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1.
Facial Plast Surg Aesthet Med ; 22(1): 36-41, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32053421

RESUMO

Importance: This is the first eye-tracking study to use a tasked age estimation paradigm to explore the facial cues of age as seen by casual observers. Objectives: Determine where observers gaze on faces when tasked with estimating an individual's age. Design, Setting, and Participants: This was a prospective controlled experiment, which took place at an academic tertiary referral center. In total, 220 casual observers (80 untasked, 140 tasked) viewed frontal facial images of women while an infrared eye-tracking monitor recorded their eye movements and fixations in real time. Main Outcomes and Measures: Multivariate Hotelling's analysis followed by planned posthypothesis testing was used to compare fixation durations for predefined regions of interest, including the central triangle, upper face, midface, lower face, and neck between tasked and untasked observers. Results: A total of 80 observers (mean age 23.6 years, 53% female) successfully completed the first untasked eye-tracking experiment. A total of 140 observers (mean age 26.1 years, 60% female) successfully completed the second age estimation experiment. On multivariate analysis, there were significant differences in the distribution of attention between observers in the two experiments (T2 = 99.70; F(5,2084) = 19.9012, p < 0.0001). On planned posthypothesis testing, observers attended significantly more to the lower third of the face (0.20 s, p < 0.0001, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.14-0.27 s) and neck (0.05 s, p = 0.0074, 95% CI 0.01-0.08 s) and less to the upper third of the face (-0.27 s, p < 0.0001, 95% CI -0.40 to -0.14 s) when tasked. There was no significant difference in time spent on the whole face in the two experiments, suggesting that peripheral elements such as hair color or jewelry did not significantly influence gaze patterns. Conclusions and Relevance: Humans form judgments about others every day of their lives, and age perception colors their every interaction. To our knowledge, this study is the first to use eye tracking to investigate facial cues of age. The results showed that when tasked with estimating age, casual observer visual attention was shifted toward the lower face when compared with those who were untasked. These data inform our understanding of facial age perception and potential areas to target for facial rejuvenation. Level of Evidence: NA.

2.
Laryngoscope ; 2019 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31660610

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Measure attentional distraction of neck scars after open neck surgery compared to transoral endoscopic thyroidectomy via a vestibular approach (TOETVA) or transoral endoscopic parathyroidectomy via a vestibular approach (TOEPVA) using eye-tracking technology. METHODS: Casual observers viewed facial images of patients who underwent open neck surgery, TOETVA/TOEPVA, or no surgery (controls). An eye-tracking monitor recorded eye fixations in real time. Multivariate Hotelling's analysis followed by post-hypothesis testing compared fixation durations for predefined regions of interest, including the eyes, nose, mouth, neck, and remaining face between open neck surgery patients, transoral neck surgery patients, and controls. RESULTS: One hundred forty observers completed the experiment. The majority of their attention was directed towards the central triangle (eyes, nose, mouth). On multivariate analysis, distribution of attention was significantly different on the faces of those who underwent open neck surgery versus TOETVA/TOEPVA (T2 = 43.66; F[32,131] = 14.5389, P < .0001). Observers attended significantly more to the neck (0.20 seconds, P < .0001; 95% CI, 0.13, 0.26 s) and less to the peripheral face (-0.24 seconds, P = .0031; 95% CI, -0.39, -0.08 s) of open neck surgery patients. In patients who followed up months after surgery, significant differences persisted (T2 = 13.97; F[3451] = 4.6377, P = .0033). By contrast, fixation patterns for TOETVA/TOEPVA patients were not significantly different from controls (T2 = 5.59, F[31,186] = 1.8602, P = .1345). Observer race and gender did not significantly affect attention to neck scars. CONCLUSION: Scars following open neck surgery draw attention in casual observers. This attentional distraction is prevented in TOETVA/TOEPVA patients due to the absence of a scar, even months after surgery. Moreover, visual processing of TOETVA/TOEPVA patients' faces is similar to that of controls. These data support the effectiveness of transoral neck surgery in giving patients a cosmetic result that does not distract the attention of observers. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: NA Laryngoscope, 2019.

3.
JAMA Netw Open ; 2(5): e194829, 2019 05 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31150079

RESUMO

Importance: Transoral endocrine surgery (TES) allows thyroid and parathyroid operations to be performed without leaving any visible scar on the body. Controversy regarding the value of TES remains, in part owing to the common belief that TES is only applicable to a small, select group of patients. Knowledge of the overall applicability of these procedures is essential to understand the operation, as well as to decide the amount of effort and resources that should be allocated to further study the safety, efficacy, and value of these operations. Objective: To determine what percentage of US patients undergoing thyroid and parathyroid surgery are eligible for TES using currently accepted exclusion criteria. Design, Setting, and Participants: Cross-sectional study of 1000 consecutive thyroid and parathyroid operations (with or without neck dissection) performed between July 1, 2015, and July 1, 2018, at 3 high-volume academic US thyroid- and parathyroid-focused surgical practices (2 general surgery, 1 otolaryngology-head and neck endocrine surgery). Eligibility for TES was determined by retrospectively applying previously published exclusion criteria to the cases. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was the percentage of thyroid and parathyroid cases eligible for TES. Secondary outcomes were a subgroup analysis of the percentage of specific types of cases eligible and the reasons for ineligibility. Results: The mean (SD) age of the 1000 surgical patients was 53 (15) years, mean (SD) body mass index (calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared) was 29 (7), and 747 (75.0%) of the patients were women. Five hundred fifty-eight (55.8%) of the patients were eligible for TES. Most patients with thyroid nodules with cytologically indeterminate behavior (165 of 217 [76.0%]), benign thyroid conditions (166 of 240 [69.2%]), and primary hyperparathyroidism (158 of 273 [57.9%]) were eligible for TES, but only 67 of 231 (29.0%) of patients with thyroid cancer were eligible. Among all 1000 cases reviewed, previous neck operation (97 of 441 [22.0%]), nonlocalized primary hyperparathyroidism (78 of 441 [17.7%]), and need for neck dissection (66 of 441 [15.0%]) were the most common reasons for ineligibility. Conclusions and Relevance: More than half of all patients undergoing thyroid and parathyroid surgery in this study were eligible for TES. This broad applicability suggests that a prospective multicenter trial is reasonable to definitively study the safety, outcomes, and cost of TES.


Assuntos
Cirurgia Endoscópica por Orifício Natural/métodos , Paratireoidectomia/métodos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Robóticos/métodos , Tireoidectomia/métodos , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cirurgia Endoscópica por Orifício Natural/estatística & dados numéricos , Esvaziamento Cervical/estatística & dados numéricos , Paratireoidectomia/estatística & dados numéricos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Robóticos/estatística & dados numéricos , Tireoidectomia/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30860578

RESUMO

CONTEXT: The transoral endoscopic thyroidectomy vestibular approach (TOETVA) is a recently described procedure for surgical management of select thyroid pathology without the need for a cutaneous scar. TOETVA is far from the first described remote-access approach to the thyroid. In fact, numerous such techniques have been described over the past 20 years, although none have gained wide-spread implementation in North America or Europe. TOETVA, with its rapid growth worldwide and excellent outcomes to date, however, may succeed where these prior described techniques have failed. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: The English literature was reviewed using the following keywords: transoral thyroidectomy, remote-access thyroidectomy, minimally-invasive thyroidectomy, and TOETVA. As three recent systematic reviews have been performed in regards to the technique, this manuscript does not seek to provide a fourth such text. Rather, here we summarize salient findings from these reviews and focus on candidates for the procedure, technique-specific characteristics which have led to TOETVA's early success, and prospects for the future. EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: TOETVA is the only thyroidectomy approach obviating the need for a cutaneous incision, and offers several advantages over prior described remote-access thyroidectomy techniques. These include a favorable anatomic surgical perspective, a comparatively short learning curve, no requirement for expensive instrumentation, and a broad inclusion criterion. These characteristics have facilitated the excellent surgical outcomes to date. CONCLUSIONS: TOETVA is a suitable surgical option for a carefully selected patient population with proven safety and feasibility. The potential value of the procedure outside enhanced cosmesis continues to be defined.

5.
J Am Coll Surg ; 228(4): 516-522, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30586640

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Many remote-access approaches (RAAs) to the thyroid have been described to circumvent anterior neck scarring, including the transaxillary, robotic facelift, and transoral endoscopic vestibular approaches. These techniques have been popularized in Asia, but adoption has been slow in North America. We aimed to examine multi-institutional North American outcomes with RAA thyroidectomy in the context of these institutions' transcervical approach (TCA) outcomes. STUDY DESIGN: Cases of lobectomy and total thyroidectomy via transaxillary, robotic facelift, and transoral endoscopic vestibular approaches were reviewed. Demographic characteristics, outcomes, and complications were compared with the same measures in patients undergoing lobectomy and total thyroidectomy via TCA by the primary RAA surgeons at each institution. Patients who underwent parathyroidectomy or other concomitant neck dissection procedures were excluded. RESULTS: Two hundred and sixteen RAA thyroidectomies were attempted (92 transoral endoscopic vestibular approaches, 70 transaxillary, and 54 robotic facelift) and 410 TCA thyroidectomies were performed. There was no difference in mean index nodule sizes between RAA (2.8 ± 1.6 cm) and TCA (2.9 ± 1.9 cm) cohorts (p = 0.72). Median operative times for lobectomy were 146 minutes (range 60 to 343 minutes) and 90 minutes (range 25 to 247 minutes) for the RAA and TCA cohorts, respectively (p < 0.0001). Median operative time for total thyroidectomy was 170 minutes (range 100 to 398 minutes) vs 126.5 minutes (range 51 to 260 minutes) for the RAA and TCA cohorts, respectively (p < 0.0001). There was no difference in the rates of permanent recurrent laryngeal nerve injury between the RAA (0 of 216 [0%]) and TCA (0 of 410 [0%]) cohorts (p = 0.99). CONCLUSIONS: Remote-access approach thyroidectomy can be performed in a select North American patient population with outcomes comparable with TCA.


Assuntos
Cirurgia Endoscópica por Orifício Natural/métodos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Robóticos/métodos , Tireoidectomia/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Axila , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , América do Norte , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Estudos Retrospectivos
6.
BMC Pulm Med ; 18(1): 30, 2018 Feb 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29422061

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mortality is similarly high among individuals with usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) due to idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) and interstitial pneumonia with autoimmune features (IPAF). Circulating anti-nuclear antibodies (ANA) are commonly found in this patient population, suggesting possible aberrant immune activation. Because an environment of oxidative stress can result from immunologic activation, we hypothesized that ANA positive patients with UIP would have improved outcome when exposed to the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) compared to ANA negative patients. METHODS: A single center, retrospective cohort analysis was performed. Patients with UIP due to IPF and IPAF were stratified according to ANA status to and NAC exposure. Transplant-free survival (TFS) was assessed using the Kaplan-Meier estimator and multivariable Cox regression adjusted for diagnosis, gender/age/physiology score, immunosuppressant exposure and anti-fibrotic exposure. RESULTS: Of 293 individuals with UIP due to IPF (74%) or IPAF (26%), NAC exposure was documented in 58 (19.8%). Among NAC exposed individuals, 33 (56.9%) were ANA seropositive and 25 (43.1%) were seronegative. NAC exposure was associated with improved TFS survival among ANA seropositive individuals in unadjusted analysis (plogrank = 0.02) and after multi-variable adjustment (HR 0.51, 95% CI 0.30-0.87; p = 0.01). There was no association between NAC exposure and TFS in ANA seronegative individuals (HR 1.26, 95% CI 0.69-2.32; p = 0.45). Formal interaction testing confirmed NAC*ANA interaction (p = 0.04) and sensitivity analysis demonstrated an increasing effect size associated with NAC therapy as ANA titer increased. Among patients with available genetic data, a marginally higher proportion of ANA positive patients (p = 0.08) carried the rs3750920 (TOLLIP) genotype previously shown to predict favorable outcome in NAC exposed patients. CONCLUSION: NAC exposure is associated with improved transplant-free survival ANA positive patients with UIP. These findings support the prospective collection of ANA data in in future NAC clinical trials performed in patients with UIP.


Assuntos
Acetilcisteína/uso terapêutico , Depuradores de Radicais Livres/uso terapêutico , Fibrose Pulmonar Idiopática/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Anticorpos Antinucleares/imunologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Fibrose Pulmonar Idiopática/imunologia , Fibrose Pulmonar Idiopática/mortalidade , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Transplante de Pulmão/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida
7.
Chest ; 153(2): 349-360, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28964798

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The current interstitial lung disease (ILD) classification has overlapping clinical presentations and outcomes. Cluster analysis modeling is a valuable tool in identifying distinct clinical phenotypes in heterogeneous diseases. However, this approach has yet to be implemented in ILD. METHODS: Using cluster analysis, novel ILD phenotypes were identified among subjects from a longitudinal ILD cohort, and outcomes were stratified according to phenotypic clusters compared with subgroups according to current American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society ILD classification criteria. RESULTS: Among subjects with complete data for baseline variables (N = 770), four clusters were identified. Cluster 1 (ie, younger white obese female subjects) had the highest baseline FVC and diffusion capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide (Dlco). Cluster 2 (ie, younger African-American female subjects with elevated antinuclear antibody titers) had the lowest baseline FVC. Cluster 3 (ie, elderly white male smokers with coexistent emphysema) had intermediate FVC and Dlco. Cluster 4 (ie, elderly white male smokers with severe honeycombing) had the lowest baseline Dlco. Compared with classification according to ILD subgroup, stratification according to phenotypic clusters was associated with significant differences in monthly FVC decline (Cluster 4, -0.30% vs Cluster 2, 0.01%; P < .0001). Stratification by using clusters also independently predicted progression-free survival (P < .001) and transplant-free survival (P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: Among adults with diverse chronic ILDs, cluster analysis using baseline characteristics identified four distinct clinical phenotypes that might better predict meaningful clinical outcomes than current ILD diagnostic criteria.


Assuntos
Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/classificação , Idoso , Doença Crônica , Análise por Conglomerados , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo , Fibrose Pulmonar/patologia
9.
Microbiome ; 5(1): 67, 2017 06 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28666467

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Progressive, chronic bacterial infection of the airways is a leading cause of death in cystic fibrosis (CF). Culture-independent methods based on sequencing of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene describe a distinct microbial community that decreases in richness and diversity with disease progression. Understanding the functional characteristics of the microbial community may aid in identifying potential therapies and may assist in management, but current methods are cumbersome. Here, we demonstrate the use of an oxidative metabolic assay as a complement to sequencing methods to describe the microbiome in the airways of patients with CF. METHODS: Expectorated sputum was collected from 16 CF subjects and 8 control subjects. The Biolog Gen III Microplate was used in a community-level physiological profiling (CLPP)-based assay to examine oxidative metabolic activity. 16S rRNA V4 amplicon sequencing was used to characterize the taxonomy and diversity of the samples. Correlations were then identified among the oxidative activity and taxonomy data. In an additional paired analysis, sputum from seven CF subjects were collected at two separate clinic visits and compared for oxidative activity, taxonomy, and diversity. RESULTS: Significant differences in oxidative metabolic activity, microbial taxonomy, and diversity were found between the CF and control sputum samples. Oxidative activity correlated positively with total genera but not with other measures of diversity or taxonomy, demonstrating that the metabolic assay complements the structural aspects of the microbiome. As expected, Pseudomonas was significantly enriched in CF samples, while Streptococcus and Prevotella were similarly abundant in both CF and control samples. Paired analysis of CF samples at separate clinic visits revealed comparable oxidative activity that correlated with similar stability in taxonomy and diversity. CONCLUSIONS: The CLPP assay used in this study complements existing sequencing methods to delineate the oxidative metabolic footprint of the CF airway bacterial community. This method may be useful to study the CF microbial community over time and with changes in disease state.


Assuntos
Bactérias/metabolismo , Fibrose Cística/microbiologia , Microbiota/fisiologia , Sistema Respiratório/microbiologia , Adulto , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Fibrose Cística/metabolismo , DNA Bacteriano/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Redes e Vias Metabólicas , Metaboloma , Microbiota/genética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Escarro/microbiologia
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