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1.
Theranostics ; 9(20): 5769-5783, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31534518

RESUMO

Rationale: Heat shock protein 9 (HSP90) are a family of the most highly expressed cellular proteins and attractive drug targets against cancer, neurodegeneration diseases, etc. HSP90 proteins have also been suggested to be linked to lipid metabolism. However, the specific function of HSP90 paralogs, as well as the underlying molecular cascades remains largely unknown. This study aims to unravel the paralog-specific role of HSP90 in lipid metabolism and try to discover paralog-specific HSP90 inhibitors. Methods: In non-alcohol fatty liver disease (NAFLD) patients, as well as in diet induced obese (DIO) mice, expression of HSP90 paralogs were analyzed by immunohistochemistry and western blot. In hepatocytes and in DIO mice, HSP90 proteins were knockdown by siRNAs/shRNAs, metabolic parameters, as well as downstream signaling were then investigated. By virtue screening, corylin was found to bind specifically to HSP90ß. Using photo-affinity labeling and mass spectrum, corylin binding proteins were identified. After oral administration of corylin, its lipid lowering effects in different metabolic disease mice models were evaluated. Results: We showed that hepatic HSP90ß, rather than HSP90α, was overexpressed in NAFLD patients and obese mice. Hepatic HSP90ß was also clinical relevant to serum lipid level. Depletion of HSP90ß promoted mature sterol regulatory element-binding proteins (mSREBPs) degradation through Akt-GSK3ß-FBW7 pathway, thereby dramatically decreased the content of neutral lipids and cholesterol. We discovered an HSP90ß-selective inhibitor (corylin) that only bound to its middle domain. We found that corylin treatment partially suppressed Akt activity only at Thr308 site and specifically promoted mSREBPs ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation. Corylin treatment significantly reduced lipid content in both liver cell lines and human primary hepatocytes. In animal studies, we showed that corylin ameliorated obesity-induced fatty liver disease, type 2 diabetes and atherosclerosis. Principle conclusions: HSP90ß plays a parolog-specific role in regulating lipid homeostasis. Compound that selectively inhibits HSP90ß could be useful in the clinic for the treatment for metabolic diseases.

2.
Immunity ; 51(2): 272-284.e7, 2019 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31399282

RESUMO

Macrophage polarization is accompanied by drastic changes in L-arginine metabolism. Two L-arginine catalytic enzymes, iNOS and arginase 1, are well-characterized hallmark molecules of classically and alternatively activated macrophages, respectively. The third metabolic fate of L-arginine is the generation of creatine that acts as a key source of cellular energy reserve, yet little is known about the role of creatine in the immune system. Here, genetic, genomic, metabolic, and immunological analyses revealed that creatine reprogrammed macrophage polarization by suppressing M(interferon-γ [IFN-γ]) yet promoting M(interleukin-4 [IL-4]) effector functions. Mechanistically, creatine inhibited the induction of immune effector molecules, including iNOS, by suppressing IFN-γ-JAK-STAT1 transcription-factor signaling while supporting IL-4-STAT6-activated arginase 1 expression by promoting chromatin remodeling. Depletion of intracellular creatine by ablation of the creatine transporter Slc6a8 altered macrophage-mediated immune responses in vivo. These results uncover a previously uncharacterized role for creatine in macrophage polarization by modulating cellular responses to cytokines such as IFN-γ and IL-4.

3.
Gut ; 2019 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30954949

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Increased de novo fatty acid (FA) synthesis and cholesterol biosynthesis have been independently described in many tumour types, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). DESIGN: We investigated the functional contribution of fatty acid synthase (Fasn)-mediated de novo FA synthesis in a murine HCC model induced by loss of Pten and overexpression of c-Met (sgPten/c-Met) using liver-specific Fasn knockout mice. Expression arrays and lipidomic analysis were performed to characterise the global gene expression and lipid profiles, respectively, of sgPten/c-Met HCC from wild-type and Fasn knockout mice. Human HCC cell lines were used for in vitro studies. RESULTS: Ablation of Fasn significantly delayed sgPten/c-Met-driven hepatocarcinogenesis in mice. However, eventually, HCC emerged in Fasn knockout mice. Comparative genomic and lipidomic analyses revealed the upregulation of genes involved in cholesterol biosynthesis, as well as decreased triglyceride levels and increased cholesterol esters, in HCC from these mice. Mechanistically, loss of Fasn promoted nuclear localisation and activation of sterol regulatory element binding protein 2 (Srebp2), which triggered cholesterogenesis. Blocking cholesterol synthesis via the dominant negative form of Srebp2 (dnSrebp2) completely prevented sgPten/c-Met-driven hepatocarcinogenesis in Fasn knockout mice. Similarly, silencing of FASN resulted in increased SREBP2 activation and hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA (HMG-CoA) reductase (HMGCR) expression in human HCC cell lines. Concomitant inhibition of FASN-mediated FA synthesis and HMGCR-driven cholesterol production was highly detrimental for HCC cell growth in culture. CONCLUSION: Our study uncovers a novel functional crosstalk between aberrant lipogenesis and cholesterol biosynthesis pathways in hepatocarcinogenesis, whose concomitant inhibition might represent a therapeutic option for HCC.

4.
Am J Cardiol ; 123(10): 1667-1674, 2019 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30879609

RESUMO

Medication regimens in adults with heart failure (HF) are complex which can complicate patient adherence. Individuals with HF frequently use beta blockers (BBs) for multiple indications, including hypertension and HF, but BBs can have significant side effects that may affect their use. We examined medication-taking behaviors and perceptions in individuals with HF with a particular focus on BBs. A mailed survey on medication use was administered to US adults with HF enrolled in the REasons for Geographic And Racial Differences in Stroke study. Among 518 respondents, 357 (69%) reported taking a BB. Nearly half (42%) reported taking ≥10 medications per day. However, 45% indicated that they did not miss any days taking medications, and over 85% reported willingness to take additional medications to prevent further healthcare encounters. Participants' perceptions of BB symptoms varied, but 56% of those who reported experiencing symptoms did not discuss this with their healthcare providers. Adults who experienced HF hospitalization had higher odds of reporting taking BBs to treat HF (odds ratio 1.51, 95% confidence interval 1.19, 1.91). Adults with hypertension were also likely to report taking BBs to treat high blood pressure (odds ratio 2.42, 95% confidence interval 1.79, 3.26). In conclusion, despite extensive medication regimens, individuals with HF were willing to take additional medications for their disease. Participant recognition of BB use for treating HF and co-morbidities was high, yet many do not report side effects to healthcare providers. In conclusion, better understanding of patients' medication-taking behaviors and perceptions may facilitate optimization of HF treatments.

5.
Chem Asian J ; 14(9): 1535-1540, 2019 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30834685

RESUMO

Heteroatom-doped porous carbon materials have exhibited promising applications in various fields. In this work, sulfur, nitrogen co-doped carbon materials (SNCs) with abundant pore structure were prepared by pyrolysis of sulfur, nitrogen-containing porous organic polymers (POPs) mixed with nano-CaCO3 at high temperature. Among the resultant materials, SNC-Ca-850 possesses a relatively high level of doped heteroatoms and exhibits an excellent catalytic performance for the selective oxidation of benzylic C-H bonds. It is noteworthy that nano-CaCO3 increases the doped sulfur content in the synthesized carbon materials to a large extent and impacts the existence modes of sulfur. In addition, it enhances the porous structure and specific surface area of the resultant SNCs significantly. This work provides a viable strategy to promote the doping of sulfur into carbon materials during the pyrolysis process.

6.
Cell Death Differ ; 26(10): 2015-2028, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30760873

RESUMO

Loss of either TSC1 or TSC2 causes tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) via activation of mTOR signaling pathway. The two prominent features of TSC are skin lesions including hypomelanic macules and benign tumors in multiple organs, whose molecular alterations are largely unknown. We report here that Xc- cystine/glutamate antiporter (xCT) was elevated in Tsc2-/- or Pten-/- cells, Tsc1 knockout mouse tissues and TSC2-deficient human kidney tumor. xCT was transcriptionally boosted by mTOR-mediated Oct1 signaling cascade. Augmented xCT led to reduction of eumelanin and elevation of pheomelanin in Tsc1 skin knockout mice through mTOR signaling pathway. Disruption of xCT suppressed the proliferation and tumorigenesis of Pten-null cells and Tsc2-null cells. mTOR hyperactive cells were more sensitive to inhibitors of mTOR or xCT. Combined inhibition of mTOR and xCT synergistically blocked the propagation and oncogenesis of mTOR hyperactive cells. Therefore, oncogenic mTOR activation of xCT is a key connection between aberrant melanin synthesis and tumorigenesis. We suggest that xCT is a novel therapeutic target for TSC and other aberrant mTOR-related diseases.

7.
PLoS Biol ; 17(1): e2006571, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30653498

RESUMO

Beiging of white adipose tissue (WAT) is a particularly appealing target for therapeutics in the treatment of metabolic diseases through norepinephrine (NE)-mediated signaling pathways. Although previous studies report NE clearance mechanisms via SLC6A2 on sympathetic neurons or proinflammatory macrophages in adipose tissues (ATs), the low catecholamine clearance capacity of SLC6A2 may limit the cleaning efficiency. Here, we report that mouse organic cation transporter 3 (Oct3; Slc22a3) is highly expressed in WAT and displays the greatest uptake rate of NE as a selective non-neural route of NE clearance in white adipocytes, which differs from other known routes such as adjacent neurons or macrophages. We further show that adipocytes express high levels of NE degradation enzymes Maoa, Maob, and Comt, providing the molecular basis on NE clearance by adipocytes together with its reuptake transporter Oct3. Under NE administration, ablation of Oct3 induces higher body temperature, thermogenesis, and lipolysis compared with littermate controls. After prolonged cold challenge, inguinal WAT (ingWAT) in adipose-specific Oct3-deficient mice shows much stronger browning characteristics and significantly elevated expression of thermogenic and mitochondrial biogenesis genes than in littermate controls, and this response involves enhanced ß-adrenergic receptor (ß-AR)/protein kinase A (PKA)/cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)-responsive element binding protein (Creb) pathway activation. Glycolytic genes are reprogrammed to significantly higher levels to compensate for the loss of ATP production in adipose-specific Oct3 knockout (KO) mice, indicating the fundamental role of glucose metabolism during beiging. Inhibition of ß-AR largely abolishes the higher lipolytic and thermogenic activities in Oct3-deficient ingWAT, indicating the NE overload in the vicinity of adipocytes in Oct3 KO adipocytes. Of note, reduced functional alleles in human OCT3 are also identified to be associated with increased basal metabolic rate (BMR). Collectively, our results demonstrate that Oct3 governs ß-AR activity as a NE recycling transporter in white adipocytes, offering potential therapeutic applications for metabolic disorders.

8.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 7(24): e010345, 2018 12 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30526249

RESUMO

Background HIV is associated with an increased risk for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, which may result in many people living with HIV taking a statin. Some statins are contraindicated with certain antiretroviral therapies ( ART ) and other medications commonly used by HIV -infected patients. Methods and Results We analyzed trends in the use of statins, including contraindicated statins, between 2007 and 2015 among HIV -infected patients aged ≥19 years taking ART who had employer-sponsored or Medicare supplemental health insurance in the Marketscan database (n=186 420). Statin use was identified using pharmacy claims. Contraindicated statin use was defined by a pharmacy claim for HIV protease inhibitors, cobicistat, hepatitis C protease inhibitors, anti-infectives, calcium channel blockers, amiodarone, gemfibrozil, or nefazodone followed by a fill for a contraindicated statin type and dosage within 90 days. The percentage of beneficiaries with HIV taking a statin remained unchanged between 2007 (24.6%) and 2015 (24.7%). Among those taking a statin, the percentage taking a contraindicated statin declined from 16.3% in 2007 to 9.0% in 2014 and then increased to 9.8% in 2015. The proportion of contraindicated statin fills attributable to HIV protease inhibitors declined from 63.9% in 2007 to 51.0% in 2015, while those attributable to cobicistat increased from 0% before 2012 to 20.6% in 2015. Conclusions Changes in ART regimens resulted in a decline in contraindicated statin use from 2007 to 2014, but this favorable trend was attenuated in 2015 because of increased use of cobicistat-containing ART regimens.

9.
Cardiovasc Drugs Ther ; 32(6): 601-610, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30446883

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Compare medical expenditures among adults with statin-associated adverse effects (SAAE) and high statin adherence (HSA) following myocardial infarction (MI). METHODS: We analyzed expenditures in 2016 US dollars among Medicare beneficiaries with SAAE (n = 1741) and HSA (n = 55,567) who were ≥ 66 years of age and initiated moderate/high-intensity statins following an MI in 2007-2013. SAAE were identified through a claims-based algorithm, which included down-titrating statins and initiating ezetimibe, switching to ezetimibe monotherapy, having a rhabdomyolysis or antihyperlipidemic adverse event followed by statin down-titration or discontinuation, or switching between ≥ 3 statin types within 365 days following MI. HSA was defined by having a statin available to take for ≥ 80% of the days in the 365 days following MI. RESULTS: Expenditures among beneficiaries with SAAE and HSA were $40,776 (95% CI $38,329-$43,223) and $26,728 ($26,482-$26,974), respectively, in the 365 days following MI, and $34,238 ($31,396-$37,080) and $29,053 ($28,605-$29,500), respectively, for every year after the first 365 days. Multivariable-adjusted ratios comparing expenditures among beneficiaries with SAAE versus HSA in the first 365 days and after the first 365 days following MI were 1.51 (95% CI 1.43-1.59) and 1.23 (1.12-1.34), respectively. Inpatient and outpatient expenditures were higher among beneficiaries with SAAE versus HSA during and after the first 365 days following MI. Compared to beneficiaries with HSA, medication expenditures among those with SAAE were similar in the 365 days following MI, but higher afterwards. Other medical expenditures were higher among beneficiaries with SAAE versus HSA. CONCLUSION: SAAE are associated with increased expenditures following MI compared with HSA.

10.
ChemSusChem ; 2018 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30350471

RESUMO

Novel catalysts with Co nanoparticles (NPs) entrapped in N, S co-doped carbon shells were successfully fabricated via pyrolysis of porous organic polymers (POPs) with cobalt salts. The encapsulated structure consisting of Co NPs and N, S dual-doped carbon layers was verified by TEM, XRD and XPS. They displayed excellent activity and stability for catalytic transfer hydrogenation (CTH) of nitrobenzene with formic acid under base-free conditions. Furthermore, the resultant catalysts allowed for highly efficient and selective transfer hydrogenation of various functionalized nitroarenes to the corresponding anilines. Through control experiments, the covered Co NPs were identified as active sites for CTH. And the incorporation of S into the N-doped carbon lattice promoted the electron transfer from metallic cobalt NPs to their shells which played a significant role in the acceleration of CTH. Moreover, the Co-NSPC-850 catalyst showed excellent stability in the recycling experiments.

11.
J Card Fail ; 2018 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30339796

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The evidence-based beta-blockers carvedilol, bisoprolol, and metoprolol succinate reduce mortality and hospitalizations among patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). Use of these medications is not well described in the general population of patients with HFrEF, especially among patients with potential contraindications. OBJECTIVES: Our goal was to describe the patterns of prescription fills for carvedilol, bisoprolol, and metoprolol succinate among Medicare beneficiaries hospitalized for HFrEF, as well as to estimate the associations between specific contraindications for beta-blocker therapy and those patterns. METHODS AND RESULTS: With the use of the cohort of 15,205 Medicare beneficiaries hospitalized for HFrEF from 2007 to 2013 in the 5% Medicare random sample, we described prescription fills (30 days after discharge) and dosage patterns (1 year after discharge) for beta-blockers. By means of of Fine and Gray competing risk models, we estimated the associations between potential contraindications (hypotension, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease [COPD], asthma, and syncope) and prescription fill and dosing patterns while adjusting for demographics, comorbidities, and health care utilization. For beneficiaries who did not die or readmitted to the hospital, 38% of hospitalizations were followed by a prescription fill for an evidence-based beta-blocker within 30 days, 12% were followed by prescription fills for at least 50% of the recommended dose of an evidence-based beta-blocker within 1 year, and 9% were followed by a prescription fill for an up-titrated dose of an evidence-based beta-blocker within 1 year. The prevalence of the contraindications were 21% for hypotension, 48% for COPD, 15% for asthma, and 12% for syncope. Among beneficiaries who did not fill a prescription for an evidence-based beta-blocker within 30 days, 67% had at least 1 of these contraindications. Hypotension, COPD, and syncope were each associated with a ∼10% lower risk of filling a prescription for an evidence-based beta-blocker. CONCLUSIONS: Prescription fill and up-titration rates for evidence-based beta-blockers are low among Medicare beneficiaries with HFrEF, but contraindications explain only a minor part of these low rates.

12.
Protein Cell ; 2018 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30324491

RESUMO

Zinc levels are high in pancreatic ß-cells, and zinc is involved in the synthesis, processing and secretion of insulin in these cells. However, precisely how cellular zinc homeostasis is regulated in pancreatic ß-cells is poorly understood. By screening the expression of 14 Slc39a metal importer family member genes, we found that the zinc transporter Slc39a5 is significantly down-regulated in pancreatic ß-cells in diabetic db/db mice, obese ob/ob mice and high-fat diet-fed mice. Moreover, ß-cell-specific Slc39a5 knockout mice have impaired insulin secretion. In addition, Slc39a5-deficient pancreatic islets have reduced glucose tolerance accompanied by reduced expression of Pgc-1α and its downstream target gene Glut2. The down-regulation of Glut2 in Slc39a5-deficient islets was rescued using agonists of Sirt1, Pgc-1α and Ppar-γ. At the mechanistic level, we found that Slc39a5-mediated zinc influx induces Glut2 expression via Sirt1-mediated Pgc-1α activation. These findings suggest that Slc39a5 may serve as a possible therapeutic target for diabetes-related conditions.

13.
J Mol Cell Biol ; 2018 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30239845

RESUMO

The prevalence of metabolic diseases is growing worldwide. Accumulating evidence suggests that solute carrier (SLC) transporters contribute to the aetiology of various metabolic diseases. Consistent with metabolic characteristics, the top 5 organs in which SLC transporters are highly expressed are the kidney, brain, liver, gut, and heart. Our long-term research goals are to understand the molecular mechanisms of important SLC transporter-mediated physiological processes and their potentials as drug targets. SLC transporters serve as "metabolic gate" of cells and mediate the transport of a wide range of essential nutrients and metabolites such as glucose, amino acids, vitamins, neurotransmitters, and inorganic/metal ions. Gene-modified animal models have demonstrated that SLC transporters participate in many important physiological functions including nutrient supply, metabolic transformation, energy homeostasis, tissue development, oxidative stress, host defense, and neurological regulation. Furthermore, the human genomic studies have identified that SLC transporters are susceptible or causative genes in various diseases like cancer, metabolic disease, cardiovascular disease, immunological disorders, and neurological dysfunction. Importantly, a number of SLC transporters have been successfully targeted for drug developments. This review will focus on the current understanding of SLCs in regulating physiology, nutrient sensing and uptake, and risk of diseases.

14.
J Fluoresc ; 28(6): 1347-1355, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30242629

RESUMO

Derivatives of oxazine dyes were synthesized on mulitigram scales via efficient synthetic strategies. One practical route was selected to prepare compounds 6, 9 and 10, especially water-soluble compound 6 was obtained in better yield than reported, and compound 10 was insoluble in aqueous media in absence of phenolic-OH. Compounds 3 and 9 were found to be clear pH-dependent between pH = 4.0 and 10.0, and could be used as acid-base indicators to measure intracellular pH. Compounds 6, 9, 10 all have carboxylic acid functionalities, which could be activated and used to conjugate the dyes to biomolecules. In addition, compounds 6 and 9 with good solubility in aqueous media were used to develop a simple, quick, safe, highly sensitive staining method to detect PHAs-producing bacteria on heat-fixed smears, which was confirmed by fluorescence images of PHAs granules of bacteria.

15.
Mil Med ; 183(11-12): e735-e740, 2018 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29889287

RESUMO

Introduction: Sickle cell trait (SCT), the heterozygous carrier state for hemoglobin S, is present in an estimated 1.6% of all newborns and 7.3% in black individuals in the USA. SCT has long been considered a benign condition with anticipated normal life expectancy and no increased risk for chronic diseases. The medical literature is inconclusive on the potential association between SCT and chronic medical conditions (CMC) including chronic kidney disease, venous thromboembolism, and stroke. Studies addressing these questions are lacking particularly in non-Black young adults. Materials and Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study among U.S. active duty, enlisted, service members who entered from 1992 to 2012 using existing Department of Defense (DoD Military Healthcare System databases). SCT positive subjects (1,323) were matched by demographic characteristics to SCT negative subjects (3,136) and followed through 2013 for CMC that included deep vein thrombosis, diabetes mellitus and hematologic, pulmonary, and renal conditions. Results: The rate of developing any of the included CMC was higher for those with SCT (incidence rate ratio = 1.71 95% CI 1.61-1.81) compared with those who were SCT negative and their healthcare utilization rate for any of CMC studied was higher for SCT positive compared with negative individuals (URR = 2.45 95% CI 2.41-2.50), with the highest rate ratios observed for hematologic and renal conditions. SCT positive compared with negative individuals were more likely to have encounter diagnoses of sickle cell disease and diabetes Type II and were less likely to have encounter diagnoses of other hemoglobinopathies and diabetes type I. Conclusion: SCT in these racially diverse, young adults increased both the incidence of and healthcare utilization for thromboembolism, diabetes mellitus type II, sickle cell disease, pulmonary, and chronic renal conditions. These findings suggest that clinicians treating young adults with SCT should exercise heightened surveillance for these CMC to ensure both early diagnosis and access to treatments.

16.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 9084, 2018 Jun 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29884792

RESUMO

A correction to this article has been published and is linked from the HTML and PDF versions of this paper. The error has been fixed in the paper.

17.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 7(10)2018 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29739799

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Contact with the healthcare system represents an opportunity for individuals who discontinue statins to re-initiate treatment. To help identify opportunities for healthcare providers to emphasize the risk-lowering benefits accrued through restarting statins, we determined the types of healthcare utilization associated with statin re-initiation among patients with history of a myocardial infarction. METHODS AND RESULTS: Medicare beneficiaries with a statin pharmacy fill claim within 30 days of hospital discharge for a myocardial infarction in 2007 to 2012 (n=158 795) were followed for 182 days postdischarge to identify treatment discontinuation, defined as 60 continuous days without statins (n=24 461). Re-initiation was defined as a statin fill within 365 days of the discontinuation date (n=13 136). Using a case-crossover study design and each beneficiary as their own control, healthcare utilization during 0 to 14 days before statin re-initiation (case period) was compared with healthcare utilization 30 to 44 days before statin re-initiation (control period). The mean age of beneficiaries was 75.4 years; 52.8% were women and 81.9% were white. For routine healthcare utilization, the odds ratio (95% confidence interval) for statin re-initiation associated with lipid panel testing was 2.65 (1.93-3.65), outpatient primary care was 1.31 (1.23-1.40), and outpatient cardiologist care was 1.38 (1.28-1.50). For acute healthcare utilization, the odds ratio (95% confidence interval) for statin re-initiation associated with emergency department visits was 1.77 (1.31-2.40), coronary heart disease (CHD) hospitalizations was 3.16 (2.41-4.14) and non-coronary heart disease hospitalizations was 1.73 (1.49-2.01). CONCLUSIONS: The weaker association of routine versus acute healthcare utilization with statin re-initiation suggests missed opportunities to reinforce the importance of statin therapy for secondary prevention.

18.
PLoS Biol ; 16(4): e2002907, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29659562

RESUMO

A constellation of metabolic disorders, including obesity, dysregulated lipids, and elevations in blood glucose levels, has been associated with cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Analysis of data from recently published genome-wide association studies (GWAS) demonstrated that reduced-function polymorphisms in the organic cation transporter, OCT1 (SLC22A1), are significantly associated with higher total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, and triglyceride (TG) levels and an increased risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus, yet the mechanism linking OCT1 to these metabolic traits remains puzzling. Here, we show that OCT1, widely characterized as a drug transporter, plays a key role in modulating hepatic glucose and lipid metabolism, potentially by mediating thiamine (vitamin B1) uptake and hence its levels in the liver. Deletion of Oct1 in mice resulted in reduced activity of thiamine-dependent enzymes, including pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH), which disrupted the hepatic glucose-fatty acid cycle and shifted the source of energy production from glucose to fatty acids, leading to a reduction in glucose utilization, increased gluconeogenesis, and altered lipid metabolism. In turn, these effects resulted in increased total body adiposity and systemic levels of glucose and lipids. Importantly, wild-type mice on thiamine deficient diets (TDs) exhibited impaired glucose metabolism that phenocopied Oct1 deficient mice. Collectively, our study reveals a critical role of hepatic thiamine deficiency through OCT1 deficiency in promoting the metabolic inflexibility that leads to the pathogenesis of cardiometabolic disease.

19.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 7(9)2018 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29686028

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It is unknown whether causes and temporal patterns of 30-day readmission vary between heart failure (HF) with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) and HF with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). We sought to address this question by examining a 5% national sample of Medicare beneficiaries. METHODS AND RESULTS: We included individuals who experienced a hospitalization for HFpEF or HFrEF between 2007 and 2013. We identified causes of 30-day readmission based on primary discharge diagnosis and further classified causes of readmission as HF-related, non-HF cardiovascular-related, and non-cardiovascular-related. We calculated the cumulative incidence of these classifications for HFpEF and HFrEF in a competing risks model and calculated subdistribution hazard ratios of these classifications by comparing those with HFpEF and those with HFrEF. Among 60 640 Medicare beneficiaries, we identified 13 785 unique older adults hospitalized with HFpEF and 15 205 who were hospitalized with HFrEF. Noncardiovascular diagnoses represented the most common causes of 30-day readmission (HFpEF: 59%; HFrEF: 47%), a pattern that was observed for each week of the 30-day study period for both HFpEF and HFrEF participants. In comparing readmission diagnoses in an adjusted model, non-cardiovascular-related diagnoses were more common and HF-related diagnoses were less common in HFpEF participants. CONCLUSIONS: Non-cardiovascular-related diagnoses represented the most common causes of 30-day readmission following HF hospitalization for each week of the 30-day postdischarge period. HF diagnoses were less common among those with HFpEF compared with HFrEF. Future interventions aimed at reducing 30-day readmissions following an HF hospitalization would benefit from an increased focus on noncardiovascular comorbidity and interventions that target HFpEF and HFrEF separately.

20.
Mil Med ; 183(3-4): e213-e218, 2018 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29514337

RESUMO

Introduction: Sickle cell trait (SCT) affects an estimated 5.02% of non-Hispanic blacks, 1.08% of Hispanics, and 0.1% of Whites in the U.S. military. Policies for SCT screening and occupational restrictions vary by service. Population-based studies of SCT with quantification of military-relevant outcomes are lacking. Methods: The study design was a retrospective cohort of 15,081 SCT-positive versus 60,320 SCT-negative U.S. active duty personnel enlisted from 1992 to 2012 and followed through 2013. Military-relevant outcome included number and days of deployment, length of service, and cause of death. Results: SCT-positive versus SCT-negative service members experienced more deployments (p < 0.01) and longer number of days deployed for all services, especially the Army (p < 0.001). The median length of service was longer for SCT-positive service members stratified by service and by gender (p < 0.05). The adjusted risk of length of service greater than 5 yr by SCT status was 1.37 (95% confidence interval 1.31-1.43) with greater than a three-fold higher risk in the Navy and Air Force compared with the Army. Crude mortality rate was not significantly different by SCT status, although deaths due to suicide, self-directed violence, and other non-specific causes were more common in SCT-positive service members. Conclusion: We found that SCT-positive service members deployed more frequently, for greater lengths of time, and remained in service longer. No significant difference in crude mortality ratio was discovered. Additional research on military-relevant outcomes and a cost-effectiveness analysis of SCT screening practices are needed to inform evidence-based SCT enlistment policies.

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