischemic inflammation. The activation of several inflammatory enzymes produces ROS, which subsequently suppress mitochondrial activity, leading to further tissue damage. Pomalidomide (POM) is a clinically available immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory agent. Prior cellular studies demonstrate that POM can mitigate oxidative stress and lower levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, particularly TNF-α, which plays a prominent role in ischemic stroke-induced brain damage and functional deficits. To evaluate the potential value of POM in cerebral ischemia, POM was initially administered to transgenic mice chronically over-expressing TNF-α surfactant protein (SP)-C promoter (SP-C/TNF-α mice) to assess whether systemically administered drug could lower systemic TNF-α level. POM significantly lowered serum levels of TNF-α and IL-5. Pharmacokinetic studies were then undertaken in mice to evaluate brain POM levels following systemic drug administration. POM possessed a brain/plasma concentration ratio of 0.71. Finally, rats were subjected to transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo) for 60 min, and subsequently treated with POM 30 min thereafter to evaluate action on cerebral ischemia. POM reduced the cerebral infarct volume in MCAo-challenged rats and improved motor activity, as evaluated by the elevated body swing test. POM's neuroprotective actions on ischemic injury represent a potential therapeutic approach for ischemic brain damage and related disorders, and warrant further evaluation.

15.
Front Neurol ; 10: 88, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30804886

RESUMO

Introduction: Dizziness and balance impairment are common symptoms of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). Acid-sensing ion channel 3 (ASIC3) is expressed in the vestibular and proprioceptive systems and associated with balance functions. However, whether the genetic variants of ASIC3 are associated with people who suffer dizziness and balance impairment after mTBI remained unknown. Materials and methods: A total of 200 people with mTBI and 109 non-mTBI controls were recruited. Dizziness, balance functions, and the ability to perform daily activities were assessed by Dizziness Handicap Inventory (DHI), and objective balance functions were investigated by the postural stability test. Three diseases-related genetic variants of ASIC3 were determined through polymerase chain reaction and followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism. The Student's t-test and Mann-Whitney U-test were used for normal and abnormal distributed data, respectively. The regression was applied to adjust gender and age. The normality of continuous data was evaluated by Shapiro-Wilk test. Results: In the mTBI people, the rs2288645-A allele carriers exhibited a significantly worse physical domain DHI score (A-allele carriers: 11.39 ± 8.42, non-A carriers: 8.76 ± 7.87, p = 0.03). The rs4148855-GTC deletion carriers an exhibited significantly worse overall postural stability (GTC deletion carriers: 0.53 ± 0.33, non-carriers: 0.46 ± 0.20, p = 0.03). In the controls, rs2288646-A allele carriers were significant worse in the medial-to-lateral postural stability (A-allele carriers: 0.31 ± 0.17, non-A carriers: 0.21 ± 0.10, p = 0.01). Conclusion: The present study demonstrated that ASIC3 genetic variants were associated with certain aspects of balance functions and dizziness questionnaires in people of mTBI and non-mTBI. It provides a possible evidence that ASIC3 could be a new target for the management of the balancing disorders. However, further investigations are warranted to elucidate the underlying mechanisms and clinical significance.

16.
J Neurotrauma ; 36(7): 1054-1059, 2019 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30226403

RESUMO

Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) constitutes 75 ∼ 90% of all TBI cases and causes various physical, cognitive, emotional, and other psychological symptoms. Nogo receptor 1 (NgR1) is a regulator of structural brain plasticity during development and in adulthood. Here, we used mice that, in the absence of doxycycline, overexpress NgR1 in forebrain neurons (MemoFlex) to determine the role of NgR1 in recovery from mTBI with respect to balance, cognition, memory, and emotion. We compared wild-type (WT), MemoFlex, and MemoFlex + doxycycline mice to the same three groups subjected to mTBI. mTBI was induced by a controlled 30-g weight drop. We found that inability to downregulate NgR1 significantly impairs recovery from mTBI-induced impairments. When the NgR1 transgene was turned off, recovery was similar to that of WT mice. The results suggest that the ability to regulate NgR1 signaling is needed for optimal recovery of motor coordination and balance, spatial memory, cognition, and emotional functions after mTBI.

17.
Int J Mol Sci ; 19(10)2018 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30347766

RESUMO

Due to its high oxygen demand and abundance of peroxidation-susceptible lipid cells, the brain is particularly vulnerable to oxidative stress. Induced by a redox state imbalance involving either excessive generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) or dysfunction of the antioxidant system, oxidative stress plays a central role in a common pathophysiology that underpins neuronal cell death in acute neurological disorders epitomized by stroke and chronic ones such as Alzheimer's disease. After cerebral ischemia, for example, inflammation bears a key responsibility in the development of permanent neurological damage. ROS are involved in the mechanism of post-ischemic inflammation. The activation of several inflammatory enzymes produces ROS, which subsequently suppress mitochondrial activity, leading to further tissue damage. Pomalidomide (POM) is a clinically available immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory agent. Using H2O2-treated rat primary cortical neuronal cultures, we found POM displayed neuroprotective effects against oxidative stress and cell death that associated with changes in the nuclear factor erythroid derived 2/superoxide dismutase 2/catalase signaling pathway. POM also suppressed nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer (NF-κB) levels and significantly mitigated cortical neuronal apoptosis by regulating Bax, Cytochrome c and Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase. In summary, POM exerted neuroprotective effects via its anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory actions against H2O2-induced injury. POM consequently represents a potential therapeutic agent against brain damage and related disorders and warrants further evaluation.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Apoptose , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Talidomida/análogos & derivados , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Córtex Cerebral/citologia , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/toxicidade , Neurônios/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Talidomida/farmacologia
18.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 13375, 2018 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30177766

RESUMO

A correction to this article has been published and is linked from the HTML and PDF versions of this paper. The error has been fixed in the paper.

19.
Dev Dyn ; 247(9): 1043-1056, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30016580

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The development of a functioning nervous system requires precise assembly of neuronal connections, which can be achieved by the guidance of axonal growth cones to their proper targets. How axons are guided by signals transmitted to the cytoskeleton through cell surface-expressed guidance receptors remains unclear. We investigated the function of Nck2 adaptor protein as an essential guidance intermediary in the context of spinal lateral motor column (LMC) motor axon trajectory into the limb. RESULTS: Nck2 mRNA and protein are preferentially expressed in the medial subgroups of chick LMC neurons during axon trajectory into the limb. Nck2 loss- and gain-of-function in LMC neurons using in ovo electroporation perturb LMC axon trajectory selection demonstrating an essential role of Nck2 in motor axon guidance. We also showed that Nck2 knockdown and overexpression perturb the growth preference of LMC neurites against ephrins in vitro and Eph-mediated redirection of LMC axons in vivo. Finally, the significant changes of LMC neurite growth preference against ephrins in the context of Nck2 and α2-chimaerin loss- and gain-of-function implicated Nck2 function to modulate α2-chimaerin activity. CONCLUSIONS: Here, we showed that Nck2 is required for Eph-mediated axon trajectory selection from spinal motor neurons through possible interaction with α2-chimaerin. Developmental Dynamics 247:1043-1056, 2018. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Assuntos
Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/fisiologia , Orientação de Axônios/fisiologia , Extremidades/fisiologia , Cones de Crescimento/fisiologia , Neurônios Motores/metabolismo , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/genética , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/metabolismo , Animais , Embrião de Galinha , Quimerina 1/metabolismo , Efrinas/fisiologia , Extremidades/embriologia , Neuritos , Receptores da Família Eph/metabolismo
20.
Mol Oncol ; 12(5): 756-771, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29603594

RESUMO

Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a highly malignant type of brain tumor found in humans. GBM cells reproduce quickly, and the median survival time for patients after therapy is approximately 1 year with a high relapse rate. Current therapies and diagnostic tools for GBM are limited; therefore, we searched for a more favorable therapeutic target or marker protein for both therapy and diagnosis. We used mass spectrometry (MS) analysis to identify GBM-associated marker proteins from human plasma and GBM cell cultures. Additional plasma and 52 brain tissues obtained from patients with gliomas were used to validate the association rate of serum amyloid A1 (SAA1) in different grades of gliomas and its distribution in tumors. Microarray database analysis further validated the coefficient of SAA1 levels in gliomas. The cellular mechanisms of SAA1 in GBM proliferation and infiltration were investigated in vitro. We analyzed the correlation between SAA1 and patients' medication requirement to demonstrate the clinical effects of SAA1 in GBM. SAA1 was identified from MS analysis, and its level was revealed to be correlated with the disease grade, clinical severity, and survival rate of patients with gliomas. In vitro cultures, including GBM cells and normal astrocytes, revealed that SAA1 promotes cell migration and invasion through integrin αVß3 to activate the Erk signaling pathway. Magnetic resonance imaging and tumor region-specific microarray analysis identified a correlation between SAA1 and GBM cell infiltration in patients. In summary, our results demonstrate that SAA1 in combination with integrin αV and ß3 can serve as an indicator of high glioblastoma risk. We also identified the cellular mechanisms of SAA1 contributing to GBM progression, which can serve as the basis for future GBM therapy.


Assuntos
Movimento Celular , Progressão da Doença , Glioblastoma/metabolismo , Glioblastoma/patologia , Integrina alfaVbeta3/metabolismo , Proteína Amiloide A Sérica/metabolismo , Astrócitos/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Permeabilidade da Membrana Celular , Feminino , Glioblastoma/sangue , Glioblastoma/diagnóstico , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Invasividade Neoplásica , Análise de Sobrevida
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA