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1.
Food Chem ; 334: 127560, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32711271

RESUMO

Post-fermented Pu-erh tea (PFPT) is a microbially-fermented tea with distinct sensory qualities and multiple health benefits. Aspergillus are the dominant fungi in the fermentation and the main contributors to the characteristics of PFPT, so their underlying functions warrant detailed study. Here, tea leaves were fermented by Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus tamarii and Aspergillus fumigatus, and resulting samples (designated as Asn, Ast and Asf, respectively) were analyzed by proteomic and metabolomic methods. Changes to the composition of flavonoids, glycerophospholipids, organo-oxygen compounds and fatty acids resulting from Aspergillus fermentation were observed. Carbohydrate-active enzymes, e.g., endoglucanases and cellulases, for degradation of cellulose, starch, lignin, pectin, xylan and xyloglucan were identified. Glycoside hydrolase, glycosyltransferases, tannase, laccases, vanillyl-alcohol oxidases and benzoquinone reductase were identified and hypothesized to catalyze hydrolysis, oxidation, polymerization and degradation of phenolic compounds. Together, functions of Aspergillius were demonstrated as production of enzymes to change concentrations and compositions of metabolites in tea leaves.

2.
J Interpers Violence ; : 886260520963709, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33001763

RESUMO

Little is known about the life course prevalence of bullying among university students. The current study examined the prevalence of bullying in different life periods among multi-university students. Our study included 4,034 university students from four types of universities. Participants self-reported four types of bullying (i.e., physical, verbal, relational, and cyber) with bullies and victims, and four periods (i.e., primary school or earlier, middle school, high school, and postsecondary education). Overall, the percentage of university students experiencing at least one type of bullying victimization (BV) and bullying perpetration (BP) during their lifetime was 59.7% and 31.6%, respectively; the percentage of the university students experiencing more than two types of BV and BP was 16.3% and 7.4%, respectively. The prevalence rates of each type of BV and BP were the highest in elementary school or earlier, and these rates decreased from elementary school or earlier to postsecondary education period. Four latent classes were identified for BV: low BV (73.8%), moderate BV (18.6%), secondary school BV (4.4%), and persistent BV (3.2%). Similarly, four classes for BP were identified: low BP (86.6%), primary school BP (8.1%), high school BP (1.5%), and persistent BP (3.8%). These findings may inform school health practice of bullying prevention by taking prevention programs, especially during elementary school or earlier period.

3.
Clin Neuroradiol ; 2020 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33006652

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To explore changes in functional connectivity (FC) within the sensorimotor network (SMN) and the relationship between the SMN and bilateral thalamus in patients with thalamic infarction (TI) using resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI). Also determined was whether those measures are useful for monitoring the functional recovery of somatosensory deficits. METHODS: The study included 31 patients with TI presenting somatosensory dysfunction and 31 controls who underwent clinical assessments and MRI scanning at 6 months after a stroke. An independent component analysis was used to identify the SMN. The mean time courses of SMN activity were extracted for each subject, and FC with the bilateral thalamus was assessed. Differences in connectivity strength were compared between groups. Finally, we correlated the altered FC values with clinical data from patients with TI. RESULTS: Compared to controls, patients with TI showed decreases in FC within SMN in the ipsilesional posterior central gyrus (PCG) (Z-score = -4.581, cluster size = 171), but presented increased FC within the SMN in the ipsilesional supplementary motor area (SMA) (Z-score = 4.648, cluster size = 46). The FC values of the ipsilesional SMA correlated with the somatosensory function score of patients with TI (r = 0.426, P = 0.027). Increased FC was observed between the SMN and bilateral thalamus in patients with TI. The region exhibiting increased FC was adjacent to the lesion in the affected thalamus, while the area with increased FC overlapped the location of the lesion when the lesion was mirrored onto the unaffected thalamus. CONCLUSION: The increased FC in the ipsilesional SMA and between the SMN and perilesional thalamus might reflect functional reorganization in patients with TI presenting somatosensory deficits.

4.
Cell Oncol (Dordr) ; 2020 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33006750

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Stemming from a myriad of genetic and epigenetic alterations, triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is tied to poor clinical outcomes and aspires for individualized therapies. Here we investigated the therapeutic potential of co-inhibiting integrin-dependent signaling pathway and BRD4, a transcriptional and epigenetic mediator, for TNBC. METHODS: Two independent patient cohorts were subjected to bioinformatic and IHC examination for clinical association of candidate cancer drivers. The efficacy and biological bases for co-targeting these drivers were interrogated using cancer cell lines, a protein kinase array, chemical inhibitors, RNAi/CRISPR/Cas9 approaches, and a 4 T1-Balb/c xenograft model. RESULTS: We found that amplification of the chromosome 8q24 region occurred in nearly 20% of TNBC tumors, and that it coincided with co-upregulation or amplification of c-Myc and FAK, a key effector of integrin-dependent signaling. This co-upregulation at the mRNA or protein level correlated with a poor patient survival (p < 0.0109 or p < 0.0402, respectively). Furthermore, we found that 14 TNBC cell lines exhibited high vulnerabilities to the combination of JQ1 and VS-6063, potent pharmacological antagonists of the BRD4/c-Myc and integrin/FAK-dependent pathways, respectively. We also observed a cooperative inhibitory effect of JQ1 and VS-6063 on tumor growth and infiltration of Ly6G+ myeloid-derived suppressor cells in vivo. Finally, we found that JQ1 and VS-6063 cooperatively induced apoptotic cell death by altering XIAP, Bcl2/Bcl-xl and Bim levels, impairing c-Src/p130Cas-, PI3K/Akt- and RelA-associated signaling, and were linked to EMT-inducing transcription factor Snail- and Slug-dependent regulation. CONCLUSION: Based on our results, we conclude that the BRD4/c-Myc- and integrin/FAK-dependent pathways act in concert to promote breast cancer cell survival and poor clinical outcomes. As such, they represent promising targets for a synthetic lethal-type of therapy against TNBC.

5.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 16328, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33004943

RESUMO

Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is an important pro-angiogenic factor. VEGF was reported to promote the occurrence of autophagy, which enhanced the radioresistance of tumors. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of VEGF silencing on the radiosensitivity of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) cells and the underlying mechanisms. The radiosensitivity of NPC cells after VEGF silencing was detected by cell counting kit 8 (CCK-8) and clonogenic assay, while cell cycle and apoptosis were detected by flow cytometry. The processes of DNA damage, repair and autophagy were examined by immunofluorescence and western blotting. The interaction between VEGF and mTOR was confirmed by western blotting and co-immunoprecipitation studies. The effect of VEGF on radiosensitivity of NPC cells was investigated in vivo using a xenograft model. Furthermore, immunohistochemistry and TUNEL assays were used to verify the relationship between autophagy and radiosensitivity in NPC after VEGF depletion. Downregulation of VEGF significantly inhibited cell proliferation and induced apoptosis of NPC cells after radiotherapy in vitro and in vivo. In addition, VEGF knockdown not only decreased autophagy level, but also delayed the DNA damage repair in NPC cells after irradiation. Mechanistically, silencing VEGF suppressed autophagy through activation of the mTOR pathway. VEGF depletion increased radiosensitivity of NPC cells by suppressing autophagy via activation of the mTOR pathway.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33022115

RESUMO

Antidepressant medications are the first-line treatment option for moderate to severe major depressive disorder. However, most antidepressants have numerous documented adverse events, including cardiometabolic effects and weight gain, which are major public health concerns. Antidepressant agents provide varying risk of associated weight gain, including significant within-class differences. Some agents, such as mirtazapine, show significant levels of weight gain, while others, such as bupropion, demonstrate weight-loss effects. Current findings suggest the role of histamine and serotonin off-target appetite-promoting pathways in adverse weight-gain effects. Therefore, controlling for undesired weight effects is an important consideration for the selection of antidepressants.

7.
Nutr Cancer ; : 1-8, 2020 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33026250

RESUMO

The incidence of short-term complications after laparoscopic surgery for gastric cancer is higher. Whether ω-3 fish oil fat emulsion can reduce short-term complications of gastric cancer after laparoscopic surgery is controversial. The purpose of this study was to explore the effect of ω-3 fish oil fat emulsion on postoperative recovery of patients with gastric cancer after laparoscopic surgery. A total of 111 patients were included in this study. These patients were given parenteral nutrition for 5 day or more after surgery. We used univariate analysis and multivariate analysis to determine whether ω-3 fish oil fat emulsion could affect the incidence of short-term complications after gastric cancer laparoscopic surgery. The incidence of postoperative short-term complications in patients with parenteral nutrition supplemented with ω-3 fish oil fat emulsion was significantly lower than that in patients without ω-3 fish oil fat emulsion (12/51 VS 26/60, P = 0.027). ω-3 fish oil fat emulsion is an independent risk factor for short-term postoperative complications in patients with gastric cancer (OR = 0.393, CI:0.155-0.996, P = 0.049). In conclusion, the addition of ω-3 fish oil fat emulsion to parenteral nutrition after operation can effectively reduce the incidence of short-term complications in patients with gastric cancer after laparoscopic surgery.

8.
Front Immunol ; 11: 2001, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33013854

RESUMO

Background: X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA) is caused by a mutation of the Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK) gene and is the most common genetic mutation in patients with congenital agammaglobulinemia. The aim of this study was to analyze the clinical features, genetic defects, and/or BTK expression in patients suspected of having XLA who were referred from the Taiwan Foundation of Rare Disorders (TFRD). Methods: Patients with recurrent bacterial infections in the first 2 years of life, serum IgG/A/M below 2 standard deviations of the normal range, and ≦2% CD19+B cells were enrolled during the period of 2004-2019. The frequency of infections, pathogens, B-lymphocyte subsets, and family pedigree were recorded. Peripheral blood samples were sent to our institute for BTK expression and genetic analysis. Results: Nineteen (from 16 families) out of 29 patients had BTK mutations, including 7 missense mutations, 7 splicing mutations, 1 nonsense mutation, 2 huge deletions, and 2 nucleotide deletions. Six novel mutations were detected: c.504G>T [p.K168N], c.895-2A>G [p.Del K290 fs 23*], c.910T>G [p.F304V], c.1132T>C [p.T334H], c.1562A>T [p.D521V], and c.1957delG [Del p.D653 fs plus 45 a.a.]. All patients with BTK mutations had obviously decreased BTK expressions. Pseudomonas sepsis developed in 14 patients and led to both Shanghai fever and recurrent hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH). Recurrent sinopulmonary infections and bronchiectasis occurred in 11 patients. One patient died of pseudomonas sepsis and another died of hepatocellular carcinoma before receiving optimal treatment. Two patients with contiguous gene deletion syndrome (CGS) encompassing the TIMM8A/DDP1 gene presented with early-onset progressive post-lingual sensorineural Deafness, gradual Dystonia, and Optic Neuronopathy syndrome (DDON) or Mohr-Tranebjaerg syndrome (MTS). Conclusion: Pseudomonas sepsis was more common (74%) than recurrent sinopulmonary infections in Taiwanese XLA patients, and related to Shanghai fever and recurrent HLH, both of which were prevented by regular immunoglobulin infusions. Approximately 10% of patients belonged to CGS involving the TIMM8A/DDP1 gene and presented with the DDON/MTS phenotype in need of aggressive psychomotor therapy.

9.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 2020 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33020795

RESUMO

Recently, a new class of lithium chlorides and bromides (e.g., Li3YCl6 and Li3YBr6) were reported to be promising solid-state electrolytes with high ionic conductivity in all-solid-state battery cells. However, their response under mechanical loading is not known which is critical as mechanical properties can play a pivotal role in reducing interfacing resistance between electrolytes and electrodes. To address this issue, herein, we report the thermo-physical properties of these lithium chlorides and bromides using density functional theory calculations. It was found that the new structures possess relatively larger shear moduli than those of thio-phosphate-type solid-state electrolytes and smaller Young's moduli than those of Garnet-type solid-state electrolytes. This suggests that the new halide materials can be more effective in suppressing the formation of lithium dendrites, accommodating volumetric changes of electrode materials and preventing their own degradation. Meanwhile, Poisson's ratio and Pugh's indicator calculations showed that Li3YCl6 and Li3ScCl6 possess improved ductility than other halide candidates, and thus hold promise as solid-state electrolytes. On the other hand, owing to their relatively high thermal conductivities, lithium bromides were found to be more advantageous in conducting heat which is important to ensure safety. These results provide fundamental insights into the mechanical properties of lithium chlorides and bromides and contribute to the rational mechanical design of solid-state electrolytes and the development advanced all-solid-state batteries.

10.
J Cell Physiol ; 2020 Jul 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33020901

RESUMO

Long intergenic noncoding RNAs (lincRNAs) play a vital role in the occurrence and progression of cancer. The mechanism of lincRNAs in colorectal cancer (CRC) has not been fully elucidated. In this context, an integrated comparative long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) microarray technology was used to determine the expression profile of lncRNAs in CRC. The roles of LINC00908 are unclear. We found that LINC00908 was significantly upregulated in CRC. Inhibition of LINC00908 resulted in reduced cell proliferation and G1 cell cycle arrest, which was mediated by cyclin D1, cyclin-dependent kinase 4, and phosphorylated retinoblastoma. Moreover, inhibition of LINC00908-induced apoptosis through the intrinsic apoptosis signaling pathway, as shown by the activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3. Mechanistically, miR-143-3p directly bound to LINC00908. miR-143-3p expression was negatively correlated with LINC00908 expression in CRC tissue. Functional experiments revealed opposing roles for miR-143-3p and LINC00908, suggesting that LINC00908 negatively regulates miR-143-3p. Mechanistically, miR-143-3p directly targets LINC00908. The KLF5 inhibitor ML264 affected proliferation and apoptosis, indicating that LINC00908 may act as a competing endogenous RNA to facilitate the expression of the miR-143-3p target gene KLF5. Thus, LINC00908 has an important proliferative and antiapoptotic role in CRC by regulating the cell cycle and intrinsic apoptosis. LINC00908 could be a potential biomarker and a new therapeutic target for CRC.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33021081

RESUMO

Ginsenoside H dripping pill (GH) is a novel clinical-stage adjuvant for the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer. In this study, the pharmacokinetics of ginsenoside Rh2, the major anticancer ingredient of GH, was investigated in healthy volunteers. Enrolled volunteers were assigned to 3 cohorts-7.8, 15.6, and 31.2 mg-and received single and/or multiple GH orally. Blood samples were assayed by a validated bioanalytical method, and drug concentrations were analyzed using a noncompartmental methodology. The results showed that ginsenoside Rh2 was absorbed with medium speed and reached Cmax a median of 3 hours after administration. The exposure of ginsenoside Rh2 was approximately dose-dependent in terms of AUC and Cmax . The plasma concentration of ginsenoside Rh2 reached steady state after oral administration of GH twice daily for 5 days. There was no obvious accumulation in exposure parameters in the multiple-dose study.

12.
Healthcare (Basel) ; 8(4)2020 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33036424

RESUMO

The possible association of patient safety events (PSEs) with the costs and utilization remains a concern. In this retrospective analysis, we investigated adult hospitalizations at a medical center between 2010 and 2015 with or without reported PSEs. Administrative and claims data were analyzed to compare the costs and length of stay (LOS) between cases with and without PSEs of the three most common categories during the first 14 days of hospitalization. Two models, including linear regression and propensity score-matched comparison, were performed for each reference day group of hospitalizations. Of 14,181 PSEs from 424,635 hospitalizations, 69.8% were near miss or no-harm events. Costs and LOS were similar between fall cases and controls in all of the 14 reference days. In contrast, for cases of tube and line events and controls, there were consistent differences in costs and LOS in the majority of the reference days (86% and 57%, respectively). Consistent differences were less frequently seen for medication events and control events (36% and 43%, respectively). Our study approach of comparing cases with PSEs and those without any PSE showed significant differences in costs and LOS for tube and line events, and medication events. No difference in cost or LOS was found regarding fall events. Further studies exploring adjustments for event risks and harm-oriented analysis are warranted.

13.
Nanomaterials (Basel) ; 10(10)2020 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33036455

RESUMO

Graphene (Gr)/gold (Au) and graphene-oxide (GO)/Au nanocomposites (NCPs) were synthesized by performing pulsed-laser-induced photolysis (PLIP) on hydrogen peroxide and chloroauric acid (HAuCl4) that coexisted with Gr or GO in an aqueous solution. A 3-month-long aqueous solution stability was observed in the NCPs synthesized without using surfactants and additional processing. The synthesized NCPs were characterized using absorption spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction to prove the existence of hybrid Gr/Au or GO/Au NCPs. The synthesized NCPs were further evaluated using the photocatalytic reaction of methylene blue (MB), a synthetic dye, under UV radiation, visible light (central wavelength of 470 nm), and full spectrum of solar light. Both Gr/Au and GO/Au NCPs exhibited photocatalytic degradation of MB under solar light illumination with removal efficiencies of 92.1% and 94.5%, respectively.

14.
Br J Nutr ; : 1-29, 2020 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33046150

RESUMO

High carbohydrate diet could achieve protein sparing effect, but it may cause negative impacts on the growth condition of fish due to their poor utilization ability of carbohydrate. How to reduce the adverse effects caused by high carbohydrate diet is important for the development of aquaculture. In the present study, we aimed to identify whether inulin could attenuate metabolic syndrome caused by high-carbohydrate diet in fish. Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) (1.19 ± 0.01 g) were supplied with 35% carbohydrate (CON), 45% carbohydrate (HC) and 45% carbohydrate + 5g/kg inulin (HCI) diets for ten weeks. The results showed that addition of inulin improved the survival rate when fish were challenged with Aeromonas hydrophila, indicating inulin had an immunostimulatory effect. Compared with HC group, HCI group had lower lipid accumulation in liver and the gene expression analyses indicated that addition of inulin downregulated genes related to lipogenesis and upregulated genes relevant to ß-oxidation significantly (P < 0.05). Higher liver glycogen and glucose tolerance were found in HCI group compared with HC group (P < 0.05). These results indicated that inulin could alleviate the metabolic syndrome induced by high-carbohydrate diet. Furthermore, addition of inulin in high-carbohydrate diet changed the intestinal bacterial composition and significantly increased the concentration of acetic acid and propionic acid in fish gut which have the potential to increase pathogen resistance and regulate metabolic characteristics in fish. Collectively, our results demonstrated a possible causal role for the gut microbiome in metabolic improvements induced by inulin in fish.

15.
Toxicology ; 445: 152584, 2020 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33017621

RESUMO

Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is one of the severe liver diseases, resulting in high morbidity and mortality. However, frataxin, a mitochondrial protein mainly participating in iron homeostasis and oxidative stress, remains uncertain in the pathogenesis of ALD. In the present study, the role of frataxin in ALD was investigated. Ethanol (100 mM) decreased frataxin expression at 48 and 72 h in HepG2. Dramatically, in HepG2 overexpressing cytochrome P450 2E1 (HepG2CYP2E1+/+), frataxin level was down-regulated with ethanol stimulation at 12 h. Moreover, chronically feeding ethanol to mice via Lieber-DeCarli liquid diet (30 % of total calories) for 15 weeks significantly inhibited frataxin expression. Ferroptosis signature proteins were dysregulated, accompanied by mitochondrial damage of morphology, enhanced malondialdehyde and decreased glutathione in the liver, as well as accumulation of reactive oxygen species and mitochondrial labile iron pool in primary hepatocytes. Notably, proteomics screening of frataxin deficient-HepG2 further suggested frataxin was associated with ferroptosis. Furthermore, the ferroptosis inhibitor ferrostatin-1 blocked the increase of lactate dehydrogenase release by ethanol in HepG2CYP2E1+/+. Most importantly, frataxin deficiency enhanced ferroptosis driven by ethanol via evaluating the levels of lactate dehydrogenase, cell morphological changes, mitochondrial labile iron pool, and lipid peroxidation. Conversely, restoring frataxin alleviated the sensitivity to ferroptosis. In addition, frataxin overexpression mitigated the sensitivity of ethanol-induced ferroptosis in HepG2CYP2E1+/+. Collectively, our study revealed that frataxin-mediated ferroptosis contributed to ALD, highlighting a potential therapeutic strategy for ALD.

16.
BMJ Open ; 10(10): e041971, 2020 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33055124

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We aimed to assess the effect of metabolic syndrome (MetS) on incident oral potentially malignant disorder (OPMD). DESIGN: We conducted a prospective cohort study of the Changhua community-based integrated screening (CHCIS) programme and nationwide oral cancer screening programme during the period between 2005 and 2014. SETTING: CHCIS, Taiwan. PARTICIPANTS: We enrolled 17 590 participants aged 30 years and older. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: We assessed the impact of MetS on the outcome measured by incident OPMD. RESULTS: The incidences of OPMD among subjects with and without MetS were 7.68 ‰ and 5.38 ‰, respectively. After adjusting for confounders, subjects with MetS exhibited a statistically greater risk of developing OPMD compared with those who were free of MetS by 33% (adjusted rate ratio, aRR=1.33, 95% CI 1.14 to 1.55). Individual components of MetS still remained significant, including central obesity (aRR=1.22, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.44), hypertriglyceridaemia (aRR=1.26, 95% CI 1.07 to 1.49) and hyperglycaemia (aRR=1.20, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.41). Central obesity and hypertriglyceridaemia were also statistically associated with a subtype of OPMD, namely, leukoplakia. CONCLUSION: The temporal influence of MetS on the risk of incident OPMD was noted in our prospective cohort study. Therefore, promoting an MetS prevention and control programme might reduce the occurrence of OPMD and oral cancer.

17.
Med Care ; 58(11): 945-951, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33055567

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The Affordable Care Act of 2010 expanded Medicaid to low-income adults at or below 138% of the Federal Poverty Level (FPL). The aim of this study was to examine if expanding Medicaid to adults had an impact on preventive health care utilization of children from low-income families (focusing on families with annual incomes 0%-99% and 100%-199% of the FPL). METHODS: This study used data from the 2016 and 2017 National Survey of Children's Health and a quasi-experimental difference-in-differences method. The dependent variable was the number of preventive care visits in the past year and the primary independent variable was the Medicaid expansion status of the state. Louisiana expanded Medicaid in 2016 (treatment group) and neighboring nonexpansion states of Texas and Mississippi constituted the control group. Differences in dependent variable were calculated between survey years 2016 and 2017. RESULTS: In Louisiana, the change in the predicted probability of at least 1 preventive care visit among children of ages 0-17 years, from 0% to 99% FPL families, was higher by 26 percentage points after Medicaid was expanded (2017 vs. 2016), as compared with the change in the predicted probability (2017 vs. 2016) of at least 1 preventive care visit among children of ages 0-17 years, from 0% to 99% FPL families in the nonexpansion states, Texas and Mississippi. CONCLUSIONS: Children in poverty residing in a Medicaid expansion state, Louisiana, had increased likelihood of having an annual preventive care visit after expansion of Medicaid eligibility under the Affordable Care Act, as compared with children in nonexpansion states. Thus, this study showed that the implications of the public health insurance expansion for adults were not limited to adult health outcomes, but extended to children's health care utilization.

18.
Magn Reson Imaging ; 2020 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33068670

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To characterize the intracranial vascular features extracted from time of flight (TOF) images and their changes from baseline to follow-up in patients undergoing carotid revascularization, using arterial spin labeling (ASL) cerebral blood flow (CBF) measurement as reference. METHODS: In this retrospective study, brain TOF and ASL images of 99 subjects, acquired before, within 48 h, and/or 6 months after, carotid revascularization surgery were analyzed. TOF images were analyzed using a custom software (iCafe) to quantify intracranial vascular features, including total vessel length, total vessel volume, and number of branches. Mean whole-brain CBF was calculated from ASL images. ASL scans showing low ASL signal in the entire flow territory of an internal carotid artery (ICA), which may be caused by labeling failure, were excluded. Changes and correlations between time points were analyzed separately for TOF intracranial vascular features and ASL CBF. RESULTS: Similar to ASL CBF, the TOF vascular features (i.e. total vessel length, total vessel volume and number of branches) increased dramatically from baseline to post-surgery, then returned to a level slightly higher than the baseline in long-term follow-up (All P < 0.05). Correlation between time points was observed for all three TOF vascular features but not for ASL CBF. CONCLUSION: Intracranial vascular features, including total vessel length, total vessel volume and number of branches, extracted from TOF images are useful in detecting brain blood flow changes induced by carotid revascularization surgery.

19.
Bone ; : 115688, 2020 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33065355

RESUMO

The IMPC/KOMP program provides the opportunity to screen mice harboring well defined gene-inactivation mutations in a uniform genetic background. The program performs a global tissue phenotyping survey that includes skeletal x-rays and bone density measurements. Because of the relative insensitivity of the two screening tests for detecting variance in bone architecture, we initiated a secondary screen based on µCT and a cryohistolomorphological workflow that was performed on the femur and vertebral compartments on 220 randomly selected knockouts (KOs) and 36 control bone samples over a 2 1/2 year collection period provided by one of the production/phenotyping centers. The performance of the screening protocol was designed to balance throughput and cost versus sensitivity and informativeness such that the output would be of value to the skeletal biology community. Here we report the reliability of this screening protocol to establish criteria for control skeletal variance at the architectural, dynamic and cellular histomorphometric level. Unexpected properties of the control population include unusually high variance in BV/TV in male femurs and greater bone formation and bone turnover rates in the female femur and vertebral trabeculae bone compartments. However, the manner for maintaining bone formation differed between these two bone sites. The vertebral compartment relies on maintaining a greater number of bone forming surfaces while the femoral compartment utilized more matrix production per cell. The comparison of the architectural properties obtained by µCT and histomorphology revealed significant differences in values for BV/TV, Tb.Th and Tb.N which is attributable to sampling density of the two methods. However, as a screening tool, expressing the ratio of KO to the control line as obtained by either method was remarkably similar. It identified KOs with significant variance which led to a more detailed histological analysis. Our findings are exemplified by the Efna4 KO, in which a high BV/TV was identified by µCT and confirmed by histomorphometry in the femur but not in the vertebral compartment. Dynamic labeling showed a marked increase in BFR which was attributable to increased labeling surfaces. Cellular analysis confirmed partitioning of osteoblast to labeling surfaces and a marked decrease in osteoclastic activity on both labeling and quiescent surfaces. This pattern of increased bone modeling would not be expected based on prior studies of the Ephrin-Ephrin receptor signaling pathways between osteoblasts and osteoclasts. Overall, our findings underscore why unbiased screening is needed because it can reveal unknown or unanticipated genes that impact skeletal variation.

20.
J Glaucoma ; 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33065612

RESUMO

PRéCIS:: Intraocular pressure was found to be significantly correlated with body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) in a farmworker population located in the southeast Georgia, USA. BMI was correlated with intraocular pressure, independent of systemic blood pressures. PURPOSE: Elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) is a known risk factor for glaucomatous optic neuropathy and is believed to be associated with obesity and cardiometabolic diseases. The high prevalence of these conditions in the United States necessitates an evaluation of the relationship among obesity, cardiometabolic risks, and IOP among understudied younger populations. METHODS: Farmworker data was collected from the annual Costa-Layman Health Fair between 2013 and 2017. Correlations of IOP with demographic factors, obesity, and cardiometabolic risks were analyzed using analysis-of-covariance, partial Pearson correlations, and linear regressions. RESULTS: In the farmworker population (n=346), the mean IOP was 15.5▒mmHg and the prevalence of ocular hypertension (OHT) (IOP>21▒mmHg) was 5.5%. BMI, waist circumference, and DBP were significantly correlated (r=0.192, P=0.001; r=0.128, P=0.017; r=0.142, P=0.007, respectively) with IOP when adjusted for age, sex, and ethnicity. Each 10▒mmHg increase in DBP corresponded with a 0.51▒mmHg increase in IOP. With adjustment for age, sex, ethnicity, systolic blood pressure (SBP), and DBP, BMI remained significantly correlated with IOP (r=0.166, P=0.002). CONCLUSION: Higher IOP is associated with obesity measures including BMI and waist circumference and is correlated with DBP. These findings suggest that BMI is an independent risk factor for elevated IOP.

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