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1.
Med Decis Making ; : 272989X211017105, 2021 May 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34041964

RESUMO

Medicare's Hospital Value-Based Purchasing Program (HVBP) is the first national pay-for-performance program to combine measures of quality of care with a measure of episode spending. We estimated the implicit tradeoffs between mortality reduction and spending reduction. To earn points in HVBP, a hospital can either lower mortality or reduce spending, creating a tradeoff between the 2 measures. We analyzed the quality performance and earned points of 2814 hospitals using publicly available data. We then quantified the tradeoffs between spending and mortality in terms of quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs). If incentives in the program were balanced, then the tradeoff between spending and QALYs should be comparable with those of high-value health interventions, roughly $50,000 to $200,000 per QALY. Instead, the tradeoff in HVBP was about $1.2 million per QALY. HVBP overvalues improvements in quality of care relative to spending reductions. We propose 2 possible policy adjustments that could improve incentives for hospitals to deliver high-value care.

2.
Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg ; : 1945998211004264, 2021 Apr 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33845664

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Subglottic stenosis (SGS) is a known complication of granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA). We investigated the impact of medical and surgical interventions on the surgical dilation interval and characterized patients with glottic involvement. STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective chart review of patients with GPA-associated SGS was performed from 2010 to 2019. SETTING: Tertiary academic medical center. METHODS: The impact of medical and surgical interventions on dilation interval was assessed. The prevalence of glottic involvement was assessed, and clinical characteristics and outcomes were compared with patients without glottic involvement. RESULTS: A total of 39 patients with GPA-associated SGS were analyzed. Dilation intervals in patients receiving leflunomide (n = 4; median, 484 days; 95% CI, 405-1099) were greater than in those not receiving leflunomide (median, 155 days; 95% CI, 48-305; P = .033). The surgical technique used did not affect dilation interval. Patients with glottic involvement (n = 13) had a greater incidence of dysphonia (13/13 vs 15/26 [58%], P = .007) and a shorter dilation interval with involvement (median, 91 days; interquartile range, 70-277) versus without involvement (median, 377 days; interquartile range, 175-1148; hazard ratio, 3.38; 95% CI, 2.26-5.05; P < .001). Of 13 patients, 8 (62%) did not have glottic involvement on first presentation. CONCLUSION: Although GPA is classically thought to affect the subglottis, it also involves the glottis in a subset of patients. These patients have greater complaints of dysphonia and require more frequent surgery. Systemic therapy may increase dilation intervals. In this preliminary study, patients taking leflunomide demonstrated an improvement, highlighting the need for further study of immunosuppression regimens in the treatment of GPA-associated SGS.

3.
Head Neck ; 43(6): 1747-1758, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33555089

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We investigated preferences between the transcervical and transoral thyroidectomy approach in the United States and Israel. METHODS: An online survey assessing scar attitudes and surgical preferences, in English and Hebrew, was distributed on ThyCa.com and other platforms. RESULTS: 928 and 339 responses from the United States and Israel cohorts, respectively, were analyzed. In both countries, individuals without prior thyroidectomy preferred a scarless approach when hypothetical risks equaled those of traditional thyroidectomy (77% United States, 76% Israel, p = 0.61). U.S. respondents without thyroidectomy had greater preference to avoid a scar and would pay more to do so than those with thyroidectomy (both p < 0.001). Many respondents with prior thyroidectomy still expressed interest in scarless alternatives (57% United States). CONCLUSIONS: Populations in Israel and the United States prefer scarless thyroidectomy when risks equal the traditional approach. While individuals without prior thyroidectomy are more likely to favor a scarless option, former thyroidectomy patients may have preferred avoiding a scar.

4.
Head Neck ; 43(4): 1220-1228, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33377212

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Transoral Endoscopic Thyroidectomy Vestibular Approach (TOETVA) has demonstrated excellent safety and is receiving wider use in North America. Understanding which factors lead to operative difficulty, as evaluated by operative time (OT), may help to improve safety and refine indications for this procedure. METHODS: Cases of TOETVA performed at our institution were reviewed. Multivariate linear regression was performed using patient demographics, thyroid characteristics, and operative variables to predict OT. RESULTS: A total of 207 cases were included for analysis. A multivariate linear regression model, controlling for age, sex, and BMI, was developed from 104 cases with an R2 of 0.47 (p < 0.001). Cross-validation on 103 remaining cases showed root-mean-square error of 46.37. Total thyroidectomy and lobe size were the only significant predictors (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: We successfully developed a model to predict OT for TOETVA based on preoperative and operative variables. Lobe size, but not BMI, is a significant predictor of OT.

5.
Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg ; : 194599820969154, 2020 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33138718

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Thyroidectomy is one of the most common procedures performed in head and neck surgery. The quality of online resources for thyroidectomy is unknown. We aim to evaluate search trends and online resource quality regarding thyroidectomy. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional analysis. SETTING: Websites appearing on Google search. METHODS: The first 30 Google websites for thyroidectomy were reviewed, excluding research, video, and restricted sites. Search patterns were obtained with Google Trends. Quality was measured by readability (Flesch Reading Ease and Flesch-Kinkaid Grade Level), understandability and actionability (Patient Education Materials Assessment Tool), and clinical practice guideline (CPG) compatibility. Fleiss kappa interrater reliability analysis was performed for 2 raters. RESULTS: Twenty-one sites were evaluated. Search popularity for thyroidectomy has increased since 2004. Median reading ease was 42.2 (range, 15.4-62.7) on a scale from 1 to 100, with 100 indicating maximum readability. Median reading grade level was 12 (range, 7-16). Thyroidectomy resources were poorly understandable (median, 66%; range, 21%-88%) and actionable (median, 10%; range, 0%-60%). Median CPG compatibility was 4 out of 5 (range, 0-5). Interrater reliability ranged from substantial to moderate for understandability (0.78), actionability (0.57), and CPG compatibility (0.58), with P < .05 for all results. CONCLUSION: Online resources about thyroidectomy vary in quality and reliability and are written at grade levels above the average reading level of the public. Providers should be aware of existing resources and work to create education resources that meet universal health literacy guidelines. The framework provided in this article may also serve as a guide and provide tangible steps that providers can take to help patients access care.

6.
World J Surg ; 2020 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33205227

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: North American adoption of the transoral endoscopic thyroidectomy vestibular approach (TOETVA) has been limited due to concerns regarding the generalizability of published outcomes, as data are predominantly from Asian cohorts with a different body habitus. We describe our experience with TOETVA in a North American population in the context of the conventional transcervical approach thyroidectomy (TCA). STUDY DESIGN: Cases of TOETVA and TCA were reviewed from August 2017 to March 2020 at a tertiary care center. Outcomes included operative time, major (permanent recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) injury, permanent hypoparathyroidism, hematoma, conversion to open surgery), and minor complications. The TOETVA cohort was stratified into body mass index (BMI) classes of underweight/normal < 25 kg/m2, overweight 25-29.9 kg/m2, and obese ≥ 30 kg/m2 for comparative analysis. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed for odds of cumulative complication. RESULTS: Two hundred TOETVA and 333 TCA cases were included. There was no difference in incidence of major complications between the TOETVA and TCA cohorts (1.5% vs. 2.1%, p = 0.75). No difference was found in the rate of temporary RLN injury (4.5% vs. 2.1%, p = 0.124) or temporary hypoparathyroidism (18.2% vs. 12.5%, p = 0.163) for TOETVA and TCA, respectively. Surgical technique (TOETVA vs TCA) did not alter the odds of cumulative complication (OR 0.69 95% CI [0.26-1.85]) on logistic regression analysis. In the TOETVA cohort, higher BMI did not lead to a significantly greater odds of cumulative complication, 0.52 (95% CI [0.17-1.58]) and 1.69 (95% CI [0.74-3.88]) for the overweight and obese groups, respectively. CONCLUSION: TOETVA can be performed in a North American patient population without a difference in odds of complication compared to TCA. Higher BMI is not associated with greater likelihood of complication with TOETVA.

7.
Head Neck ; 42(11): 3336-3344, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32767458

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Central neck scars following thyroidectomy can negatively impact patient quality of life. Transoral endoscopic thyroidectomy can reduce postoperative cosmetic burden. METHODS: Prospective cohort study of patients seen between June 2018 and January 2019. Scar cosmesis was determined using the validated Scar Cosmesis Assessment and Rating (SCAR) scale and a Visual Analog Scale (VAS) measuring color, contour, and irregularity. RESULTS: Eighty-one patients (80% female, mean age 43.7 years) were analyzed, with 60% and 40% receiving transcervical and transoral thyroidectomy. Median time from surgery was 3.4 (range: 1-37.1) weeks. Mean SCAR score was greater for transcervical recipients (4.69 vs transoral 0.99, P < .001), indicating worse cosmesis. Mean surgeon-rated total VAS score was similarly increased for transcervical recipients (72.84 vs transoral 16.73, P < .001). Interrater reliability for both SCAR and total VAS scores was excellent (intraclass correlation 0.93; 95% CI: 0.90-0.95 for both). CONCLUSION: Transoral thyroidectomy provides significantly enhanced early cosmesis over the transcervical approach.

8.
Molecules ; 25(5)2020 Mar 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32138280

RESUMO

A current trend within photo-dynamic therapy (PDT) is the development of molecular systems targeting hypoxic tumors. Thus, type I PDT sensitizers could here overcome traditional type II molecular systems that rely on the photo-initiated production of toxic singlet oxygen. Here, we investigate the cell localization properties and toxicity of two polymeric anthracene-based fluorescent probes (neutral Ant-PHEA and cationic Ant-PIm). The cell death and DNA damage of Chinese hamster ovary cancer cells (CHO-K1) were characterized as combining PDT, cell survival studies (MTT-assay), and comet assay. Confocal microscopy was utilized on samples incubated together with either DRAQ5, Lyso Tracker Red, or Mito Tracker Deep Red in order to map the localization of the sensitizer into the nucleus and other cell compartments. While Ant-PHEA did not cause significant damage to the cell, Ant-PIm showed increased cell death upon illumination, at the cost of a significant dark toxicity. Both anthracene chromophores localized in cell compartments of the cytosol. Ant-PIm showed a markedly improved selectivity toward lysosomes and mitochondria, two important biological compartments for the cell's survival. None of the two anthracene chromophores showed singlet oxygen formation upon excitation in solvents such as deuterium oxide or methanol. Conclusively, the significant photo-induced cell death that could be observed with Ant-PIm suggests a possible type I PDT mechanism rather than the usual type II mechanism.

10.
Facial Plast Surg Aesthet Med ; 22(1): 36-41, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32053421

RESUMO

Importance: This is the first eye-tracking study to use a tasked age estimation paradigm to explore the facial cues of age as seen by casual observers. Objectives: Determine where observers gaze on faces when tasked with estimating an individual's age. Design, Setting, and Participants: This was a prospective controlled experiment, which took place at an academic tertiary referral center. In total, 220 casual observers (80 untasked, 140 tasked) viewed frontal facial images of women while an infrared eye-tracking monitor recorded their eye movements and fixations in real time. Main Outcomes and Measures: Multivariate Hotelling's analysis followed by planned posthypothesis testing was used to compare fixation durations for predefined regions of interest, including the central triangle, upper face, midface, lower face, and neck between tasked and untasked observers. Results: A total of 80 observers (mean age 23.6 years, 53% female) successfully completed the first untasked eye-tracking experiment. A total of 140 observers (mean age 26.1 years, 60% female) successfully completed the second age estimation experiment. On multivariate analysis, there were significant differences in the distribution of attention between observers in the two experiments (T2 = 99.70; F(5,2084) = 19.9012, p < 0.0001). On planned posthypothesis testing, observers attended significantly more to the lower third of the face (0.20 s, p < 0.0001, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.14-0.27 s) and neck (0.05 s, p = 0.0074, 95% CI 0.01-0.08 s) and less to the upper third of the face (-0.27 s, p < 0.0001, 95% CI -0.40 to -0.14 s) when tasked. There was no significant difference in time spent on the whole face in the two experiments, suggesting that peripheral elements such as hair color or jewelry did not significantly influence gaze patterns. Conclusions and Relevance: Humans form judgments about others every day of their lives, and age perception colors their every interaction. To our knowledge, this study is the first to use eye tracking to investigate facial cues of age. The results showed that when tasked with estimating age, casual observer visual attention was shifted toward the lower face when compared with those who were untasked. These data inform our understanding of facial age perception and potential areas to target for facial rejuvenation. Level of Evidence: NA.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Movimentos Oculares/fisiologia , Face/anatomia & histologia , Julgamento , Adulto , Sinais (Psicologia) , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Variações Dependentes do Observador
11.
Biochem Cell Biol ; 98(2): 299-306, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31965814

RESUMO

Ankyrin-B (AnkB) is scaffolding protein that anchors integral membrane proteins to the cardiomyocyte cytoskeleton. We recently identified an AnkB variant, AnkB p.S646F (ANK2 c.1937 C>T) associated with a phenotype ranging from predisposition for cardiac arrhythmia to cardiomyopathy. AnkB p.S646F exhibited reduced expression levels in the H9c2 rat ventricular-derived cardiomyoblast cell line relative to wildtype AnkB. Here, we demonstrate that AnkB is regulated by proteasomal degradation and proteasome inhibition rescues AnkB p.S646F expression levels in H9c2 cells, although this effect is not conserved with differentiation. We also compared the impact of wildtype AnkB and AnkB p.S646F on cell viability and proliferation. AnkB p.S646F expression resulted in decreased cell viability at 30 h after transfection, whereas we observed a greater proportion of cycling, Ki67-positive cells at 48 h after transfection. Notably, the number of GFP-positive cells was low and was consistent between wildtype AnkB and AnkB p.S646F expressing cells, suggesting that AnkB and AnkB p.S646F affected paracrine communication between H9c2 cells differentially. This work reveals that AnkB levels are regulated by the proteasome and that AnkB p.S646F compromises cell viability. Together, these findings provide key new insights into the putative cellular and molecular mechanisms of AnkB-related cardiac disease.

12.
Laryngoscope ; 130(6): 1603-1608, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31660610

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Measure attentional distraction of neck scars after open neck surgery compared to transoral endoscopic thyroidectomy via a vestibular approach (TOETVA) or transoral endoscopic parathyroidectomy via a vestibular approach (TOEPVA) using eye-tracking technology. METHODS: Casual observers viewed facial images of patients who underwent open neck surgery, TOETVA/TOEPVA, or no surgery (controls). An eye-tracking monitor recorded eye fixations in real time. Multivariate Hotelling's analysis followed by post-hypothesis testing compared fixation durations for predefined regions of interest, including the eyes, nose, mouth, neck, and remaining face between open neck surgery patients, transoral neck surgery patients, and controls. RESULTS: One hundred forty observers completed the experiment. The majority of their attention was directed towards the central triangle (eyes, nose, mouth). On multivariate analysis, distribution of attention was significantly different on the faces of those who underwent open neck surgery versus TOETVA/TOEPVA (T2 = 43.66; F[32,131] = 14.5389, P < .0001). Observers attended significantly more to the neck (0.20 seconds, P < .0001; 95% CI, 0.13, 0.26 s) and less to the peripheral face (-0.24 seconds, P = .0031; 95% CI, -0.39, -0.08 s) of open neck surgery patients. In patients who followed up months after surgery, significant differences persisted (T2 = 13.97; F[3451] = 4.6377, P = .0033). By contrast, fixation patterns for TOETVA/TOEPVA patients were not significantly different from controls (T2 = 5.59, F[31,186] = 1.8602, P = .1345). Observer race and gender did not significantly affect attention to neck scars. CONCLUSION: Scars following open neck surgery draw attention in casual observers. This attentional distraction is prevented in TOETVA/TOEPVA patients due to the absence of a scar, even months after surgery. Moreover, visual processing of TOETVA/TOEPVA patients' faces is similar to that of controls. These data support the effectiveness of transoral neck surgery in giving patients a cosmetic result that does not distract the attention of observers. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: NA Laryngoscope, 130:1603-1608, 2020.


Assuntos
Viés de Atenção , Cicatriz , Pescoço/cirurgia , Paratireoidectomia/métodos , Tireoidectomia/métodos , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Boca , Adulto Jovem
13.
Health Aff (Millwood) ; 38(9): 1505-1513, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31479364

RESUMO

Postacute care costs are the primary determinant of episode spending around hospitalization. Yet there is little evidence that greater spending on postacute care improves readmission rates or functional recovery. Recent Medicare payment reform evaluations have suggested that postacute care spending is responsive to episode-based incentives. However, it remains unknown whether Medicare payment policies are responsible for excess postacute care spending, compared with that of commercial payers. In a population-based, statewide collaborative of Michigan hospitals, we used regression discontinuity design among propensity-weighted, age-adjusted cohorts to compare postacute care spending between patients with commercial insurance and those with Medicare around age sixty-five. Spending was 68-230 percent greater among fee-for-service Medicare beneficiaries than among similar commercially insured people across varied medical and surgical conditions. Despite greater spending, there were no differences in readmission rates. These findings suggest that postacute care utilization is highly sensitive to payer influence, and there may be an opportunity for additional savings in Medicare without sacrificing quality.


Assuntos
Gastos em Saúde/tendências , Hospitalização , Cobertura do Seguro , Seguro Saúde , Medicare , Cuidados Semi-Intensivos/economia , Idoso , Humanos , Michigan , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Alta do Paciente , Análise de Regressão , Estados Unidos
14.
JAMA Netw Open ; 2(5): e194829, 2019 05 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31150079

RESUMO

Importance: Transoral endocrine surgery (TES) allows thyroid and parathyroid operations to be performed without leaving any visible scar on the body. Controversy regarding the value of TES remains, in part owing to the common belief that TES is only applicable to a small, select group of patients. Knowledge of the overall applicability of these procedures is essential to understand the operation, as well as to decide the amount of effort and resources that should be allocated to further study the safety, efficacy, and value of these operations. Objective: To determine what percentage of US patients undergoing thyroid and parathyroid surgery are eligible for TES using currently accepted exclusion criteria. Design, Setting, and Participants: Cross-sectional study of 1000 consecutive thyroid and parathyroid operations (with or without neck dissection) performed between July 1, 2015, and July 1, 2018, at 3 high-volume academic US thyroid- and parathyroid-focused surgical practices (2 general surgery, 1 otolaryngology-head and neck endocrine surgery). Eligibility for TES was determined by retrospectively applying previously published exclusion criteria to the cases. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was the percentage of thyroid and parathyroid cases eligible for TES. Secondary outcomes were a subgroup analysis of the percentage of specific types of cases eligible and the reasons for ineligibility. Results: The mean (SD) age of the 1000 surgical patients was 53 (15) years, mean (SD) body mass index (calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared) was 29 (7), and 747 (75.0%) of the patients were women. Five hundred fifty-eight (55.8%) of the patients were eligible for TES. Most patients with thyroid nodules with cytologically indeterminate behavior (165 of 217 [76.0%]), benign thyroid conditions (166 of 240 [69.2%]), and primary hyperparathyroidism (158 of 273 [57.9%]) were eligible for TES, but only 67 of 231 (29.0%) of patients with thyroid cancer were eligible. Among all 1000 cases reviewed, previous neck operation (97 of 441 [22.0%]), nonlocalized primary hyperparathyroidism (78 of 441 [17.7%]), and need for neck dissection (66 of 441 [15.0%]) were the most common reasons for ineligibility. Conclusions and Relevance: More than half of all patients undergoing thyroid and parathyroid surgery in this study were eligible for TES. This broad applicability suggests that a prospective multicenter trial is reasonable to definitively study the safety, outcomes, and cost of TES.


Assuntos
Cirurgia Endoscópica por Orifício Natural/métodos , Paratireoidectomia/métodos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Robóticos/métodos , Tireoidectomia/métodos , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cirurgia Endoscópica por Orifício Natural/estatística & dados numéricos , Esvaziamento Cervical/estatística & dados numéricos , Paratireoidectomia/estatística & dados numéricos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Robóticos/estatística & dados numéricos , Tireoidectomia/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30860578

RESUMO

CONTEXT: The transoral endoscopic thyroidectomy vestibular approach (TOETVA) is a recently described procedure for surgical management of select thyroid pathology without the need for a cutaneous scar. TOETVA is far from the first described remote-access approach to the thyroid. In fact, numerous such techniques have been described over the past 20 years, although none have gained wide-spread implementation in North America or Europe. TOETVA, with its rapid growth worldwide and excellent outcomes to date, however, may succeed where these prior described techniques have failed. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: The English literature was reviewed using the following keywords: transoral thyroidectomy, remote-access thyroidectomy, minimally-invasive thyroidectomy, and TOETVA. As three recent systematic reviews have been performed in regards to the technique, this manuscript does not seek to provide a fourth such text. Rather, here we summarize salient findings from these reviews and focus on candidates for the procedure, technique-specific characteristics which have led to TOETVA's early success, and prospects for the future. EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: TOETVA is the only thyroidectomy approach obviating the need for a cutaneous incision, and offers several advantages over prior described remote-access thyroidectomy techniques. These include a favorable anatomic surgical perspective, a comparatively short learning curve, no requirement for expensive instrumentation, and a broad inclusion criterion. These characteristics have facilitated the excellent surgical outcomes to date. CONCLUSIONS: TOETVA is a suitable surgical option for a carefully selected patient population with proven safety and feasibility. The potential value of the procedure outside enhanced cosmesis continues to be defined.

17.
J Am Coll Surg ; 228(4): 516-522, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30586640

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Many remote-access approaches (RAAs) to the thyroid have been described to circumvent anterior neck scarring, including the transaxillary, robotic facelift, and transoral endoscopic vestibular approaches. These techniques have been popularized in Asia, but adoption has been slow in North America. We aimed to examine multi-institutional North American outcomes with RAA thyroidectomy in the context of these institutions' transcervical approach (TCA) outcomes. STUDY DESIGN: Cases of lobectomy and total thyroidectomy via transaxillary, robotic facelift, and transoral endoscopic vestibular approaches were reviewed. Demographic characteristics, outcomes, and complications were compared with the same measures in patients undergoing lobectomy and total thyroidectomy via TCA by the primary RAA surgeons at each institution. Patients who underwent parathyroidectomy or other concomitant neck dissection procedures were excluded. RESULTS: Two hundred and sixteen RAA thyroidectomies were attempted (92 transoral endoscopic vestibular approaches, 70 transaxillary, and 54 robotic facelift) and 410 TCA thyroidectomies were performed. There was no difference in mean index nodule sizes between RAA (2.8 ± 1.6 cm) and TCA (2.9 ± 1.9 cm) cohorts (p = 0.72). Median operative times for lobectomy were 146 minutes (range 60 to 343 minutes) and 90 minutes (range 25 to 247 minutes) for the RAA and TCA cohorts, respectively (p < 0.0001). Median operative time for total thyroidectomy was 170 minutes (range 100 to 398 minutes) vs 126.5 minutes (range 51 to 260 minutes) for the RAA and TCA cohorts, respectively (p < 0.0001). There was no difference in the rates of permanent recurrent laryngeal nerve injury between the RAA (0 of 216 [0%]) and TCA (0 of 410 [0%]) cohorts (p = 0.99). CONCLUSIONS: Remote-access approach thyroidectomy can be performed in a select North American patient population with outcomes comparable with TCA.


Assuntos
Cirurgia Endoscópica por Orifício Natural/métodos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Robóticos/métodos , Tireoidectomia/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Axila , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , América do Norte , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Estudos Retrospectivos
18.
J Am Geriatr Soc ; 67(1): 108-114, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30339726

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To examine characteristics and locations of high- and low-quality skilled nursing facilities (SNFs) and whether certain vulnerable individuals were differentially discharged to facilities with lower quality ratings. DESIGN: Retrospective observational study. SETTING: Medicare-certified SNFs providing postacute care. PARTICIPANTS: SNF stays (N=1,195,166) of Medicare beneficiaries aged 65 and older admitted to 14,033 SNFs within 2 days of hospital discharge. MEASUREMENTS: We used Medicare claims from October 2013 to September 2014 and SNF 5-star ratings published on Nursing Home Compare. We describe the characteristics and populations of facilities according to quality, and the location of low (1 star) and high (5 stars) quality facilities. We used logistic regression models to estimate odds of admission to a low-quality facility after hospital discharge according to race, ethnicity, dual Medicare-Medicaid enrollment, functional status, discharge from a safety-net or low-quality hospital, and residence in a county with more low-quality SNFs. RESULTS: More than one-fifth (22.2%) of the facilities had a 5-star (high quality) rating, and 15.9% had a one-star (low quality) rating. Low-quality facilities were more likely to be in the south (44%), for profit (85%), and larger (>70 beds (86%)). Dual enrollment was the strongest predictor of admission to a 1-star facility (odds ratio (OR) = 1.53, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.51-1.55), although racial or ethnic minority status (black: OR = 1.25, 95% CI = 1.22-1.28; Hispanic: OR = 1.10, 95% CI = 1.06-1.14) and geographic prevalence of facilities (for a 10% increase in 1-star beds located in the county of individual's residence: OR = 1.27, 95% CI = 1.26-1.27) were also significant predictors. CONCLUSION: Vulnerable groups are more likely to be discharged to lower-quality facilities for postacute care. Policy-makers should monitor disparities in SNF quality. J Am Geriatr Soc 67:108-114, 2019.


Assuntos
Alta do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Instituições de Cuidados Especializados de Enfermagem/estatística & dados numéricos , Cuidados Semi-Intensivos/estatística & dados numéricos , Populações Vulneráveis/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Medicare , Alta do Paciente/normas , Garantia da Qualidade dos Cuidados de Saúde , Estudos Retrospectivos , Instituições de Cuidados Especializados de Enfermagem/normas , Cuidados Semi-Intensivos/normas , Estados Unidos
19.
JAMA Neurol ; 75(12): 1538-1541, 2018 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30167647

RESUMO

Importance: Among adults with chronic disease, survivors of stroke have high out-of-pocket financial burdens. The US government enacted the Affordable Care Act (ACA) in 2010 and implemented the law in 2014 to provide more low-income adults with health insurance coverage. Objective: To assess whether ACA implementation is associated with cost-related nonadherence (CRN) to medication among adult survivors of stroke. Design, Setting, and Participants: This study analyzed data from the 2000 to 2016 National Health Interview Survey, an in-person household survey of the noninstitutionalized US population conducted annually by the National Center for Health Statistics. Conducted at the University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, from July 24, 2017, to February 28, 2018, the study had a sample of 13 930 survivors of stroke. Analyses were stratified by age (45-64 years vs ≥65 years). Time was treated as a continuous variable and as a categorical variable across 4 periods (2000-2005, historical control; 2006-2010, economic recession and peak unemployment; 2011-2013, before ACA implementation; and 2014-2016, after ACA implementation). Percentages are weighted to reflect US population estimates. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was the self-report of CRN, defined as the inability to afford prescribed medications within the past 12 months. Results: Among the 13 930 total survivors of stroke, 38.1% were aged 45 to 64 years (50.5% were female and 49.5% were male, with a mean [SE] age of 56.0 [0.10] years), and 61.9% were aged 65 years or older (54.9% were female and 45.1% were male, with a mean [SE] age of 76.2 [0.09] years). From 2011 to 2013 through 2014 to 2016, Medicaid increased (from 24.0% [95% CI, 21.0%-27.2%] in 2011-2013 to 30.8% [95% CI, 27.3%-34.6%] in 2014-2016; P < .001) and uninsurance decreased (from 13.7% [95% CI, 11.3%-16.4%] to 6.8% [95% CI, 5.3%-8.8%]; P < .001) among survivors of stroke aged 45 to 64 years. Among survivors aged 45 to 64 years, CRN increased over time before ACA implementation (from 18.6% [95% CI, 16.5%-20.9%] in 2000-2005, to 22.6% [95% CI, 19.7%-25.9%] in 2006-2010, to 23.8% [95% CI, 20.7%-27.3%] in 2011-2013) and decreased after ACA implementation to 18.1% (95% CI, 15.4%-21.3%; P = .01) in 2014 to 2016. The period after ACA implementation was associated with lower odds of CRN after adjustment for sociodemographics, year, and clinical factors (odds ratio [OR], 0.63; 95% CI, 0.47-0.85). The difference was attenuated after further adjustment for health insurance coverage (OR, 0.76; 95% CI, 0.56-1.03). Conclusions and Relevance: After the ACA implementation, health insurance coverage increased and CRN decreased among adult survivors of stroke, suggesting that further expansion of Medicaid coverage is likely to be advantageous for survivors.


Assuntos
Cobertura do Seguro/estatística & dados numéricos , Medicaid/estatística & dados numéricos , Adesão à Medicação/estatística & dados numéricos , Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act/estatística & dados numéricos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/tratamento farmacológico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/economia , Sobreviventes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estados Unidos
20.
Med Care ; 56(8): 679-685, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29995694

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is widespread interest in reducing use of postacute care (ie, care after hospital discharge) following major surgery, provided that such reductions do not worsen quality outcomes such as readmission rates. OBJECTIVES: To describe the association between changes in skilled nursing facility (SNF) use and changes in readmission rates after surgery. RESEARCH DESIGN: This was a observational study. SUBJECTS: Fee-for-service Medicare beneficiaries undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) or total hip replacement (THR) from 2008 to 2013. MEASURES: Primary exposure was risk-adjusted SNF use initiated 0-2 days after hospital discharge, and the primary outcome was risk-adjusted readmission rates from 3 to 30 days after discharge. RESULTS: Among 176,994 patients who underwent CABG at 804 hospitals and 233,955 patients who underwent THR at 1220 hospitals, hospital-level SNF utilization increased after CABG (16.4%-19.0%, P=0.001) and THR (40.8%-45.5%, P<0.001), from 2008 to 2013. Hospital readmission rates decreased for CABG (14.7%-12.7%, P<0.001) but did not change for THR (4.9%-4.8%, P=0.55), from 2008 to 2013. However, there was wide variation in hospital-level change in readmission rates. After adjusting for hospital characteristics and baseline readmission rates, there was no statistically significant association between change in SNF use and change in readmission rates (0.017 and 0.011 percentage point increase in SNF use for every one percentage point increase in readmission rates for CABG and THR respectively, P=0.58 and 0.32). CONCLUSIONS: Changes in use of postacute care after THR and CABG have not been associated with changes in readmission rates.


Assuntos
Ponte de Artéria Coronária/enfermagem , Ponte de Artéria Coronária/estatística & dados numéricos , Alta do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Readmissão do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Instituições de Cuidados Especializados de Enfermagem/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Medicare/estatística & dados numéricos , Indicadores de Qualidade em Assistência à Saúde , Estados Unidos
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