*J Theor Biol ; 396: 63-74, 2016 May 07.*

##### RESUMO

A slender-body theory for calculating the hydraulic resistance of a single plant root is developed. The work provides an in-depth discussion on the procedure and the assumptions involved in calculating a root×³s internal hydraulic resistance as well as the physical and the mathematical aspects of the external three-dimensional flow around the tip of a root in a saturated soil and how this flow pattern enhances uptake and reduces hydraulic resistance. Analytical solutions for the flux density distribution on the stele-cortex interface, local water-uptake profile inside the stele core, the overall water-uptake at the base of the stele, and the total hydraulic resistance of a root are obtained in the slender-body limit. It is shown that a key parameter controlling a root's hydraulic resistance is the dimensionless axial conductivity in the stele, which depends on the permeabilities of the stele and the cortex as well as the root's radial and axial dimensions. Three-dimensional tip effect reduces a root's hydraulic resistance by as much as 36% when compared to the radial flow theory of Landsberg and Fowkes. In addition, the total hydraulic resistance cannot be generally decomposed into the direct sum of a radial resistance and an axial resistance.

##### Assuntos

Modelos Biológicos , Raízes de Plantas/fisiologia , Água/metabolismo*Electrophoresis ; 31(22): 3634-41, 2010 Nov.*

##### RESUMO

Here we present a scheme to separate particles according to their characteristic physical properties, including size, charge, polarizability, deformability, surface charge mobility, dielectric features, and local capacitance. Separation is accomplished using a microdevice based on direct current insulator gradient dielectrophoresis that can isolate and concentrate multiple analytes simultaneously at different positions. The device is dependent upon dielectrophoretic and electrokinetic forces incorporating a global longitudinal direct current field as well as using shaped insulating features within the channel to induce local gradients. This design allows for the production of strong local field gradients along a global field causing particles to enter, initially transported through the channel by electrophoresis and electroosmosis (electrokinetics), and to be isolated via repulsive dielectrophoretic forces that are proportional to an exponent of the field gradient. Sulfate-capped polystyrene nano and microparticles (20, 200 nm, and 1 µm) were used as probes to demonstrate the influence of channel geometry and applied longitudinal field on separation behavior. These results are consistent with models using similar channel geometry and indicate that specific particulate species can be isolated within a distinct portion of the device, whereas concentrating particles by factors from 10(3) to 10(6).

##### Assuntos

Eletroforese/instrumentação , Eletroforese/métodos , Técnicas Analíticas Microfluídicas/instrumentação , Técnicas Analíticas Microfluídicas/métodos , Modelos Químicos , Eletro-Osmose/instrumentação , Eletro-Osmose/métodos , Microesferas , Nanopartículas , Tamanho da Partícula , Poliestirenos/química , Propriedades de Superfície*Electrophoresis ; 30(9): 1441-8, 2009 May.*

##### RESUMO

Insulator-based dielectrophoretic separation of small particles in a sawtooth channel is studied in the limit of dilute concentration. Pathlines for the movements of infinitesimal particles are constructed and the geometric changes of these pathlines are used to establish the criterion for blocking and trapping particles with different physical properties. The sharp corners of the sawtooth channel create much stronger dielectrophoretic force than channels with smooth corners for blocking particle movements. Particle blocking and trapping depend on particle properties and the geometry of the device. It is shown that once the channel geometric aspect ratios are specified, the blocking criterion depends on only a single dimensionless parameter C defined in terms of the particle mobility ratio (dielectrophoretic versus electrokinetic), the applied voltage and the spacing between the teeth. Selective blocking and trapping of particles can be realized by varying the geometry of the channel progressively. High-resolution separation can be achieved by tuning the differential in the parameter C to a desired level.

##### Assuntos

Fenômenos Químicos , Eletroforese/instrumentação , Modelos Teóricos , Campos Eletromagnéticos , Tamanho da Partícula*Electrophoresis ; 28(7): 1027-35, 2007 Apr.*

##### RESUMO

Electrophoretic differential transport of ionic species in a solution moving from a large reservoir into a small channel is investigated numerically. The system setup is similar to the experiments of Polson, Savin, and Hayes (J. Microcol. Sep. 2000, 12, 98), where the bulk flow into a fused-silica capillary was driven by a pressure differential. A critical condition for achieving the defined differential transport near the channel entrance is found and this condition is solely determined by a dimensionless parameter when the geometry of the system is prescribed. This dimensionless parameter is the ratio between the electrophoretic migration velocity of the species based on the apparent electric intensity and the centerline fluid velocity of the fully developed channel flow. Species concentration distributions are also computed for various conditions. A separation technique can be derived from the experimental condition where a targeted division of species can be created at the channel entrance.