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1.
Molecules ; 25(5)2020 Mar 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32138280

RESUMO

A current trend within photo-dynamic therapy (PDT) is the development of molecular systems targeting hypoxic tumors. Thus, type I PDT sensitizers could here overcome traditional type II molecular systems that rely on the photo-initiated production of toxic singlet oxygen. Here, we investigate the cell localization properties and toxicity of two polymeric anthracene-based fluorescent probes (neutral Ant-PHEA and cationic Ant-PIm). The cell death and DNA damage of Chinese hamster ovary cancer cells (CHO-K1) were characterized as combining PDT, cell survival studies (MTT-assay), and comet assay. Confocal microscopy was utilized on samples incubated together with either DRAQ5, Lyso Tracker Red, or Mito Tracker Deep Red in order to map the localization of the sensitizer into the nucleus and other cell compartments. While Ant-PHEA did not cause significant damage to the cell, Ant-PIm showed increased cell death upon illumination, at the cost of a significant dark toxicity. Both anthracene chromophores localized in cell compartments of the cytosol. Ant-PIm showed a markedly improved selectivity toward lysosomes and mitochondria, two important biological compartments for the cell's survival. None of the two anthracene chromophores showed singlet oxygen formation upon excitation in solvents such as deuterium oxide or methanol. Conclusively, the significant photo-induced cell death that could be observed with Ant-PIm suggests a possible type I PDT mechanism rather than the usual type II mechanism.

2.
Facial Plast Surg Aesthet Med ; 22(1): 36-41, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32053421

RESUMO

Importance: This is the first eye-tracking study to use a tasked age estimation paradigm to explore the facial cues of age as seen by casual observers. Objectives: Determine where observers gaze on faces when tasked with estimating an individual's age. Design, Setting, and Participants: This was a prospective controlled experiment, which took place at an academic tertiary referral center. In total, 220 casual observers (80 untasked, 140 tasked) viewed frontal facial images of women while an infrared eye-tracking monitor recorded their eye movements and fixations in real time. Main Outcomes and Measures: Multivariate Hotelling's analysis followed by planned posthypothesis testing was used to compare fixation durations for predefined regions of interest, including the central triangle, upper face, midface, lower face, and neck between tasked and untasked observers. Results: A total of 80 observers (mean age 23.6 years, 53% female) successfully completed the first untasked eye-tracking experiment. A total of 140 observers (mean age 26.1 years, 60% female) successfully completed the second age estimation experiment. On multivariate analysis, there were significant differences in the distribution of attention between observers in the two experiments (T2 = 99.70; F(5,2084) = 19.9012, p < 0.0001). On planned posthypothesis testing, observers attended significantly more to the lower third of the face (0.20 s, p < 0.0001, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.14-0.27 s) and neck (0.05 s, p = 0.0074, 95% CI 0.01-0.08 s) and less to the upper third of the face (-0.27 s, p < 0.0001, 95% CI -0.40 to -0.14 s) when tasked. There was no significant difference in time spent on the whole face in the two experiments, suggesting that peripheral elements such as hair color or jewelry did not significantly influence gaze patterns. Conclusions and Relevance: Humans form judgments about others every day of their lives, and age perception colors their every interaction. To our knowledge, this study is the first to use eye tracking to investigate facial cues of age. The results showed that when tasked with estimating age, casual observer visual attention was shifted toward the lower face when compared with those who were untasked. These data inform our understanding of facial age perception and potential areas to target for facial rejuvenation. Level of Evidence: NA.

4.
Biochem Cell Biol ; 98(2): 299-306, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31965814

RESUMO

Ankyrin-B (AnkB) is scaffolding protein that anchors integral membrane proteins to the cardiomyocyte cytoskeleton. We recently identified an AnkB variant, AnkB p.S646F (ANK2 c.1937 C>T) associated with a phenotype ranging from predisposition for cardiac arrhythmia to cardiomyopathy. AnkB p.S646F exhibited reduced expression levels in the H9c2 rat ventricular-derived cardiomyoblast cell line relative to wildtype AnkB. Here, we demonstrate that AnkB is regulated by proteasomal degradation and proteasome inhibition rescues AnkB p.S646F expression levels in H9c2 cells, although this effect is not conserved with differentiation. We also compared the impact of wildtype AnkB and AnkB p.S646F on cell viability and proliferation. AnkB p.S646F expression resulted in decreased cell viability at 30 h after transfection, whereas we observed a greater proportion of cycling, Ki67-positive cells at 48 h after transfection. Notably, the number of GFP-positive cells was low and was consistent between wildtype AnkB and AnkB p.S646F expressing cells, suggesting that AnkB and AnkB p.S646F affected paracrine communication between H9c2 cells differentially. This work reveals that AnkB levels are regulated by the proteasome and that AnkB p.S646F compromises cell viability. Together, these findings provide key new insights into the putative cellular and molecular mechanisms of AnkB-related cardiac disease.

5.
Laryngoscope ; 2019 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31660610

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Measure attentional distraction of neck scars after open neck surgery compared to transoral endoscopic thyroidectomy via a vestibular approach (TOETVA) or transoral endoscopic parathyroidectomy via a vestibular approach (TOEPVA) using eye-tracking technology. METHODS: Casual observers viewed facial images of patients who underwent open neck surgery, TOETVA/TOEPVA, or no surgery (controls). An eye-tracking monitor recorded eye fixations in real time. Multivariate Hotelling's analysis followed by post-hypothesis testing compared fixation durations for predefined regions of interest, including the eyes, nose, mouth, neck, and remaining face between open neck surgery patients, transoral neck surgery patients, and controls. RESULTS: One hundred forty observers completed the experiment. The majority of their attention was directed towards the central triangle (eyes, nose, mouth). On multivariate analysis, distribution of attention was significantly different on the faces of those who underwent open neck surgery versus TOETVA/TOEPVA (T2 = 43.66; F[32,131] = 14.5389, P < .0001). Observers attended significantly more to the neck (0.20 seconds, P < .0001; 95% CI, 0.13, 0.26 s) and less to the peripheral face (-0.24 seconds, P = .0031; 95% CI, -0.39, -0.08 s) of open neck surgery patients. In patients who followed up months after surgery, significant differences persisted (T2 = 13.97; F[3451] = 4.6377, P = .0033). By contrast, fixation patterns for TOETVA/TOEPVA patients were not significantly different from controls (T2 = 5.59, F[31,186] = 1.8602, P = .1345). Observer race and gender did not significantly affect attention to neck scars. CONCLUSION: Scars following open neck surgery draw attention in casual observers. This attentional distraction is prevented in TOETVA/TOEPVA patients due to the absence of a scar, even months after surgery. Moreover, visual processing of TOETVA/TOEPVA patients' faces is similar to that of controls. These data support the effectiveness of transoral neck surgery in giving patients a cosmetic result that does not distract the attention of observers. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: NA Laryngoscope, 2019.

6.
Health Aff (Millwood) ; 38(9): 1505-1513, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31479364

RESUMO

Postacute care costs are the primary determinant of episode spending around hospitalization. Yet there is little evidence that greater spending on postacute care improves readmission rates or functional recovery. Recent Medicare payment reform evaluations have suggested that postacute care spending is responsive to episode-based incentives. However, it remains unknown whether Medicare payment policies are responsible for excess postacute care spending, compared with that of commercial payers. In a population-based, statewide collaborative of Michigan hospitals, we used regression discontinuity design among propensity-weighted, age-adjusted cohorts to compare postacute care spending between patients with commercial insurance and those with Medicare around age sixty-five. Spending was 68-230 percent greater among fee-for-service Medicare beneficiaries than among similar commercially insured people across varied medical and surgical conditions. Despite greater spending, there were no differences in readmission rates. These findings suggest that postacute care utilization is highly sensitive to payer influence, and there may be an opportunity for additional savings in Medicare without sacrificing quality.

7.
JAMA Netw Open ; 2(5): e194829, 2019 05 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31150079

RESUMO

Importance: Transoral endocrine surgery (TES) allows thyroid and parathyroid operations to be performed without leaving any visible scar on the body. Controversy regarding the value of TES remains, in part owing to the common belief that TES is only applicable to a small, select group of patients. Knowledge of the overall applicability of these procedures is essential to understand the operation, as well as to decide the amount of effort and resources that should be allocated to further study the safety, efficacy, and value of these operations. Objective: To determine what percentage of US patients undergoing thyroid and parathyroid surgery are eligible for TES using currently accepted exclusion criteria. Design, Setting, and Participants: Cross-sectional study of 1000 consecutive thyroid and parathyroid operations (with or without neck dissection) performed between July 1, 2015, and July 1, 2018, at 3 high-volume academic US thyroid- and parathyroid-focused surgical practices (2 general surgery, 1 otolaryngology-head and neck endocrine surgery). Eligibility for TES was determined by retrospectively applying previously published exclusion criteria to the cases. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was the percentage of thyroid and parathyroid cases eligible for TES. Secondary outcomes were a subgroup analysis of the percentage of specific types of cases eligible and the reasons for ineligibility. Results: The mean (SD) age of the 1000 surgical patients was 53 (15) years, mean (SD) body mass index (calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared) was 29 (7), and 747 (75.0%) of the patients were women. Five hundred fifty-eight (55.8%) of the patients were eligible for TES. Most patients with thyroid nodules with cytologically indeterminate behavior (165 of 217 [76.0%]), benign thyroid conditions (166 of 240 [69.2%]), and primary hyperparathyroidism (158 of 273 [57.9%]) were eligible for TES, but only 67 of 231 (29.0%) of patients with thyroid cancer were eligible. Among all 1000 cases reviewed, previous neck operation (97 of 441 [22.0%]), nonlocalized primary hyperparathyroidism (78 of 441 [17.7%]), and need for neck dissection (66 of 441 [15.0%]) were the most common reasons for ineligibility. Conclusions and Relevance: More than half of all patients undergoing thyroid and parathyroid surgery in this study were eligible for TES. This broad applicability suggests that a prospective multicenter trial is reasonable to definitively study the safety, outcomes, and cost of TES.


Assuntos
Cirurgia Endoscópica por Orifício Natural/métodos , Paratireoidectomia/métodos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Robóticos/métodos , Tireoidectomia/métodos , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cirurgia Endoscópica por Orifício Natural/estatística & dados numéricos , Esvaziamento Cervical/estatística & dados numéricos , Paratireoidectomia/estatística & dados numéricos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Robóticos/estatística & dados numéricos , Tireoidectomia/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30860578

RESUMO

CONTEXT: The transoral endoscopic thyroidectomy vestibular approach (TOETVA) is a recently described procedure for surgical management of select thyroid pathology without the need for a cutaneous scar. TOETVA is far from the first described remote-access approach to the thyroid. In fact, numerous such techniques have been described over the past 20 years, although none have gained wide-spread implementation in North America or Europe. TOETVA, with its rapid growth worldwide and excellent outcomes to date, however, may succeed where these prior described techniques have failed. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: The English literature was reviewed using the following keywords: transoral thyroidectomy, remote-access thyroidectomy, minimally-invasive thyroidectomy, and TOETVA. As three recent systematic reviews have been performed in regards to the technique, this manuscript does not seek to provide a fourth such text. Rather, here we summarize salient findings from these reviews and focus on candidates for the procedure, technique-specific characteristics which have led to TOETVA's early success, and prospects for the future. EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: TOETVA is the only thyroidectomy approach obviating the need for a cutaneous incision, and offers several advantages over prior described remote-access thyroidectomy techniques. These include a favorable anatomic surgical perspective, a comparatively short learning curve, no requirement for expensive instrumentation, and a broad inclusion criterion. These characteristics have facilitated the excellent surgical outcomes to date. CONCLUSIONS: TOETVA is a suitable surgical option for a carefully selected patient population with proven safety and feasibility. The potential value of the procedure outside enhanced cosmesis continues to be defined.

10.
J Am Geriatr Soc ; 67(1): 108-114, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30339726

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To examine characteristics and locations of high- and low-quality skilled nursing facilities (SNFs) and whether certain vulnerable individuals were differentially discharged to facilities with lower quality ratings. DESIGN: Retrospective observational study. SETTING: Medicare-certified SNFs providing postacute care. PARTICIPANTS: SNF stays (N=1,195,166) of Medicare beneficiaries aged 65 and older admitted to 14,033 SNFs within 2 days of hospital discharge. MEASUREMENTS: We used Medicare claims from October 2013 to September 2014 and SNF 5-star ratings published on Nursing Home Compare. We describe the characteristics and populations of facilities according to quality, and the location of low (1 star) and high (5 stars) quality facilities. We used logistic regression models to estimate odds of admission to a low-quality facility after hospital discharge according to race, ethnicity, dual Medicare-Medicaid enrollment, functional status, discharge from a safety-net or low-quality hospital, and residence in a county with more low-quality SNFs. RESULTS: More than one-fifth (22.2%) of the facilities had a 5-star (high quality) rating, and 15.9% had a one-star (low quality) rating. Low-quality facilities were more likely to be in the south (44%), for profit (85%), and larger (>70 beds (86%)). Dual enrollment was the strongest predictor of admission to a 1-star facility (odds ratio (OR) = 1.53, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.51-1.55), although racial or ethnic minority status (black: OR = 1.25, 95% CI = 1.22-1.28; Hispanic: OR = 1.10, 95% CI = 1.06-1.14) and geographic prevalence of facilities (for a 10% increase in 1-star beds located in the county of individual's residence: OR = 1.27, 95% CI = 1.26-1.27) were also significant predictors. CONCLUSION: Vulnerable groups are more likely to be discharged to lower-quality facilities for postacute care. Policy-makers should monitor disparities in SNF quality. J Am Geriatr Soc 67:108-114, 2019.


Assuntos
Alta do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Instituições de Cuidados Especializados de Enfermagem/estatística & dados numéricos , Cuidados Semi-Intensivos/estatística & dados numéricos , Populações Vulneráveis/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Medicare , Alta do Paciente/normas , Garantia da Qualidade dos Cuidados de Saúde , Estudos Retrospectivos , Instituições de Cuidados Especializados de Enfermagem/normas , Cuidados Semi-Intensivos/normas , Estados Unidos
11.
J Am Coll Surg ; 228(4): 516-522, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30586640

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Many remote-access approaches (RAAs) to the thyroid have been described to circumvent anterior neck scarring, including the transaxillary, robotic facelift, and transoral endoscopic vestibular approaches. These techniques have been popularized in Asia, but adoption has been slow in North America. We aimed to examine multi-institutional North American outcomes with RAA thyroidectomy in the context of these institutions' transcervical approach (TCA) outcomes. STUDY DESIGN: Cases of lobectomy and total thyroidectomy via transaxillary, robotic facelift, and transoral endoscopic vestibular approaches were reviewed. Demographic characteristics, outcomes, and complications were compared with the same measures in patients undergoing lobectomy and total thyroidectomy via TCA by the primary RAA surgeons at each institution. Patients who underwent parathyroidectomy or other concomitant neck dissection procedures were excluded. RESULTS: Two hundred and sixteen RAA thyroidectomies were attempted (92 transoral endoscopic vestibular approaches, 70 transaxillary, and 54 robotic facelift) and 410 TCA thyroidectomies were performed. There was no difference in mean index nodule sizes between RAA (2.8 ± 1.6 cm) and TCA (2.9 ± 1.9 cm) cohorts (p = 0.72). Median operative times for lobectomy were 146 minutes (range 60 to 343 minutes) and 90 minutes (range 25 to 247 minutes) for the RAA and TCA cohorts, respectively (p < 0.0001). Median operative time for total thyroidectomy was 170 minutes (range 100 to 398 minutes) vs 126.5 minutes (range 51 to 260 minutes) for the RAA and TCA cohorts, respectively (p < 0.0001). There was no difference in the rates of permanent recurrent laryngeal nerve injury between the RAA (0 of 216 [0%]) and TCA (0 of 410 [0%]) cohorts (p = 0.99). CONCLUSIONS: Remote-access approach thyroidectomy can be performed in a select North American patient population with outcomes comparable with TCA.

12.
JAMA Neurol ; 75(12): 1538-1541, 2018 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30167647

RESUMO

Importance: Among adults with chronic disease, survivors of stroke have high out-of-pocket financial burdens. The US government enacted the Affordable Care Act (ACA) in 2010 and implemented the law in 2014 to provide more low-income adults with health insurance coverage. Objective: To assess whether ACA implementation is associated with cost-related nonadherence (CRN) to medication among adult survivors of stroke. Design, Setting, and Participants: This study analyzed data from the 2000 to 2016 National Health Interview Survey, an in-person household survey of the noninstitutionalized US population conducted annually by the National Center for Health Statistics. Conducted at the University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, from July 24, 2017, to February 28, 2018, the study had a sample of 13 930 survivors of stroke. Analyses were stratified by age (45-64 years vs ≥65 years). Time was treated as a continuous variable and as a categorical variable across 4 periods (2000-2005, historical control; 2006-2010, economic recession and peak unemployment; 2011-2013, before ACA implementation; and 2014-2016, after ACA implementation). Percentages are weighted to reflect US population estimates. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was the self-report of CRN, defined as the inability to afford prescribed medications within the past 12 months. Results: Among the 13 930 total survivors of stroke, 38.1% were aged 45 to 64 years (50.5% were female and 49.5% were male, with a mean [SE] age of 56.0 [0.10] years), and 61.9% were aged 65 years or older (54.9% were female and 45.1% were male, with a mean [SE] age of 76.2 [0.09] years). From 2011 to 2013 through 2014 to 2016, Medicaid increased (from 24.0% [95% CI, 21.0%-27.2%] in 2011-2013 to 30.8% [95% CI, 27.3%-34.6%] in 2014-2016; P < .001) and uninsurance decreased (from 13.7% [95% CI, 11.3%-16.4%] to 6.8% [95% CI, 5.3%-8.8%]; P < .001) among survivors of stroke aged 45 to 64 years. Among survivors aged 45 to 64 years, CRN increased over time before ACA implementation (from 18.6% [95% CI, 16.5%-20.9%] in 2000-2005, to 22.6% [95% CI, 19.7%-25.9%] in 2006-2010, to 23.8% [95% CI, 20.7%-27.3%] in 2011-2013) and decreased after ACA implementation to 18.1% (95% CI, 15.4%-21.3%; P = .01) in 2014 to 2016. The period after ACA implementation was associated with lower odds of CRN after adjustment for sociodemographics, year, and clinical factors (odds ratio [OR], 0.63; 95% CI, 0.47-0.85). The difference was attenuated after further adjustment for health insurance coverage (OR, 0.76; 95% CI, 0.56-1.03). Conclusions and Relevance: After the ACA implementation, health insurance coverage increased and CRN decreased among adult survivors of stroke, suggesting that further expansion of Medicaid coverage is likely to be advantageous for survivors.


Assuntos
Cobertura do Seguro/estatística & dados numéricos , Medicaid/estatística & dados numéricos , Adesão à Medicação/estatística & dados numéricos , Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act/estatística & dados numéricos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/tratamento farmacológico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/economia , Sobreviventes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estados Unidos
13.
Circulation ; 138(16): 1643-1650, 2018 10 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29987159

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Black patients have worse in-hospital survival than white patients after in-hospital cardiac arrest (IHCA), but less is known about long-term outcomes. We sought to assess among IHCA survivors whether there are additional racial differences in survival after hospital discharge and to explore potential reasons for differences. METHODS: This was alongitudinal study of patients ≥65 years of age who had an IHCA and survived until hospital discharge between 2000 and 2011 from the national Get With The Guidelines-Resuscitation registry whose data could be linked to Medicare claims data. Sequential hierarchical modified Poisson regression models evaluated the proportion of racial differences explained by patient, hospital, and unmeasured factors. Our exposure was black or white race. Our outcome was survival at 1, 3, and 5 years. RESULTS: Among 8764 patients who survived to discharge, 7652 (87.3%) were white and 1112 (12.7%) were black. Black patients with IHCA were younger, more frequently female, sicker with more comorbidities, less likely to have a shockable initial cardiac arrest rhythm, and less likely to be evaluated with coronary angiography after initial resuscitation. At discharge, black patients were also more likely to have at least moderate neurological disability and less likely to be discharged home. Compared with white patients and after adjustment only for hospital site, black patients had lower 1-year (43.6% versus 60.2%; relative risk [RR], 0.72), 3-year (31.6% versus 45.3%; RR, 0.71), and 5-year (23.5% versus 35.4%; RR, 0.67; all P<0.001) survival. Adjustment for patient factors explained 29% of racial differences in 1-year survival (RR, 0.80; 95% confidence interval, 0.75-0.86), and further adjustment for hospital treatment factors explained an additional 17% of racial differences (RR, 0.85; 95% confidence interval, 0.80-0.92). Approximately half of the racial difference in 1-year survival remained unexplained, and the degree to which patient and hospital factors explained racial differences in 3-year and 5-year survival was similar. CONCLUSIONS: Black survivors of IHCA have lower long-term survival compared with white patients, and about half of this difference is not explained by patient factors or treatments after IHCA. Further investigation is warranted to better understand to what degree unmeasured but modifiable factors such as postdischarge care account for unexplained disparities.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/etnologia , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar/etnologia , Sobreviventes , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Comorbidade , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar/diagnóstico , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar/mortalidade , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar/terapia , Alta do Paciente , Sistema de Registros , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
14.
Med Care ; 56(8): 679-685, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29995694

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is widespread interest in reducing use of postacute care (ie, care after hospital discharge) following major surgery, provided that such reductions do not worsen quality outcomes such as readmission rates. OBJECTIVES: To describe the association between changes in skilled nursing facility (SNF) use and changes in readmission rates after surgery. RESEARCH DESIGN: This was a observational study. SUBJECTS: Fee-for-service Medicare beneficiaries undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) or total hip replacement (THR) from 2008 to 2013. MEASURES: Primary exposure was risk-adjusted SNF use initiated 0-2 days after hospital discharge, and the primary outcome was risk-adjusted readmission rates from 3 to 30 days after discharge. RESULTS: Among 176,994 patients who underwent CABG at 804 hospitals and 233,955 patients who underwent THR at 1220 hospitals, hospital-level SNF utilization increased after CABG (16.4%-19.0%, P=0.001) and THR (40.8%-45.5%, P<0.001), from 2008 to 2013. Hospital readmission rates decreased for CABG (14.7%-12.7%, P<0.001) but did not change for THR (4.9%-4.8%, P=0.55), from 2008 to 2013. However, there was wide variation in hospital-level change in readmission rates. After adjusting for hospital characteristics and baseline readmission rates, there was no statistically significant association between change in SNF use and change in readmission rates (0.017 and 0.011 percentage point increase in SNF use for every one percentage point increase in readmission rates for CABG and THR respectively, P=0.58 and 0.32). CONCLUSIONS: Changes in use of postacute care after THR and CABG have not been associated with changes in readmission rates.


Assuntos
Ponte de Artéria Coronária/enfermagem , Ponte de Artéria Coronária/estatística & dados numéricos , Alta do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Readmissão do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Instituições de Cuidados Especializados de Enfermagem/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Medicare/estatística & dados numéricos , Indicadores de Qualidade em Assistência à Saúde , Estados Unidos
15.
Med Care ; 56(9): 805-811, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30036235

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The growth of accountable care organizations (ACOs) and other alternative payment models has prompted concern about whether these models will disadvantage providers who serve vulnerable populations, particularly those living in poverty or with a disability. OBJECTIVE: To examine performance by ACOs in the top quintile of their proportion of beneficiaries dually enrolled in Medicare and Medicaid (high-dual) and the top quintile of disabled beneficiaries (high-disabled). RESEARCH DESIGN: This is a retrospective cohort study. SUBJECTS: The 333 ACOs in the Medicare Shared Savings Program in 2014, followed through 2016. MEASURES: Quality scores, savings per beneficiary, whether or not the ACO shared savings, and amount of shared savings. RESULTS: High-dual and high-disabled ACOs had slightly lower quality and similar or higher baseline spending than other ACOs, but achieved greater savings per beneficiary than other ACOs ($212 vs. $51 for high-dual ACOs, P=0.04; $241 vs. $44 for high-disabled ACOs, P=0.012). Further, these ACOs were equally or more likely to earn shared savings; just over 30% of high-dual ACOs earned shared savings compared with 25% of non-high-dual ACOs (P=0.35) and 38% of high-disabled ACOs earned shared savings compared with 23% of non-high-disabled ACOs (P=0.013). In longitudinal analyses, we found a decrease in the differences in quality between high-social risk and other ACOs over time. Savings remained higher for high-dual and high-disabled ACOs relative to other ACOs over 2014-2016 though the gap narrowed over time. CONCLUSIONS: High-dual and high-disabled ACOs had similar or higher spending than other ACOs at baseline, but achieved greater savings and were equally or more likely to earn shared savings, suggesting that alternative payment models can have positive financial outcomes for providers who serve vulnerable populations.


Assuntos
Organizações de Assistência Responsáveis/organização & administração , Pessoas com Deficiência/estatística & dados numéricos , Gastos em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Medicare/estatística & dados numéricos , Pobreza/estatística & dados numéricos , Organizações de Assistência Responsáveis/economia , Organizações de Assistência Responsáveis/normas , Organizações de Assistência Responsáveis/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Planos de Pagamento por Serviço Prestado , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Medicare/economia , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estados Unidos , Populações Vulneráveis/estatística & dados numéricos
17.
J Hosp Med ; 13(3): 170-176, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29505624

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services rewards hospitals that have low 30-day riskstandardized mortality rates (RSMR) for heart failure (HF). OBJECTIVE: To describe the use of early comfort care for patients with HF, and whether hospitals that more commonly initiate comfort care have higher 30-day mortality rates. DESIGN: A retrospective, observational study. SETTING: Acute care hospitals in the United States. PATIENTS: A total of 93,920 fee-for-service Medicare beneficiaries admitted with HF from January 2008 to December 2014 to 272 hospitals participating in the Get With The Guidelines-Heart Failure registry. EXPOSURE: Early comfort care (defined as comfort care within 48 hours of hospitalization) rate. MEASUREMENTS: A 30-day RSMR. RESULTS: Hospitals' early comfort care rates were low for patients admitted for HF, with no change over time (2.5% to 2.6%, from 2008 to 2014, P = .56). Rates varied widely (0% to 40%), with 14.3% of hospitals not initiating comfort care for any patients during the first 2 days of hospitalization. Risk-standardized early comfort care rates were not correlated with RSMR (median RSMR = 10.9%, 25th to 75th percentile = 10.1% to 12.0%; Spearman's rank correlation = 0.13; P = .66). CONCLUSIONS: Hospital use of early comfort care for HF varies, has not increased over time, and on average, is not correlated with 30-day RSMR. This suggests that current efforts to lower mortality rates have not had unintended consequences for hospitals that institute early comfort care more commonly than their peers.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca/mortalidade , Administração Hospitalar/estatística & dados numéricos , Mortalidade Hospitalar/tendências , Conforto do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Grupos de Populações Continentais , Planos de Pagamento por Serviço Prestado , Feminino , Humanos , Revisão da Utilização de Seguros , Masculino , Medicare , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estados Unidos
18.
BMC Pulm Med ; 18(1): 30, 2018 Feb 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29422061

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mortality is similarly high among individuals with usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) due to idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) and interstitial pneumonia with autoimmune features (IPAF). Circulating anti-nuclear antibodies (ANA) are commonly found in this patient population, suggesting possible aberrant immune activation. Because an environment of oxidative stress can result from immunologic activation, we hypothesized that ANA positive patients with UIP would have improved outcome when exposed to the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) compared to ANA negative patients. METHODS: A single center, retrospective cohort analysis was performed. Patients with UIP due to IPF and IPAF were stratified according to ANA status to and NAC exposure. Transplant-free survival (TFS) was assessed using the Kaplan-Meier estimator and multivariable Cox regression adjusted for diagnosis, gender/age/physiology score, immunosuppressant exposure and anti-fibrotic exposure. RESULTS: Of 293 individuals with UIP due to IPF (74%) or IPAF (26%), NAC exposure was documented in 58 (19.8%). Among NAC exposed individuals, 33 (56.9%) were ANA seropositive and 25 (43.1%) were seronegative. NAC exposure was associated with improved TFS survival among ANA seropositive individuals in unadjusted analysis (plogrank = 0.02) and after multi-variable adjustment (HR 0.51, 95% CI 0.30-0.87; p = 0.01). There was no association between NAC exposure and TFS in ANA seronegative individuals (HR 1.26, 95% CI 0.69-2.32; p = 0.45). Formal interaction testing confirmed NAC*ANA interaction (p = 0.04) and sensitivity analysis demonstrated an increasing effect size associated with NAC therapy as ANA titer increased. Among patients with available genetic data, a marginally higher proportion of ANA positive patients (p = 0.08) carried the rs3750920 (TOLLIP) genotype previously shown to predict favorable outcome in NAC exposed patients. CONCLUSION: NAC exposure is associated with improved transplant-free survival ANA positive patients with UIP. These findings support the prospective collection of ANA data in in future NAC clinical trials performed in patients with UIP.


Assuntos
Acetilcisteína/uso terapêutico , Depuradores de Radicais Livres/uso terapêutico , Fibrose Pulmonar Idiopática/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Anticorpos Antinucleares/imunologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Fibrose Pulmonar Idiopática/imunologia , Fibrose Pulmonar Idiopática/mortalidade , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Transplante de Pulmão/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida
19.
Health Aff (Millwood) ; 37(1): 86-94, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29309214

RESUMO

Cost measures are a growing part of Medicare's value-based payment programs. Medicare Spending per Beneficiary (MSPB) is the cost measure included in Medicare's Hospital Value-Based Purchasing (VBP) Program. Beneficiaries who are dually enrolled in Medicare and Medicaid are known to have higher spending on care, but it is unknown whether spending on the MSPB measure varies based on dual enrollment and whether this has implications for the performance of safety-net hospitals. We found that after adjustment for comorbidities, dually enrolled beneficiaries had 4.3 percent higher spending, which was primarily driven by higher costs in the postacute setting associated with use of institutional postacute care. Hospitals in the highest quintile of the disproportionate share hospital index had poorer performance on the MSPB measure, and were more likely to be penalized under VBP. After adjustment for dual status, differences in MSPB performance between safety-net and non-safety-net hospitals were no longer significant. This suggests that differences in performance between the two types of hospitals were driven at least in part by differences in their patient populations. However, overall VBP payment impacts were largely unchanged after the MSPB measure was adjusted for dual-enrollment status.


Assuntos
Custos Hospitalares , Medicaid/economia , Medicare/economia , Aquisição Baseada em Valor/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Feminino , Hospitais/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Medicaid/estatística & dados numéricos , Medicare/estatística & dados numéricos , Provedores de Redes de Segurança/economia , Fatores Sexuais , Estados Unidos , Aquisição Baseada em Valor/economia
20.
Ophthalmic Plast Reconstr Surg ; 34(3): 205-208, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28369021

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To compare the outcomes of children with orbital cellulitis treated with intravenous (IV) dexamethasone and antibiotics on admission to patients treated with antibiotics alone. METHODS: Prospective comparative interventional study. Forty-three children admitted to a tertiary institution with orbital cellulitis were enrolled. On admission, all patients were started on broad spectrum IV antibiotics and parents were offered IV dexamethasone (0.3 mg/kg/d every 6 hours for 3 days). Patients whose parents refused steroid treatment served as the control group. RESULTS: Twenty-eight (65%) patients received IV steroids and antibiotics on admission while 15 (35%) received IV antibiotics alone. Children who received IV steroids had significantly shorter hospital stays than those who did not receive steroids (3.8 ± 0.2 days vs. 6.7 ± 0.3 days; p < 0.001). This was true both for children who underwent surgery (5/28 with steroids, 3/15 without; 5.0 ± 0.7 days vs. 7.3 ± 1.2 days; p = 0.011) and for those who did not require surgical intervention (23/28 with steroids, 12/15 without; 3.6 ± 0.6 and 6.5 ± 1.0 days; p < 0.001). Side effects of steroid treatment were mild and did not require termination of therapy. During follow up, all study patients had returned to their baseline health without any cases of decreased vision or disease recurrence. CONCLUSIONS: The results of the current study give additional evidence to the relative safety and efficacy of systemic steroid use concurrently with IV antibiotics in children with orbital cellulitis. This is the first study to recommend IV steroids on hospital admission and a standardized dosing regimen. Children who received steroids had a shorter hospital stay than those who did not.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Dexametasona/administração & dosagem , Infecções Oculares Bacterianas/tratamento farmacológico , Glucocorticoides/administração & dosagem , Celulite Orbitária/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Humanos , Infusões Intravenosas , Injeções Intravenosas , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos
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