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1.
Biochem Pharmacol ; 186: 114430, 2021 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33556338

RESUMO

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most malignant cancers in the world. A major cause of death in CRC patients is the limited therapeutic options in its advanced stages. The Farnesoid X receptor (FXR) is a member of the nuclear superfamily, which is effective in slowing the progression of colorectal cancer in addition to its extraordinary role in regulating metabolic disorders. Due to the systemic side-effects caused by non-selective agonists, the intestine-restricted FXR agonists can induce a whole-body benefit without activating the hepatic FXR, suggesting intestinal FXR activation as a potentially safer therapy in the treatment of CRC. This review highlights the effects of FXR on the disturbed bile acid circulation and the carcinogenesis of CRC and with a specific emphasis on listing the functions of several intestinal-restricted FXR agonists.

2.
Int J Mol Med ; 47(4): 1, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33576457

RESUMO

As previously reported, long intergenic non­protein­coding RNA 1006 (LINC01006) plays crucial roles in prostate, pancreatic and gastric cancers. However, whether it plays important roles in cervical cancer remains unclear. The present study thus aimed to determine the precise role of LINC01006 in cervical cancer and elucidate its regulatory mechanisms. The expression of LINC01006 in cervical cancer was examined by reverse transcription­quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Cell proliferation assay, flow cytometric analysis, Transwell migration and invasion assays, and tumor xenograft model experiments were performed to elucidate the roles of LINC01006 in cervical cancer. Bioinformatics analysis, luciferase reporter assay, RNA immunoprecipitation and rescue experiments were performed for mechanistic analyses. The expression of LINC01006 was found to be upregulated in cervical cancer and to be associated with a poor prognosis. The absence of LINC01006 inhibited the proliferation, migration and invasion of cervical cancer cells, whereas it promoted cell apoptosis in vitro. The downregulation of LINC01006 impeded tumor growth in vivo. LINC01006 was verified as an endogenous 'sponge' that competed for microRNA­28­5p (miR­28­5p), which resulted in the upregulation of the miR­28­5p target P21­activated kinase 2 (PAK2). Rescue experiments revealed that the suppression of miR­28­5p expression or the overexpression of PAK2 abrogated the effects of LINC01006 downregulation on malignant cellular functions in cervical cancer. On the whole, the present study demonstrates that LINC01006 exhibits tumor­promoting functions in cervical cancer via the regulation of the miR­28­5p/PAK2 axis. These findings may provide the basis for the identification of LINC01006­targeted clinical therapy.

3.
Cell Death Dis ; 12(2): 202, 2021 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33608512

RESUMO

Ring1b is a core subunit of polycomb repressive complex 1 (PRC1) and is essential in several high-risk cancers. However, the epigenetic mechanism of Ring1b underlying breast cancer malignancy is poorly understood. In this study, we showed increased expression of Ring1b promoted metastasis by weakening cell-cell adhesions of breast cancer cells. We confirmed that Ring1b could downregulate E-cadherin and contributed to an epigenetic rewiring via PRC1-dependent function by forming distinct complexes with DEAD-box RNA helicases (DDXs) or epithelial-mesenchymal transition transcription factors (EMT TFs) on site-specific loci of E-cadherin promoter. DDXs-Ring1b complexes moderately inhibited E-cadherin, which resulted in an early hybrid EMT state of epithelial cells, and EMT TFs-Ring1b complexes cooperated with DDXs-Ring1b complexes to further repress E-cadherin in mesenchymal-like cancer cells. Clinically, high expression of Ring1b with DDXs or EMT TFs predicted low levels of E-cadherin, metastatic behavior, and poor prognosis. These findings provide an epigenetic regulation mechanism of Ring1b complexes in E-cadherin expression. Ring1b complexes may be potential therapeutic targets and biomarkers for diagnosis and prognosis in invasion breast cancer.

4.
Endocr Pract ; 2021 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33610810

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Active surveillance (AS) is a management alternative for patients with low risk papillary thyroid microcarcinoma (PTMC). To decide the best candidates for AS, clinicians can use a framework to classify PTMC patients as ideal, appropriate or inappropriate. The aim of this study is to explore the correlation of the framework categories and surgical pathology. METHODS: This was a multicenter retrospective study between 2014 and 2016. Totally 1997 patients who underwent thyroid surgery for the first time due to suspected PTMC and confirmed as PTMC by postoperative pathology were included. Consistence of a modified preoperative risk stratification and the pathologic condition were evaluated using consistency ratio and Kappa test. Stratified analysis was also performed to test consistency in different age groups. RESULTS: Based on the decision-making framework, 558 (27.9%) patients could receive AS. While 810 (40.6%) patients did not require immediate surgery according to the actual postoperative pathology. The sensitivity, false positive rate, specificity, false negative rate and consistency rate were 82.39%, 56.91%, 43.09%, 17.61% and 66.45% respectively. The Kappa value was 0.268. Stratified analysis showed that the sensitivity was 87.7% among patients between ages 18 and 59. In over 60 years group, the specificity was up to 87.5% but the sensitivity was low. CONCLUSIONS: The results of modified risk-stratified clinical decision-making framework do not have a high consistency with the postoperative results. However, the framework shows good effect in selecting patients for immediate surgery in the younger group and the ones for AS in the older group.

5.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 132021 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33611311

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Inadequate endometrial receptivity contributes to recurrent implantation failure (RIF) during IVF-embryo transfer. Though multiple circRNAs have been confirmed differentially expression in RIF, the potential function of novel circRNAs needed to be detected. RESULTS: The top ten DEcircRNAs were selected as initial candidates. A ceRNA network was conducted on the basis of circRNA-miRNA-mRNA potential interaction, consisting of 10 DEcircRNAs, 28 DEmiRNAs and 59 DEmRNAs. Three down-regulation circRNAs with high degree of connectivity were verified by RT-qPCR, and results suggested that only hsa_circ_0038383 was significantly downregulation in RIF compared with control group. Subsequently, three hub genes (HOXA3, HOXA9 and PBX1) were identified as hub genes. Ultimately, a subnetwork was determined based on one DEcircRNA (hsa_circ_0038383), two DEmiRNAs (has-miR-196b-5p and has-miR-424-5p), and three DEmRNAs (HOXA3, HOXA9 and PBX1). Following verification, hsa_circ_0038383/miR-196b-5p/HOXA9 axis may be a key pathway in affecting RIF. CONCLUSION: In summary, a hsa_circ_0038383-mediated ceRNA network related to RIF was proposed. This network provided new insight into exploring potential biomarkers for diagnosis and clinical treatment of RIF. METHODS: We retrieved the expression profiles of RIF from GEO databases (circRNA, microRNA and mRNA) and constructed a competing endogenous RNAs (ceRNA) network based on predicted circRNA-miRNA and miRNA-mRNA pairs. The expression levels of three hub DEcircRNAs identified by cytoscape were validated by RT-qPCR.

6.
Life Sci ; 271: 119181, 2021 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33581128

RESUMO

AIMS: To investigate the roles and mechanisms of C. trachomatis glycogen synthase (GlgA) in regulating the inflammatory response in THP-1 cells. MAIN METHODS: In this work, after THP-1 cells were stimulated with GlgA, transcript and protein expression levels were measured by qRT-PCR and ELISA, respectively. Western blotting and immunofluorescence were used to determine the signaling pathway involved in the inflammatory mechanism. KEY FINDINGS: GlgA elicited the expression of interleukin-8 (IL-8), interleukin-1beta (IL-1ß) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) in THP-1 cells, and the blockade of TLR2 and TLR4 signaling abrogated the induction of IL-8, TNF-α and IL-1ß expression. Similarly, IL-8, IL-1ß and TNF-α secretion was reduced by transfection with a dominant negative plasmid (pDeNyhMyD88). Moreover, Western blotting and immunofluorescence experiments further validated that MAPKs and NF-кB signaling are involved in the transcription and translation of these cytokines. Treatment of the cells with ERK and JNK inhibitors dramatically attenuated the induction of IL-8, IL-1ß and TNF-α. SIGNIFICANCE: These results suggest that GlgA contributes to inflammation during C. trachomatis infection via the TLR2, TLR4 and MAPK/NF-кB pathways, which may enhance our understanding of the pathogenesis of C. trachomatis.

7.
World J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 37(3): 45, 2021 Feb 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33554321

RESUMO

As a significant constituent in biosphere, bacteria have a great influence on human activity. The detection of pathogen bacteria is closely related to the human health. However, the traditional methods for detection of pathogenic bacteria are time-consuming and difficult for quantification, although they are practical and reliable. Therefore, novel strategies for rapid, sensitive, and cost-effective detection are in great demand. Aptamer is a kind of oligonucleotide that selected by repeated screening in vitro or systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX) technology. Over the past years, owing to high affinity and specificity of aptamers, a variety of aptamer-based biosensors have been designed and applied for pathogen detection. In this review, we have discussed the recent advances on the applications of aptamer-based biosensors in detection of pathogenic bacteria. In addition, we also point out some problems in current methods and look forward to the further development of aptamer-based biosensors for pathogen detection.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33393286

RESUMO

In this paper, we report a series of x polycrystalline AgCuTe1-xSe samples with high thermoelectric performance. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy data suggest the observation of Ag+, Cu+, Te2-, and Se2- states of Ag, Cu, Te, and Se. Meanwhile, the carrier concentration of the obtained p-type samples changes from 9.12 × 1018 to 0.86 × 1018 cm-3 as their carrier mobility varies from 698.55 to 410.12 cm2·V-1·s-1 at 300 K. Compared with undoped AgCuTe, an ultralow thermal conductivity is realized in AgCuTe1-xSex due to the enhanced phonon scattering. Ultimately, a maximum figure of merit (ZT) of ∼1.45 at 573 K and a high average ZT above 1.0 at temperatures ranging from room temperature to 773 K can be achieved in AgCuTe0.9Se0.1, which increases by 186% compared to that of the undoped AgCuTe (0.82 at 573 K). This work provides a viable insight toward understanding the effect of the Se atom on the lattice structure and thermoelectric properties of AgCuTe and other transition-metal dichalcogenides.

9.
J Psychiatr Res ; 135: 37-46, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33445059

RESUMO

Only a few studies investigated the impact of quarantine on anxiety of general population during a second wave of COVID-19 breakout. We aimed to compare anxiety levels of quarantined and non-quarantined people and investigate factors affecting anxiety during the second COVID-19 pandemic. A total of 1837 participants were included in this cross-sectional study. Anxiety was measured by the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). Participants were divided into the quarantined group (QG) and non-quarantined group (Non-QG). The mean STAI-S score in the QG was significantly higher than Non-QG (41.8 ± 11.2 vs 40.01 ± 9.9), so was the proportion of severe state anxiety (11.6% vs 5.5%). Males in the QG were significantly more anxious than females evaluated by both STAI-S and STAI-T. High income was independent protective factors while moderate or bad health status and high trait anxiety level were independent risk factors for severe state anxiety. In conclusion, the COVID-19 confinement could significantly increase anxiety of quarantined people. Males were more vulnerable to the quarantine of COVID-19 with significantly increased anxiety level than females. The results suggest that attention should be paid to anxiety during a second round of quarantine due to COVID-19 and are of help in planning psychological interventions.

10.
Free Radic Biol Med ; 164: 44-57, 2021 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33418110

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Our previous findings have demonstrated the protective effect of endothelial Nox4-based NADPH oxidase on atherosclerosis. One of the possible mechanisms is the inhibition of soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH), a proinflammatory and atherogenic factor. Our goal was to investigate whether in vivo inhibition of sEH by 1-trifluoromethoxyphenyl-3-(1-propionylpiperidin-4-yl) urea (TPPU) alleviates endothelial Nox4 dysfunction caused atherosclerosis and the regulatory mechanism of endothelial Nox4 on sEH. METHODS: & results: We used endothelial human Nox4 dominant-negative (EDN) transgenic mice in ApoE deficient background to mimic the dysfunction of endothelial Nox4 in atherosclerosis-prone conditions. In EDN aortic endothelium, sEH and the inflammatory marker vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM1) were upregulated. TPPU reduced atherosclerotic lesions in EDN mice. In EDN endothelial cells (ECs), the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress markers (BIP, IRE1α, phosphorylation of PERK, ATF6) were upregulated, and they can be suppressed by ER stress inhibitor 4-phenyl butyric acid (4-PBA). In EDN ECs, 4-PBA downregulated the expression of sEH and VCAM1, suppressed inflammation, and its application in vivo reduced atherosclerotic lesions of EDN mice. CONCLUSIONS: Endothelial Nox4 dysfunction upregulated sEH to enhance inflammation, probably by its induction of ER stress. Inhibition of ER stress or sEH is beneficial to alleviate atherosclerosis caused by endothelial Nox4 dysfunction.

11.
Stem Cell Res Ther ; 12(1): 22, 2021 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33413637

RESUMO

PURPOSE AND BACKGROUND: Previous studies have suggested that promoting endogenous neurogenesis has great significance for the recovery of cognitive dysfunction caused by cerebral ischemia (CI). Pharmacological inhibition of GABAB receptor can enhance neurogenesis in adult healthy and depressed mice. In the study, we intended to investigate the effects of GABAB receptor antagonists on cognitive function and hippocampal neurogenesis in mice following CI. METHODS: Adult mice were subjected to bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (BCCAO) for 20 min to induce CI and treated with CGP52432 (antagonist of GABAB receptor, CGP, 10 mg/kg intraperitoneal injection) starting 24 h after CI. The Morris water maze test was performed to test spatial learning and memory at day 28. Immunofluorescence was applied to detect neurogenesis in the DG region at day 14 and 28. In in vitro experiments, cell proliferation was detected by CCK8 and immunofluorescence, and the expression of cAMP/CREB signaling pathway-related proteins was detected by ELISA assay and Western blot. RESULTS: CGP significantly improved spatial learning and memory disorders caused by CI, and it enhanced the proliferation of neural stem cells (NSCs), the number of immature neurons, and the differentiation from newborn cells to neurons. In vitro experiments further confirmed that CGP dose-dependently enhanced the cell viability of NSCs, and immunofluorescence staining showed that CGP promoted the proliferation of NSCs. In addition, treatment with CGP increased the expression of cAMP, PKA, and pCREB in cultured NSCs. CONCLUSION: Inhibition of GABAB receptor can effectively promote hippocampal neurogenesis and improve spatial learning and memory in adult mice following CI.

12.
Genes Genomics ; 43(1): 69-77, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33432394

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pleiotropy is a widespread phenomenon in complex human diseases. Jointly analyzing multiple phenotypes can improve power performance of detecting genetic variants and uncover the underlying genetic mechanism. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to detect the association between genetic variants in a genomic region and multiple phenotypes. METHODS: We develop the aggregated Cauchy association test to detect the association between rare variants in a genomic region and multiple phenotypes (abbreviated as "Multi-ACAT"). Multi-ACAT first detects the association between each rare variant and multiple phenotypes based on reverse regression and obtains variant-level p-values, then takes linear combination of transformed p-values as the test statistic which approximately follows Cauchy distribution under the null hypothesis. RESULTS: Extensive simulation studies show that when the proportion of causal variants in a genomic region is extremely small, Multi-ACAT is more powerful than the other several methods and is robust to bi-directional effects of causal variants. Finally, we illustrate our proposed method by analyzing two phenotypes [systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP)] from Genetic Analysis Workshop 19 (GAW19). CONCLUSION: The Multi-ACAT computes extremely fast, does not consider complex distributions of multiple correlated phenotypes, and can be applied to the case with noise phenotypes.

13.
BMJ Open ; 11(1): e042997, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33452198

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common neurodegenerative disease and is characterised by cognitive impairment. Non-pharmacological treatments such as diet therapy have been widely investigated in studies on AD. Given the synergistic effects of nutrients present in foods, considering overall dietary composition rather than focusing on a single nutrient may be more useful for evaluating the relationship between diet and AD cognition. The present study aimed to assess the efficacy of different dietary interventions (eg, ketogenic and Mediterranean diets) on cognitive function in patients with AD in a systematic review and pairwise and network meta-analyses of randomised controlled trials or clinical trials. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Two reviewers will independently conduct searches of PubMed, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Embase, CINAHL, PsycINFO and China National Knowledge Infrastructure databases. Data will be extracted from selected studies and risk of bias will be assessed using the revised Cochrane risk-of-bias tool, and evidence quality will be assessed according to the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation framework. The primary outcome of interest is cognitive function in patients with AD; secondary outcomes include biochemical biomarkers of AD and oxidative stress and/or inflammatory biomarkers in cerebrospinal fluid or plasma. For each outcome, random-effects pairwise and network meta-analyses will be carried out to determine the pooled relative effect of each intervention relative to every other intervention. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: As this study is based solely on published literature, no ethics approval is required. The research will be published in a peer-reviewed journal.

14.
Biosci Rep ; 41(1)2021 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33403387

RESUMO

In the skeletal system, blood vessels not only function as a conduit system for transporting gases, nutrients, metabolic waste, or cells but also provide multifunctional signal molecules regulating bone development, regeneration, and remodeling. Endothelial cells (ECs) in bone tissues, unlike in other organ tissues, are in direct contact with the pericytes of blood vessels, resulting in a closer connection with peripheral connective tissues. Close-contact ECs contribute to osteogenesis and osteoclastogenesis by secreting various cytokines in the paracrine or juxtacrine pathways. An increasing number of studies have revealed that extracellular vesicles (EVs) derived from ECs can directly regulate maturation process of osteoblasts and osteoclasts. The different pathways focus on targets at different distances, forming the basis of the intimate spatial and temporal link between bone tissue and blood vessels. Here, we provide a systematic review to elaborate on the function of ECs in bone biology and its underlying mechanisms based on three aspects: paracrine, EVs, and juxtacrine. This review proposes the possibility of a therapeutic strategy targeting blood vessels, as an adjuvant treatment for bone disorders.

15.
Asian J Psychiatr ; 56: 102533, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33418283

RESUMO

AIM: This study aimed to investigate and monitor the mental health status of pregnant women during the COVID-19 pandemic. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The meta-analysis was used to study the literatures on the psychology of pregnant women in four databases until Sep 27, 2020. RESULTS: A total of 19 articles were included in the final meta-analysis. The overall prevalence of anxiety was 42 % (95 %CI 26 %-57 %) with substantial heterogeneity (I2 = 99.6 %). The overall prevalence of depression was 25 % (95 %CI 20 %-31 %) with substantial heterogeneity (I2 = 97.9 %). Age, family economic status, social support, and physical activity seem to correlate with the mental health status of pregnant women. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of anxiety and depression among pregnant women increased significantly during the COVID-19 epidemic. Pregnant women are more concerned about others than themselves during COVID-19, and younger pregnant women seem to be more prone to anxiety, while social support and physical activity can reduce the likelihood of anxiety and depression. It is necessary to take some psychological intervention measures for pregnant women to help them go through this special period safely and smoothly.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Depressão/epidemiologia , Complicações na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Fatores Etários , Ansiedade/psicologia , Depressão/psicologia , Status Econômico , Exercício Físico/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/psicologia , Gestantes/psicologia , Apoio Social
17.
Biomaterials ; 268: 120574, 2020 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33271451

RESUMO

A novel combined chemo/photodynamic therapy has been developed to use pH/ROS/MMP-2 triple-responsive drug nanocarriers for treating solid tumor with an extraordinarily high efficiency. The designed poly(ethylene glycol)-peptide-poly(ω-pentadecalactone-co-N-methyldiethyleneamine-co-3,3'-thiodipropionate) (PEG-M-PPMT) nanoparticles (NPs) encapsulating anticancer drug sorafenib (SRF) and photosensitizer chlorin e6 (Ce6) are stable in serum-containing aqueous media and can effectively accumulate in tumor as a result of the EPR effect after intravenous administration in vivo. In the presence of MMP-2 overexpressed in extracellular tumor matrix, the PEG-M-PPMT NPs can partially shed PEG corona to form smaller particles and penetrate deep into tumor tissue. After uptake by tumor cells, the acidic endosomal pH and high intracellular ROS level would trigger substantial swelling of the NPs to accelerate the drug release for rapid killing of the cancer cells. In the current combined chemo/photodynamic therapy, the intracellular ROS generation in tumor is amplified by photosensitizer Ce6 activated with external laser irradiation. As the result, the highly elevated intracellular ROS concentration can both directly induce apoptosis of ROS-stressed tumor cells and magnify acceleration of the drug release from the ROS-responsive PEG-M-PPMT NPs to gain extraordinary therapeutic efficacy. In particular, after the chemo-photodynamic therapeutic treatment with SRF/Ce6-loaded PEG-M-PPMT nanoparticles, all human lung tumors (A549) xenografted in nude mice shrank substantially with approximately 29% of the tumors being completely eradicated. Additionally, SRF/Ce6-loaded PEG-M-PPMT NPs show negligible in vivo toxicity toward major organs such as heart, liver, spleen, lung and kidney. These results demonstrate great potential of the combined chemo/photodynamic therapy based on the stimuli-responsive PEG-M-PPMT nanoparticles for efficient tumor treatment.

19.
bioRxiv ; 2020 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33300001

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) includes the cardiovascular complications in addition to respiratory disease. SARS-CoV-2 infection impairs endothelial function and induces vascular inflammation, leading to endotheliitis. SARS-CoV-2 infection relies on the binding of Spike glycoprotein (S protein) to angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) in the host cells. We show here that S protein alone can damage vascular endothelial cells (ECs) in vitro and in vivo, manifested by impaired mitochondrial function, decreased ACE2 expression and eNOS activity, and increased glycolysis. The underlying mechanism involves S protein downregulation of AMPK and upregulation of MDM2, causing ACE2 destabilization. Thus, the S protein-exerted vascular endothelial damage via ACE2 downregulation overrides the decreased virus infectivity.

20.
J Transl Med ; 18(1): 479, 2020 12 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33308247

RESUMO

Periodontitis, a bacterium-induced inflammatory disease that is characterized by alveolar bone loss, is highly prevalent worldwide. Elucidating the underlying mechanisms of alveolar bone loss in periodontitis is crucial for understanding its pathogenesis. Classically, bone cells, such as osteoclasts, osteoblasts and bone marrow stromal cells, are thought to dominate the development of bone destruction in periodontitis. Recently, osteocytes, the cells embedded in the mineral matrix, have gained attention. This review demonstrates the key contributing role of osteocytes in periodontitis, especially in alveolar bone loss. Osteocytes not only initiate physiological bone remodeling but also assist in inflammation-related changes in bone remodeling. The latest evidence suggests that osteocytes are involved in regulating bone anabolism and catabolism in the progression of periodontitis. The altered secretion of receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL), sclerostin and Dickkopf-related protein 1 (DKK1) by osteocytes affects the balance of bone resorption and formation and promotes bone loss. In addition, the accumulation of prematurely senescent and apoptotic osteocytes observed in alveolar bone may exacerbate local destruction. Based on their communication with the bloodstream, it is noteworthy that osteocytes may participate in the interaction between local periodontitis lesions and systemic diseases. Overall, further investigations of osteocytes may provide vital insights that improve our understanding of the pathophysiology of periodontitis.

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