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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31478060

RESUMO

Although the niche differentiation of anammox bacteria has been extensively observed in a lab-scale reactor, the inherent mechanism for this ecological phenomenon is still elusive. Here, we combined the long-term reactor operation, genome-centered metagenome, and metatranscriptome analyses to gain insight into the substrate competition and niche differentiation of Candidatus Jettenia and Candidatus Brocadia. After 146 days of operation, we found the anammox bacterial population shifted from Ca. Jettenia to Ca. Brocadia in the immobilization-anaerobic baffled reactor (I-ABR) with the ammonium and nitrite concentrations of 30 mg/L. Importantly, the genome and transcript comparisons of Ca. Jettenia and Ca. Brocadia showed that Ca. Brocadia harbored more complete function in cell chemotaxis, flagellar assembly, and two-component system and more redundant function in nitrite reduction, in which the genes were also highly expressed. Ca. Brocadia out-competed Ca. Jettenia at the mainstream condition. Meanwhile, though the highest biomass concentration led to the highest nitrogen removal rate (NRR) in the first compartment (C1), the competition of Ca. Jettenia and Ca. Brocadia could also affect the NRR of different compartments through affecting the bacterial activity. Substrate competition of anammox bacteria led to higher transcript activity of Ca. Jettenia and Ca. Brocadia in the second (C2) and fourth (C4) compartments, respectively. Further, high transcript activity of Ca. Brocadia led to the higher NRR in C4. A comparison of metabolic potential based on the metagenome-assembled genome adds a different dimension for understanding the discrepantly physiological characteristics and competition of anammox bacteria for wastewater treatment.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31500411

RESUMO

Well-designed 2D materials with ultrathin structures show great potential for humidity sensing performance owing to their high surface-volume ratio and a great number of exposed atoms on the surface. However, some sensing elements employed for healthcare applications may be considered as potentially risky, such as inflammation, granuloma formation, and carcinogenesis. Herein, we explored a biofriendly humidity sensing characteristics inspired by the great biocompatibility and conductivity of hyperbranched polyethyleneimine (HPEI)-capped gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) and crosslinked with polydopamine (PDA) from the adhesive proteins in mussels. It was successfully employed into two kinds of wearable devices, sports watches and breathing masks, for real-time recording humidity's fluctuation in expiration and sweat with changes of individual's crying, laughing, nervous, sleeping, training and cold states. The wearable devices allow monitoring individual's physical activities and emotional states well, suggesting promising prospect in the safe, reusable, long term and noncontact human health monitoring applications.

3.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 3628, 2019 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31388007

RESUMO

An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.

4.
Biomater Sci ; 2019 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31384848

RESUMO

Cardiac pacemakers are the main implant devices for cardiovascular diseases, and their utilization and consequently the number of cases of inflammation caused by these devices are increasing year by year. Although few antibacterial treatments have been proposed for pacemakers, the rate of cardiac pacemaker-related inflammation still exhibits an abnormal increase. By analyzing the statistical reports of the inflammation at different time stages caused by pacemakers, herein, we proposed a new hypothesis to explain this unusual phenomenon. That is, in addition to bacterial infection, the long-term stimulation caused by the frequent shaking of the pacemakers in the subcutaneous tissue "pocket" may be an important hidden factor of the inflammation. This assumption was then preliminarily confirmed through the animal-shaking model. Accordingly, we developed a new memory latex foam with ZnO surface modification (LFZ), which was incorporated with a slow springback, soft cushion and broad spectrum antibacterial properties. The subsequent animal experiments demonstrated that the incidence of both bacteria- and shaking-induced tissue inflammations could be fundamentally reduced through this multifunctional LFZ-based strategy.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31340393

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Myonectin is one of the myokines and has gained interest as a potential new strategy to combat obesity and its associated disorders, such as type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).The objective of this study was to investigate circulating serum myonectin levels in nondiabetes and T2DM and elucidate possible relationships between serum myonectin levels and metabolic parameters in patients with T2DM. DESIGN: A total of 362 Chinese patients with T2DM and 100 age- and sex-matched healthy controls were recruited in this study. Clinical characteristics, blood biochemistry, and circulating myonectin levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. RESULTS: Circulating myonectin levels were significantly decreased in T2DM compared with controls. Obese nondiabetic controls had significantly lower serum myonectin levels compared with lean nondiabetic controls. In diabetic patients, serum myonectin concentrations were significantly negatively correlated with body mass index (BMI), total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), C-reactive protein (CRP), hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), fasting insulin (Fins), the homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), visceral fat area, and subcutaneous fat area. After adjusting for covariates, multivariate stepwise regression analysis demonstrated that BMI, LDL-C, TG, HOMA-IR, and visceral fat were the main independent predictors of low serum myonectin concentrations. CONCLUSIONS: Circulating myonectin levels were decreased in T2DM patients and in obese subjects. Moreover, serum myonectin levels were correlated with metabolic markers of T2DM. These data suggest that myonectin may be a useful marker in predicting the development of obesity and T2DM.

6.
Clin Sci (Lond) ; 133(15): 1705-1720, 2019 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31337673

RESUMO

Cardiovascular complications contribute to the major mortality and morbidity in type 2 diabetes. Diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM) is increasingly recognized as an important cause of heart failure. EMPA-REG OUTCOME trial has reported that empagliflozin, the sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor, exerts cardiovascular benefits on diabetic population. However, the mechanism by which empagliflozin alleviates DCM still remains unclear. In the current study, we investigated the cardiac protective effects of empagliflozin on spontaneous type 2 diabetic db/db mice and its potential mechanism. Eight weeks of empagliflozin treatment (10 mg/kg/day) decreased body weight and blood glucose level, and increased urinary glucose excretion (UGE) in diabetic mice. Echocardiography revealed that both systolic and diastolic functions of db/db mice were also obviously improved by empagliflozin. Furthermore, empagliflozin-treated diabetic mice presented with amelioration of cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis. In addition, diabetic hearts exhibited the deterioration of oxidative stress, apoptosis and pyroptosis, while these effects were significantly counteracted after empagliflozin treatment. Moreover, empagliflozin rescued diabetes-induced suppression of sGC (soluble guanylate cyclase enzyme)-cGMP (cyclic guanosine monophosphate)-PKG (cGMP-dependent protein kinase) pathway. However, when sGC-ß expression of hearts was inhibited by transvascular delivery of small interfering RNA, cardiac dysfunction was aggravated and the advantages of empagliflozin were reversed through inhibiting sGC-cGMP-PKG pathway. Collectively, these findings indicate that empagliflozin improves cardiac function involving the inhibition of oxidative stress-induced injury via sGC-cGMP-PKG pathway and may be a promising therapeutic option for DCM.

7.
Small ; 15(35): e1902440, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31215162

RESUMO

Flexibility plays a vital role in wearable electronics. Repeated bending often leads to the dramatic decrease of conductivity because of the numerous microcracks formed in the metal coating layer, which is undesirable for flexible conductors. Herein, conductive textile-based tactile sensors and metal-coated polyurethane sponge-based bending sensors with superior flexibility for monitoring human touch and arm motions are proposed, respectively. Tannic acid, a traditional mordant, is introduced to attach to various flexible substrates, providing a perfect platform for catalyst absorbing and subsequent electroless deposition (ELD). By understanding the nucleation, growth, and structure of electroless metal deposits, the surface morphology of metal nanoparticles can be controlled in nanoscale with simple variation of the plating time. When the electroless plating time is 20 min, the normalized resistance (R/R0 ) of as-made conductive fibers is only 1.6, which is much lower than a 60 min ELD sample at the same conditions (R/R0 ≈ 5). This is because a large number of unfilled gaps between nanoparticles prevent metal films from cracking under bending. Importantly, the Kelvin problem is relevant to deposited conductive coatings because metallic cells have a honeycomb-like structure, which is a rationale to explain the relationships of conductivity and flexibility.

8.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 7560, 2019 May 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31101840

RESUMO

Currently, light pollution has become a nonnegligible issue in our daily life. Artificial light sources with high color temperature were deem to be the major pollution source, which could induce several adverse effects on human's health. In our previous research, we have firstly developed an artificial indoor light with low color temperature (1900 K). However, the biological effects of this artificial light on human's health are unclear. Here, four artificial lights (1900 K, 3000 K, 4000 K and 6600 K) were used to evaluate some biological changes in both human (in total 152 person-times) and murine models. Compared with other three high color temperature artificial lights, our lights (1900 K) presented a positive effect on promoting the secreting of melatonin and glutamate, protecting human's eyes, accelerating would healing and hair regeneration. These systematical studies indicated that the proposed low color temperature (1900 K) light could provide several significant benefits in human's daily life.

9.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2145, 2019 05 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31086184

RESUMO

Although angiotensin II (AngII) is known to cause renal injury and fibrosis, the underlying mechanisms remain poorly characterized. Here we show that hypertensive nephropathy (HN) patients and AngII-infused mice exhibit elevated levels of circulating miR103a-3p. We observe a positive correlation between miR-103a-3p levels and AngII-induced renal dysfunction. miR-103a-3p suppresses expression of the sucrose non-fermentable-related serine/threonine-protein kinase SNRK in glomerular endothelial cells, and glomeruli of HN patients and AngII-infused mice show reduced endothelial expression of SNRK. We find that SNRK exerts anti-inflammatory effects by interacting with activated nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB)/p65. Overall, we demonstrate that AngII increases circulating miR-103a-3p levels, which reduces SNRK levels in glomerular endothelial cells, resulting in the over-activation of NF-κB/p65 and, consequently, renal inflammation and fibrosis. Together, our work identifies miR-103a-3p/SNRK/NF-κB/p65 as a regulatory axis of AngII-induced renal inflammation and fibrosis.


Assuntos
Angiotensina II/metabolismo , Glomerulonefrite/patologia , Hipertensão Renal/patologia , Glomérulos Renais/patologia , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Nefrite/patologia , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/genética , Adulto , Angiotensina II/administração & dosagem , Animais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Células Cultivadas , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Fibrose , Glomerulonefrite/sangue , Glomerulonefrite/genética , Glomerulonefrite/urina , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Hipertensão Renal/sangue , Hipertensão Renal/genética , Hipertensão Renal/urina , Glomérulos Renais/citologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , MicroRNAs/sangue , MicroRNAs/urina , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nefrite/sangue , Nefrite/genética , Nefrite/urina , Cultura Primária de Células , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/metabolismo , Fator de Transcrição RelA/metabolismo
10.
Adv Ther ; 36(6): 1485-1496, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31004325

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: China has the largest number of diabetic patients in the world. In the past 2 decades, the prevalence of diabetes in China has increased dramatically, and the current status of diabetes control in the diabetic population is not satisfactory. Although insulin is currently recognized in diabetes treatment guidelines as the therapeutic option for patients not adequately controlled by diet/exercise and oral agents, the proportion of patients with type 2 diabetes using insulin is still very low, and the time when insulin therapy is initiated is relatively late. In using insulin injections, concerns about the complexity of the treatment regimen, a fear of needles, and other psychological barriers can affect insulin treatment, impacting on patient compliance and potentially resulting in a poor treatment response. Another type of insulin injection device that has become available recently, the needle-free injector, is now being used in clinical practice because of its unique features and patients' injection experiences. The aims of this study are to investigate the efficacy and safety of the needle-free injector-based insulin treatment in blood glucose control in patients with type 2 diabetes, as compared with a conventional needle-based insulin treatment, and to evaluate patient satisfaction with the different insulin delivery methods. METHODS AND PLANNED OUTCOMES: A prospective, multicenter, randomized, open-label, parallel-group clinical trial was designed and implemented in China. A total of 420 patients with type 2 diabetes from ten research centers will be enrolled in the study. The primary efficacy endpoint is the change in the glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) level from baseline to after 16 weeks of treatment after randomization. Secondary efficacy endpoints include measurements of blood glucose concentrations, the rate of achieving the target HbA1c level of less than 7%, patients' quality-of-life (as determined by the SF-36 questionnaire), the insulin dose administered, compliance with insulin therapy, and patients' satisfaction with their injection device. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The study was approved by the Independent Ethics Committee (IEC) of Peking University Peoples Hospital and was conducted in accordance with the moral, ethical, and scientific principles of the declaration of Helsinki and the provisions of good clinical practice (GCP) in China. Written informed consent will be obtained from all participants before any study-related procedures are implemented. It is hoped that the study will provide evidence for the clinical application of the needle-free injector by providing data on its efficacy and safety, as compared with a conventional insulin pen, in the Chinese type 2 diabetes population. When available, the results will be published in an international peer-reviewed journal. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier, NCT03243903. Registration date, August 9, 2017. FUNDING: Beijing QS Medical Technology Co., Ltd.

11.
Diabetes Metab Res Rev ; : e3170, 2019 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30983141

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of the study is to update and determine the effects of sodium glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor therapy on fracture and bone mineral density (BMD) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). METHODS: We identified 27 eligible randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compared the efficacy and safety of SGLT2 inhibitors to a placebo in 20 895 T2DM participants, with an average duration of 64.22 weeks. The relative risk (RR) of bone fracture and weighted mean difference (WMD) of changes in the BMD from baseline were determined to evaluate the risk of fracture. The degree of heterogeneity was evaluated by the I2 statistic, and publication bias was estimated using a funnel plot and Egger test. RESULTS: The pooled RR was 1.02 (95% CI [0.81, 1.28]) with low heterogeneity, indicating that SGLT2 inhibitor treatment was not correlated with a higher risk of fracture. Additionally, no increased risk was found for patients with different ages, sexes, and levels of HbA1c and some biochemical indicators. Three trials with 1303 patients reported a change in the BMD from baseline. SGLT2 inhibitor treatment did not decrease the BMD at four skeletal sites (lumbar spine, femoral neck, total hip, and distal forearm), and the overall WMD was 0.08 (95% CI [-0.09, 0.26]). No significant publication bias was detected. CONCLUSIONS: No increased risk for bone fracture was detected in patients with T2DM treated with SGLT2 inhibitors in this meta-analysis. SGLT2 inhibitor therapy did not appear to affect bone health, but more long-term detailed data are needed to validate this conclusion.

12.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 55(23): 3406-3409, 2019 Mar 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30821801

RESUMO

F- anion-enriched Ni hydroxyl oxide (F-NHO) mesocrystalline microspheres were prepared by a facile hydrothermal hydrolysis of a Ni precursor mediated by NH4F. The quasi monocrystalline structure, superhydrophilic surface and high F- anion-doping level of F-NHO enable high catalytic efficiency for the oxygen evolution reaction in the electrolysis of water.

13.
Cell Physiol Biochem ; 52(3): 382-396, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30845378

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Breast cancer is clinically classified into three main subtypes: estrogen receptor-positive (ER+) breast cancer, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive (HER2+) breast cancer, and triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). Without specific targeted therapies, patients with TNBC have poorer prognosis compared with those with ER+ and HER2+ breast cancer. Protein kinase D (PRKD) family members play crucial roles in cancer progression. CRT0066101, a PRKD inhibitor, has been reported to have anticancer activity in many cancer types. Nevertheless, the role and mechanism of CRT0066101 in TNBC have not been well investigated. METHODS: The expression level of PRKDs was analyzed in breast cancer samples and breast cancer cell lines. The effects of inhibiting PRKD activity with CRT0066101 on TNBC cell proliferation, cell cycle, apoptosis, and tumor growth were studied by Cell Counting Kit8 assay, cell cycle assay, propidium iodide/annexin-V assay, and a xenograft mouse model, respectively. To uncover the molecular mechanism of CRT0066101 in TNBC, comparative phosphoproteomic analysis using iTRAQ was employed. RESULTS: We found that PRKD2 and PRKD3 were preferentially expressed in breast cancers. Immunohistochemistry confirmed the overexpression of PRKD2 and PRKD3 in TNBC. CRT0066101, which inhibited the activity of PRKDs, dramatically inhibited proliferation, increased apoptosis and the G1-phase population of TNBC cells in vitro, and reduced breast tumor volume in vivo. Comparative phosphoproteomic analysis between breast cancer cells with and without CRT0066101 treatment revealed that the anti-breast cancer effects involved regulation of a complex network containing multiple enriched pathways and several hub-nodes contributing to multiple cancer-related processes, thus explaining the described effects of CRT0066101 on TNBC in vitro and in vivo. Finally, we validated several targets of PRKD inhibition by treatment with CRT0066101 and small interfering RNAs against PRKD2 and PRKD3 (siPRKD2 and siPRKD3), including p-MYC(T58/ S62), p-MAPK1/3(T202/Y204), p-AKT(S473), p-YAP(S127), and p-CDC2(T14). CONCLUSION: PRKD inhibitor CRT0066101 exhibits anti-TNBC effects via modulating a phosphor-signaling network and inhibiting the phosphorylation of many cancer-driving factors, including MYC, MAPK1/3, AKT, YAP, and CDC2, providing insight into the important roles as well as the molecular mechanism of CRT0066101 as an effective drug for TNBC.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Pirimidinas/farmacologia , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Pontos de Checagem da Fase G1 do Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Nus , Fosfopeptídeos/análise , Proteína Quinase C/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteína Quinase C/genética , Proteína Quinase C/metabolismo , Proteômica , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-myc/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-myc/metabolismo , Pirimidinas/metabolismo , Pirimidinas/uso terapêutico , Interferência de RNA , RNA Interferente Pequeno/metabolismo , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/metabolismo , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/patologia
14.
Sci Total Environ ; 670: 41-49, 2019 Jun 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30901574

RESUMO

Epidemiological studies have shown that exposure to phthalates (PAEs) is associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and related markers, but limited evidence has been found in Chinese people. Given that China has the highest number of people with DM and Chinese people show relatively higher exposure levels of PAEs, a case-control study was conducted in China to explore the associations of PAE exposure with T2DM and two glycemic indicators, including fasting glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c). Two hundred fifty people with T2DM and 250 controls were recruited in this study. Multivariable logistic regression analyses showed significant positive associations between urinary concentrations of most studied PAE metabolites (mPAEs) and T2DM, with odd ratios comparing extreme mPAEs quartiles ranging from 2.09 to 40.53, whereas two secondary metabolites, mono (2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl) phthalate and mono [(2-carboxymethyl) hexyl] phthalate showed significant inverse relationships with T2DM. In addition, multivariable linear regression analyses showed that urinary concentrations of mono (2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate were positively associated with HbA1c levels in controls (ß = 0.013; 95% CI: 0.003, 0.023). A significant positive association was also observed for urinary mono (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate and fasting glucose (ß = 0.009; 95% CI: 0.002, 0.016). In the stratified analyses, the significant associations of mPAEs with T2DM were more likely to be observed in the younger people, compared to the older people. The significant positive associations between urinary mPAEs and HbA1c levels were more likely to be found in the lower body mass index (BMI) subgroup. Additionally, urinary specific mPAEs were found to be significantly positively related to fasting glucose in males and the older people. The findings suggest that exposure to PAEs is associated with T2DM, fasting glucose, and HbA1c levels in Chinese people and the associations of exposure to PAEs with T2DM, fasting glucose, and HbA1c may differ between sexes, BMIs, or ages.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Ácidos Ftálicos/toxicidade , Idoso , Glicemia/metabolismo , China/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Poluentes Ambientais/metabolismo , Feminino , Hemoglobina A Glicada/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Ácidos Ftálicos/metabolismo
15.
Hepatol Res ; 2019 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30861258

RESUMO

AIM: Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1Ras) have been reported to prevent non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), but the potential mechanisms are still debated. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play a prominent role in the field of metabolic disorders, including NAFLD. Our study was designed to further evaluate the effect of GLP-1Ra liraglutide on NAFLD in terms of miRNAs. METHODS: MicroRNA expression was evaluated by clustering analysis of microRNA arrays in high fat diet-fed mice. The luciferase reporter assay was carried out to validate the cross-talk between adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) and miR-124a. MicroRNA-124a mimics and inhibitor plasmids were transfected to study the role of miR-124a in palmitate-treated normal human liver cell line (HL-7702). Liraglutide treatment was used to observe the effect of GLP-1Ra on the miR-124a/ATGL pathway. RESULTS: Expression of ATGL decreased and miR-124a expression increased in hepatosteatosis in vivo and in vitro. Mechanistically, miR-124a interacted with the 3'-untranslated region of ATGL mRNA and induced its degradation. MicroRNA-124a overexpression antagonized the effect of liraglutide on NAFLD by inhibiting ATGL expression, whereas miR-124a knockdown led to elevated ATGL and sirtuin 1 (Sirt1) expression, and subsequently decreased lipid accumulation and inflammation in cells. CONCLUSIONS: MicroRNA-124a overexpression contributes to the progression of NAFLD through reduction of ATGL expression, whereas miR-124a knockdown can reverse this trend, suggesting that miR-124a and its downstream target ATGL can be novel therapeutic targets of NAFLD. We reveal a novel mechanism by which liraglutide attenuates NAFLD by the miR-124a/ATGL/Sirt1 pathway.

16.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 133: 154-159, 2019 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30927679

RESUMO

In this work, an ultrasensitive electrochemiluminescence (ECL) biosensor was constructed using poly-L-lysine (PLL) as a novel co-reactant of luminol and poly(luminol/aniline) nanorods loaded reduced graphene oxide (PLA@rGO) as nanoprobe, which enable highly sensitivity detection of glutathione (GSH). To the best of our knowledge, it is the first time that PLL was used for the co-reactant of luminol. Notably, about a 5-fold enhancement was obtained compared with the individual PLA@rGO using GCE. Due to the remarkable quenching effect between the excited state of PLL and the reduced form of GSH in the ECL system of luminol/PLL, the ECL sensing platform exhibited wide linear ranges of 1.0 × 10-9-1.0 × 10-4 M and 1.0 × 10-4-1.0 × 10-2 M and a low detection limit of 7.7 × 10-10 M. Simultaneously, the biosensor was also successfully applied to detect GSH in human serum sample with high recoveries. Hence, this work would open a new platform for the wide application of PLL in immunoassay and various sensors.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais , Glutationa/isolamento & purificação , Grafite/química , Polilisina/química , Compostos de Anilina/química , Glutationa/química , Ouro/química , Humanos , Luminol/química , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química
17.
Diabetes Metab Res Rev ; 35(6): e3152, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30884108

RESUMO

Blood glucose monitoring is an important part of diabetes management. Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) technology has become an effective complement to conventional blood glucose monitoring methods and has been widely applied in clinical practice. The indications for its use, the accuracy of the generated data, the interpretation of the CGM results, and the application of the results must be standardized. In December 2009, the Chinese Diabetes Society (CDS) drafted and published the first Chinese Clinical Guideline for Continuous Glucose Monitoring (2009 edition), providing a basis for the standardization of CGM in clinical application. Based on the updates of international guidelines and the increasing evidence of domestic studies, it is necessary to revise the latest CGM guidelines in China so that the recent clinical evidence can be effectively translated into clinical benefit for diabetic patients. To this end, the CDS revised the Chinese Clinical Guideline for Continuous Glucose Monitoring (2012 Edition) based on the most recent evidence from international and domestic studies.

18.
Diabetes Metab Res Rev ; 35(6): e3158, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30908791

RESUMO

The prevalence of diabetes in China has increased rapidly from 0.67% in 1980 to 10.4% in 2013, with the aging of the population and westernization of lifestyle. Since its foundation in 1991, the Chinese Diabetes Society (CDS) has been dedicated to improving academic exchange and the academic level of diabetes research in China. From 2003 to 2014, four versions of Chinese diabetes care guidelines have been published. The guidelines have played an important role in standardizing clinical practice and improving the status quo of diabetes prevention and control in China. Since September 2016, the CDS has invited experts in cardiovascular diseases, psychiatric diseases, nutrition, and traditional Chinese medicine to work with endocrinologists from the CDS to review the new clinical research evidence related to diabetes over the previous 4 years. Over a year of careful revision, this has resulted in the present, new version of guidelines for prevention and care of type 2 diabetes in China. The main contents include epidemiology of type 2 diabetes in China; diagnosis and classification of diabetes; primary, secondary, and tertiary diabetes prevention; diabetes education and management support; blood glucose monitoring; integrated control targets for type 2 diabetes and treatments for hyperglycaemia; medical nutrition therapy; exercise therapy for type 2 diabetes; smoking cessation; pharmacologic therapy for hyperglycaemia; metabolic surgery for type 2 diabetes; prevention and treatment of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases in patients with type 2 diabetes; hypoglycaemia; chronic diabetic complications; special types of diabetes; metabolic syndrome; and diabetes and traditional Chinese medicine.

19.
Diabetologia ; 62(6): 1074-1086, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30838453

RESUMO

AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Many studies have shown that tissue kallikrein has effects on diabetic vascular complications such as nephropathy, cardiomyopathy and neuropathy, but its effects on diabetic retinopathy are not fully understood. Here, we investigated the retinoprotective role of exogenous pancreatic kallikrein and studied potential mechanisms of action. METHODS: We used KK Cg-Ay/J (KKAy) mice (a mouse model of spontaneous type 2 diabetes) and mice with high-fat diet/streptozotocin (STZ)-induced type 2 diabetes as our models. After the onset of diabetes, both types of mice were injected intraperitoneally with either pancreatic kallikrein (KKAy + pancreatic kallikrein and STZ + pancreatic kallikrein groups) or saline (KKAy + saline and STZ + saline groups) for 12 weeks. C57BL/6J mice were used as non-diabetic controls for both models. We analysed pathological changes in the retina; evaluated the effects of pancreatic kallikrein on retinal oxidative stress, inflammation and apoptosis; and measured the levels of bradykinin and B1 and B2 receptors in both models. RESULTS: In both models, pancreatic kallikrein improved pathological structural features of the retina, increasing the thickness of retinal layers, and attenuated retinal acellular capillary formation and vascular leakage (p < 0.05). Furthermore, pancreatic kallikrein ameliorated retinal oxidative stress, inflammation and apoptosis in both models (p < 0.05). We also found that the levels of bradykinin and B1 and B2 receptors were increased after pancreatic kallikrein in both models (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: Pancreatic kallikrein can protect against diabetic retinopathy by activating B1 and B2 receptors and inhibiting oxidative stress, inflammation and apoptosis. Thus, pancreatic kallikrein may represent a new therapeutic agent for diabetic retinopathy.

20.
PLoS One ; 14(2): e0209222, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30753195

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to identify the local levels of vulnerability among patients with Type-II diabetes (T2DM) in Tianjin. The study was aimed at curbing the rise of T2DM in cities. METHODS: 229 participants living with T2DM were purposively sampled from hospitals in Tianjin. Collected data were coded and analysed following well-established thematic analysis principles. RESULTS: Twelve themes involving 29 factors were associated with diabetes patients' vulnerability: 1. Financial constraints (Low Income, Unemployment, No Medical Insurance/Low ratio reimbursement); 2. Severity of disease (Appearance of symptoms, complications, co-morbidities, high BMI, poor disease control); 3. Health literacy (No/Low/Wrong knowledge of health literacy); 4. Health beliefs (Perceived diabetes indifferently, Passively Acquire Health Knowledge, Distrust of primary health services); 5. Medical environment (Needs not met by Medical Services); 6. Life restrictions (Daily Life, Occupational Restriction); 7. Lifestyle change (Adhering to traditional or unhealthy diet, Lack of exercise, Low-quality sleep); 8. Time poverty (Healthcare-seeking behaviours were limited by work, Healthcare-seeking behaviours were limited by family issues); 9. Mental Condition (Negative emotions towards diabetes, Negative emotions towards life); 10. Levels of Support (Lack of community support, Lack of support from Friends and Family, Lack of Social Support); 11. Social integration (Low Degree of Integration, Belief in Suffering Alone); 12. Experience of transitions (Diet, Dwelling Environment). CONCLUSION: Based on our findings, specific interventions targeting individual patients, family, community and society are needed to improve diabetes control, as well as patients' mental health care and general living conditions.

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