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1.
Cell Prolif ; : e12773, 2020 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32020692

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: SIRT1 is an antioxidative factor, but its mechanism in methamphetamine (MA)-induced lung injury remains unclear. The purpose of this study is to determine whether MA can disrupt the integrity of alveolar epithelial barrier, whether SIRT1 is involved in MA-induced chronic lung injury and whether Resveratrol (Res) can protect the integrity of alveolar epithelial cells by regulating ROS to activate SIRT1/PTEN/p-Akt pathway. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The rats were randomly divided into control group and MA group. Extracted lungs were detected by Western blot, HE staining and immunohistochemistry. The alveolar epithelial cells were treated with MA or/and Res, following by Western blot, LDH leakage assay and flow cytometry. MOE is used for bio-informatics prediction. RESULTS: Chronic exposure to MA can cause slower growth ratio of weight, increased RVI and induced lung injury including the reduced number of alveolar sacs and the thickened alveolar walls. MA-induced apoptosis was associated with SIRT1-related oxidative stress. Res suppressed ROS levels, activated SIRT1, negatively regulated PTEN, phosphorylated Akt, reduced LDH leakage, increased the expression of ZO-1 and E-cadherin and inhibited the apoptosis of alveolar epithelial cells to attenuate MA-induced higher permeability of alveolar epithelium. CONCLUSIONS: MA disrupted the integrity of alveolar epithelial barrier. Res inhibited oxidative stress and reversed MA-induced higher permeability and apoptosis of alveolar epithelium by the activation of SIRT1/PTEN/p-Akt pathway.

2.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 2020 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32022007

RESUMO

Here, the carrier dynamics of a π-conjugated polymer is monitored by voltage-dependent surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). The conductive polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) is employed as a metal-free SERS substrate. Under different voltage conditions, the SERS performance of the semiconductors' rectification characteristic is discussed. Our results open an unprecedented regime for conducting polymer-based SERS.

3.
Mol Carcinog ; 2020 Feb 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32037613

RESUMO

Brain metastasis is a leading cause of death worldwide, but the mechanism involved remains unclear. Stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1)/C-X-C motif chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) signaling has been reported to induce the directed metastasis of cancers, and adenosine A2A receptor activation suppresses the SDF-1/CXCR4 interaction. However, whether A2A receptor activation implicates the SDF-1/CXCR4 signaling pathway and thus modulates brain metastasis remains unclear. In this study, Western blot was performed to evaluate the protein levels. Cell invasion and migration assays were used to estimate the metastasis ability of PC-9 cells. The viability of cells was demonstrated by lactate dehydrogenase and cell proliferation assays. And the findings in vitro were further identified in nude mice. Notably, adenosine A2A receptor activation inhibited the proliferation and viability of PC-9 cells and thus suppressed the brain metastasis. A2A receptor stimulation protected the function of blood-brain barrier (BBB). The suppression of brain metastasis and the protection of BBB by A2A receptor relied on SDF-1/CXCR4 signaling, and treatment using A2A receptor agonist and CXCR4 antagonist protected the nude mice from malignancy metastasis in vivo. Adenosine A2A receptor activation suppressed the brain metastasis by implicating the SDF-1/CXCR4 axis and protecting the BBB.

4.
Gene ; 735: 144407, 2020 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32007582

RESUMO

Krüppel-like factor13 (klf13), a member of the Krüppel-like factor family, plays a vital role in cell proliferation and differentiation. When sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus is attacted by predators, it can spit viscera in order to escape attack, and then complete the intestine regeneration process within 15 days. However, the potential role of klf13 from A. japonicus (Aj-klf13) in the intestine regeneration of sea cucumber A. japonicus still remains unknown. In present paper, the full-length cDNA of klf13 gene from A. japonicus was cloned by RACE techniques, and it was composed of 2496 bp, including a 245 bp 5' UTR, a 1396 bp 3' UTR and a 855 bp open reading frame, which encoded a polypeptide of 284 amino acids and C2H2 zinc finger domains. The expression level of Aj-klf13 showed an increasing trend in intestine regeneration process of sea cucumber, and it reached the highest at 6 days, returning to the normal at 15 days. By western blot, the expression level of Aj-KLF13 protein was basically consistent with that of Aj-klf13 gene. The expression locations of protein by immunofluorescence indicated that Aj-KLF13 was widely expressed in the normal physiological state and intestine regeneration process of sea cucumbers, which was in the nucleus. There was tissue specificity of the protein, which was mainly distributed in luminal epithelium and coelomic epithelium. These results indicate that Aj-klf13 plays a crucial role in the intestine regeneration process of sea cucumber A. japonicus.

5.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(3): e18902, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32011519

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a neurological disorder that causes an irresistible urge to move the legs. An increasing number of studies have been published in recent years to support the effectiveness of acupuncture for RLS. We will conduct a comprehensive systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the evidence of randomized controlled trials for acupuncture treatment of RLS. METHODS: The following electronic databases will be searched: PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, the China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Chinese Biomedical Literature Database, and China Science and Technology Journal Database. The range of publication time will be from the inception of the database to September 2019. Two reviewers will independently conduct article selection, data collection, and risk of bias evaluation. Any disagreement will be resolved by discussion with the third reviewer. Review Manager Software 5.3 will be used for meta-analysis. The Cochrane risk of bias tool will be used to assess the risk of bias. RESULTS: This study will provide a high-quality evidence to assess the effectiveness and safety of acupuncture for RLS. CONCLUSIONS: This systematic review will explore whether acupuncture is an effective and safe intervention for RLS. REGISTRATION: PROSPERO CRD42019148948.

6.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(3): 158, 2020 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32016573

RESUMO

Faecal microorganisms represent a key threat to human health. Potential origins of faecal microbial contamination in a typical urban-representative micro-scale were evaluated. The quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) method was used in this study. The Bacteroidetes is selected as the indicative microorganism in runoff samples that are collected during four representative stormwater events in north China. The principal component analysis (PCA) method indicated the distribution feature of the environmental factors. The largest contributor is dog, followed by bird and human to the faecal pollution in stormwater runoff. The output of human and dog faecal pollutants in response to the first flush effect of nonpoint source pollution while the transmit time of bird faecal pollutant is relatively longer. In addition, the number of antecedent drying days represents the key factor for dog faecal pollution, while human faecal pollution is impacted by more factors. The results of this study will provide sound evidence for the tracking and management of nonpoint source faecal pollution in urban catchment areas.

7.
Food Funct ; 2020 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32031184

RESUMO

The aim of the present study was to develop a self-emulsifying drug delivery system (SEDDS) containing the extract of S oleraceus Linn (SOL) with improved intestinal stability in order to increase oral bio-potency. SOL was effectively incorporated into emulsions, which showed resistance to in vitro digestion without any destruction of its phenolic acids, glycosides and aglycone. SEDDS and SOL were also prepared for the comparison of in vivo anti-diabetic effects. Four weeks of daily treatments of SEDDS dramatically improved the quality of life for diabetic rats. Streptozotocin (STZ) caused body weight reduction, which was reversed by SEDDS at a low dose (100 mg kg-1), and it was more effective than SOL at a high dose (200 mg kg-1). SEDDS also improved the response to glucose tolerance, which was significantly higher than that of SOL. On the basis of these findings, the SEDDS approach might be an efficacious dosage option to enhance the nutraceutical properties of SOL.

8.
Oral Dis ; 2020 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32031319

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The study explored the potential function of astrocyte elevated gene 1 (AEG-1) on angiogenesis in tongue squamous cell carcinoma (TSCC) in TSCC cell lines. METHODS: The different degrees of angiogenesis were detected in TSCC cell lines expressing different levels of AEG-1 by chick chorioallantoic membrane experimental model (CAM). Next, we established xenografts of different TSCC cell lines with different expression levels of AEG-1 in nude mice and conducted immunohistochemistry to evaluate the expression of the angiogenesis-associated factor i.e. vascular endothelial growth receptor factor 2 (VEGFR-2) and microvessel density (MVD). Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) was detected by ELISA assay. RESULTS: CAM assay showed that the number of vessels was significantly reduced in AEG-1-down um1 cell line (P < 0.05), whereas the number was significantly increased in AEG-1-over um2 cell line (P < 0.05). Moreover, upregulated AEG-1 expression level was associated with higher tumor angiogenesis, which was reflected by an augmented expression levels of VEGF (P < 0.01), VEGFR-2 (P < 0.05) and MVD counting (P < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated that AEG-1 can promote tumor angiogenesis in TSCC and inhibition of tumor angiogenesis by repressing the expression of AEG-1 may be a novel potential treatment approach for TSCC.

9.
Rev Sci Instrum ; 91(1): 015104, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32012536

RESUMO

Image segmentation is a key technique in image analysis for object identification. In this paper, a hybrid segmentation method is proposed, which is based on the Anisotropic Gaussian Kernel (ANGK) edge detector and region adjacent graph (RAG) merging algorithm. An anisotropic directional derivative filter is constructed by angled ANGK to detect the edge contour of original images. Based on the gradient magnitude pattern of the edge contour from ANGK processing, watershed transform is adopted to produce initial partition (coarse segmentation result). Finally, combined with the RAG region merging algorithm, the proposed method performs fine segmentation by merging similar fragmented regions (initial partition) iteratively. Additionally, statistic similarity measure and shape cost function in merging cost are also introduced. They provide quantitative criteria for region merging, which have critical influences on the detection result. A series of experiments are conducted to evaluate the performance of this method, and a preferable localization accuracy as well as noise robustness is proved. Compared with conventional edge and region based methods, the proposed one has a superior segmentation effect. Another advantage is that the problem of oversegmentation can be solved effectively.

10.
Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces ; 189: 110848, 2020 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32058255

RESUMO

Some additives had provided the expansion capacity to the polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) bone cement and also reduced its maximum reaction temperature. However, the corresponding modified bone cement displayed inferior simulated body fluid (SBF) absorption capacity and expansion behavior, the mechanism of SBF absorption and the trend of expansion stress were ignored additionally. In this study, a homogeneous distribution of poly (methyl methacrylate-co-acrylic acid) [P(MMA-AA)] microspheres led to the formation of microchannels that favored the delivery of SBF to the interior, causing an increased absorption capacity and enhanced expansion behavior before solidification of the bone cement, with the maximum equilibrium absorption ratio and the expansion ratio reaching 27.3 % and 26.3 %, respectively, at an AA content of 50 %. In addition, the expansion stress induced by the expansion behavior experienced a gradual increase from the 0 s to 2590s, followed by a sharp climbed in a short period ranging from 2590s to 2900s, finally reaching maximum stress of 82.1 MPa. Furthermore, the expansion stress within the maximum value could be obtained by controlling the AA content in the P(MMA-AA) bone cement. With the above characteristics, the prepared P(MMA-AA) bone cement has potential applications as a filling and adhesive material in arthroplasties, vertebroplasties, joint replacements, bone screws, and dentistry.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32075373

RESUMO

Straightforward encapsulation of Pt clusters (∼2 nm) into the pure silica TON type zeolite (ZSM-22) was reached in a dry-gel-conversion route, where the ionic liquid template was removed via the hydrocracking-calcination-reduction approach. The obtained Pt@ZSM-22 series possessed high crystallinity, large surface area and ultra-fine Pt clusters inside the zeolite crystals. They exhibited remarkable activity in the semi-hydrogenation of phenylacetylene into styrene; the lead sample with 0.2 wt% Pt loading afforded a large turnover number up to 117787. The preferentially high affinity of the pure silica ZSM-22 encapsulated Pt clusters towards the substrate phenylacetylene rather than the hydrogenated product was derived from the unique space-confinement effect of zeolite microchannels, which is responsible for such excellent performance.

12.
Sci Transl Med ; 12(531)2020 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32075942

RESUMO

Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are emerging regulators of biological processes in the vessel wall; however, their role in atherosclerosis remains poorly defined. We used RNA sequencing to profile lncRNAs derived specifically from the aortic intima of Ldlr -/- mice on a high-cholesterol diet during lesion progression and regression phases. We found that the evolutionarily conserved lncRNA small nucleolar host gene-12 (SNHG12) is highly expressed in the vascular endothelium and decreases during lesion progression. SNHG12 knockdown accelerated atherosclerotic lesion formation by 2.4-fold in Ldlr -/- mice by increased DNA damage and senescence in the vascular endothelium, independent of effects on lipid profile or vessel wall inflammation. Conversely, intravenous delivery of SNHG12 protected the tunica intima from DNA damage and atherosclerosis. LncRNA pulldown in combination with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis showed that SNHG12 interacted with DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK), an important regulator of the DNA damage response. The absence of SNHG12 reduced the DNA-PK interaction with its binding partners Ku70 and Ku80, abrogating DNA damage repair. Moreover, the anti-DNA damage agent nicotinamide riboside (NR), a clinical-grade small-molecule activator of NAD+, fully rescued the increases in lesional DNA damage, senescence, and atherosclerosis mediated by SNHG12 knockdown. SNHG12 expression was also reduced in pig and human atherosclerotic specimens and correlated inversely with DNA damage and senescent markers. These findings reveal a role for this lncRNA in regulating DNA damage repair in the vessel wall and may have implications for chronic vascular disease states and aging.

13.
Stem Cell Res Ther ; 11(1): 77, 2020 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32085810

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) exhibit limitless pluripotent plasticity and proliferation capability to provide an abundant cell source for tissue regenerative medicine. Thus, inducing iPSCs toward a specific differentiation direction is an important scientific question. Traditionally, iPSCs have been induced to chondrocytes with the help of some small molecules within 21-36 days. To speed up the differentiation of iPSCs, we supposed to utilize bioactive ceramics to assist chondrogenic-induction process. METHODS: In this study, we applied ionic products (3.125~12.5 mg/mL) of the lithium-containing bioceramic (Li2Ca4Si4O13, L2C4S4) and individual Li+ (5.78~23.73 mg/L) in the direct chondrogenic differentiation of human iPSCs. RESULTS: Compared to pure chondrogenic medium and extracts of tricalcium phosphate (TCP), the extracts of L2C4S4 at a certain concentration range (3.125~12.5 mg/mL) significantly enhanced chondrogenic proteins Type II Collagen (COL II)/Aggrecan/ SRY-Box 9 (SOX9) synthesis and reduced hypertrophic protein type X collagen (COL X)/matrix metallopeptidase 13 (MMP13) production in iPSCs-derived chondrocytes within 14 days, suggesting that these newly generated chondrocytes exhibited favorable chondrocytes characteristics and maintained a low-hypertrophy state. Further studies demonstrated that the individual Li+ ions at the concentration range of 5.78~23.73 mg/L also accelerated the chondrogenic differentiation of iPSCs, indicating that Li+ ions played a pivotal role in chondrogenic differentiation process. CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicated that lithium-containing bioceramic with bioactive specific ionic components may be used for a promising platform for inducing iPSCs toward chondrogenic differentiation and cartilage regeneration.

14.
Mol Oncol ; 2020 Feb 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32086862

RESUMO

Matrix Gla protein (MGP) has been widely reported as an extracellular matrix protein with abnormal expression in various types of cancer. However, the function of intracellular MGP in gastric cancer (GC) cells remains largely unknown. Here, we demonstrated aberrantly high expression of intracellular MGP in GC as compared to adjacent normal tissues by immunohistochemistry. Moreover, TCGA dataset analysis suggested a positive correlation between MGP overexpression and unfavorable prognosis. MGP silencing reduced cell proliferation, migration, invasion and survival in GC cell lines. Gene set enrichment analysis (GESA) of a TCGA dataset indicated significant enrichment of the IL2-STAT5 signaling in MGP-high GC patients. Immunofluorescence staining and immunoprecipitation showed that MGP binds to p-STAT5 in the nuclei of GC cells. Furthermore, ChIP-qPCR and luciferase reporter assays indicated that MGP acts as a transcriptional co-activator through the enhancement of STAT5 binding to target gene promoters. Use of STAT5 inhibitor revealed that the oncogenic functions of intracellular MGP mainly depend on the JAK2/STAT5 signaling pathway. Taken together, our results indicate that intracellular MGP promotes proliferation and survival of GC cells by acting as a transcriptional co-activator of STAT5. The detected aberrant, high MGP expression in GC tissues highlights MGP as a potential new prognostic biomarker in patients with GC.

15.
Food Chem ; 317: 126418, 2020 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32087512

RESUMO

The influence of encapsulation with caseins on the stability of cyanidin 3-O-glucoside (C3G) was investigated. The modified casein nanoparticles (MCs) prepared at pH 5.5 after heated at 80 °C for 30 min was applied to encapsulate C3G. The diameter of nanoparticle (MCs-C3G) was 110 ± 0.31 nm and zeta-potential was -8.83 ± 0.52 mV. The molecular weight of α-casein (32 kDa) and ß-casein (25 kDa) increased along with the encapsulation of C3G. The interactions of MCs with C3G were examined at pH 6.3 by fluorescence spectroscopy and IR spectroscopy. MCs encapsulated C3G mainly via the hydrophobic interaction. The secondary structures of caseins were changed along with the combination of C3G, with a decreasing in α-helix, turn random, and coil structure, as well as increased ß-sheet. In addition, the MCs-C3G interaction appeared to have a positive effect on the thermal, oxidation and photo stability of C3G.

16.
Genomics ; 2020 Feb 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32045671

RESUMO

The development of embryonic cells involves several continuous stages, and some genes are related to embryogenesis. To date, few studies have systematically investigated changes in gene expression profiles during mammalian embryogenesis. In this study, a computational analysis using machine learning algorithms was performed on the gene expression profiles of mouse embryonic cells at seven stages. First, the profiles were analyzed through a powerful Monte Carlo feature selection method for the generation of a feature list. Second, increment feature selection was applied on the list by incorporating two classification algorithms: support vector machine (SVM) and repeated incremental pruning to produce error reduction (RIPPER). Through SVM, we extracted several latent gene biomarkers, indicating the stages of embryonic cells, and constructed an optimal SVM classifier that produced a nearly perfect classification of embryonic cells. Furthermore, some interesting rules were accessed by the RIPPER algorithm, suggesting different expression patterns for different stages.

17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32065363

RESUMO

In the original publication Fig. 10b was erroneously plotted due to the authors' carelessness and unintentional misoperation.

18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32050773

RESUMO

SIGNIFICANCE: Epidemiological studies indicate that metabolic disorders are associated with an increased risk for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Metabolic remodeling occurs in the central nervous system (CNS) and periphery, even in the early stages of AD. Mitochondrial dysfunction has been widely accepted as a molecular mechanism underlying metabolic disorders. Therefore, focusing on early metabolic changes, especially from the perspective of mitochondria, could be of interest for early AD diagnosis and intervention. Recent Advances: We and others have identified that the levels of several metabolites are fluctuated in periphery prior to their accumulation in the CNS, which plays an important role in the pathogenesis of AD. Mitochondrial remodeling is likely one of the earliest signs of AD, linking nutritional imbalance to cognitive deficits. Notably, by improving mitochondrial function, mitochondrial nutrients efficiently rescue cellular metabolic dysfunction in the CNS and periphery in individuals with AD. CRITICAL ISSUES: Peripheral metabolic disorders should be intensively explored and evaluated for the early diagnosis of AD. The circulating metabolites derived from mitochondrial remodeling represent the novel potential diagnostic biomarkers for AD that are more readily detected than CNS-oriented biomarkers. Moreover, mitochondrial nutrients provide a promising approach to preventing and delaying AD progression. FUTURE DIRECTIONS: Abnormal mitochondrial metabolism in the CNS and periphery is involved in AD pathogenesis. More clinical studies provide evidence for the suitability and reliability of circulating metabolites and cytokines for the early diagnosis of AD. Targeting mitochondria to rewire cellular metabolism is a promising approach to preventing AD and ameliorating AD-related metabolic disorders.

19.
Curr Microbiol ; 2020 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32052138

RESUMO

Fecal microbes play an important role in the survival and health of wild animals. Spotted hyena (Crocuta crocuta) is one of the representative carnivores in Africa. In this study, we examined the fecal microflora of spotted hyena by conducting high-throughput sequencing of the fecal microbial 16S rRNA gene V3-V4 high mutation region. The effects of age, sex, and feeding environment on the fecal microbiota of spotted hyenas were determined. The results showed that the core bacteria phyla of spotted hyenas fecal microbiota include Firmicutes (at an average relative abundance of 53.93%), Fusobacteria (19.56%), Bacteroidetes (11.40%), Actinobacteria (5.78%), and Proteobacteria (3.26%), etc. Age, gender, and feeding environment all had important effects on the fecal microbiota of spotted hyenas, among which feeding environment might be the most significant. The abundance of the Firmicutes in the adult group was significantly higher than that in the juvenile group, whereas the abundance of Fusobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Proteobacteria were significantly lower than that in the juvenile group. The abundance of Lachnospiraceae and Ruminococcaceae in the female group was significantly higher than that in the male group. There were significant differences between the fecal microbial communities of Jinan group and Weihai group, and microbes from the phyla Firmicutes and Synergistetes were representative species associated with the difference.

20.
Exp Cell Res ; : 111893, 2020 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32035133

RESUMO

Compared with noninvasive tumor cells, glioma cells overexpress chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4), which exhibits significantly greater expression in invasive tumor cells than in noninvasive tumor cells. C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 12 (CXCL12, also known as stromal derived factor-1, SDF-1) and its cell surface receptor CXCR4 activate a signaling axis that induces the expression of membrane type-2 matrix metalloproteinase (MT2-MMP), which plays a pivotal role in the invasion and migration of various cancer cells; however, the specific mechanism involved in this is unclear. Recently, studies have shown that invadopodia can recruit and secrete related enzymes, such as matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), to degrade the surrounding extracellular matrix (ECM), promoting the invasion and migration of tumor cells. Phosphorylated cortactin (pY421-cortactin) is required for the formation and maturation of invadopodia, but the upstream regulatory factors and kinases involved in phosphorylation have not been elucidated. In this study, we found that CXCL12/CXCR4 was capable of inducing glioma cell invadopodia formation, probably by regulating cortactin phosphorylation. The interaction of cortactin and Arg (also known as Abl-related nonreceptor tyrosine kinase, ABL2) in glioma cells was demonstrated. The silencing of Arg inhibited glioma cell invadopodia formation and invasion by blocking cortactin phosphorylation. Moreover, CXCL12 could not induce glioma cell invasion in Arg-knockdown glioma cells. Based on these results, it can be concluded that Arg mediates CXCL12/CXCR4-induced glioma cell invasion, and CXCL12/CXCR4 regulates invadopodia maturation through the Arg-cortactin pathway, which indicates that Arg could be a candidate therapeutic target to inhibit glioma cell invasion.

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