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3.
Ann Thorac Surg ; 2021 Dec 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34951967

RESUMO

Remove of adipose tissues locating behind the left innominate vein (LIV) and at the aortocaval groove is technically complex for minimally invasive extended thymectomy. The study aims to describe the technical tips of the subxiphoid robotic procedure to remove of these adipose tissues. A total of 39 myasthenia gravis (MG) patients underwent extended thymectomy by the presented procedure and six patients were diagnosed with ectopic thymic tissues behind the left innominate vein. Satisfactory short-term surgical outcomes demonstrated that dissection of adipose tissues locating between mediastinal major vessels is technically feasible and safe by this novel procedure.

4.
J Gastrointest Oncol ; 12(5): 1951-1962, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34790363

RESUMO

Background: We examined the association between the number of resected lymph nodes and survival to determine the optimal lymphadenectomy for thoracic esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) patients with negative lymph node. Methods: We included 1,836 patients from Chinese three high-volumed hospitals with corresponding clinicopathological characters such as gender, age, tumor location, tumor grade and TNM stage of patients. The median follow-up of included patients was 45.7 months (range, 1.03-117.3 months). X-Tile plot was used to identify the lowest number of lymphadenectomy. The multivariate model's construction was in use of parameters with clinical significance for survival and a nomogram based on clinical variable with P<0.05 in Cox regression analysis. Both two models were validated using a cohort extracted from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) 18 registries database between 1975 and 2016 (n=951). Results: More lymphadenectomy numbers were significantly associated with better survival in patients both in training cohort [hazard ratio (HR) =0.980; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.971-0.988; P<0.001] and validation cohort (HR =0.980; 95% CI: 0.968-0.991; P=0.001). Cut-off point analysis determined the lowest number of 9 for thoracic ESCC patients in N0 stage through training cohort (C-index: 0.623; sensitivity: 80.7%; 1 - specificity: 72.5%) when compared with 10 in validation cohort (C-index: 0.643; sensitivity: 78.2%; 1 - specificity: 63.0%). The cut-off points of 9 were examined in training cohort and validated in the divided cohort from validation cohort (all P<0.05). Meanwhile, nomograms for both cohorts were constructed and the calibration curves for both cohorts agreed well with the actual observations in terms of predicting 3- and 5-year survival, respectively. Conclusions: Larger number for lymphadenectomy was associated with better survival in thoracic ESCC patients in N0 stage. Nine was what we got as the lowest number for lymphadenectomy in pN0 ESCC patients through this study, and our result should be confirmed further.

5.
J Cardiothorac Surg ; 16(1): 286, 2021 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34627314

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor (IMT) is rare intermediate tumor, which happens mostly in children and young adults. CASE PRESENTATION: Reported is the successful treatment of a 29-year-old man presented with progressively dysphagia and weight loss. No other abnormal symptoms were observed. The contrast enhanced computed tomography (CT) revealed a dumbbell-shaped lesion between lung and esophagus. Finally, it was pathologically diagnosed as pulmonary IMT invading to the distal esophagus after operation. The patient underwent partial esophagectomy and left lower lobectomy, and was discharged on 10th postoperative day. CONCLUSIONS: IMT is a rare lesion that usually occurs in the lung, but pulmonary IMT with distal esophagus invasion has not been described previously. Discriminating untypical symptom, completed resection, pathological expertise and closed follow-up will reach the successful diagnosis and treatment.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Deglutição , Granuloma de Células Plasmáticas , Granuloma de Células Plasmáticas Pulmonar , Adulto , Criança , Transtornos de Deglutição/etiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Adulto Jovem
6.
BMC Surg ; 21(1): 364, 2021 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34641847

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Symptomatic Bochdalek hernias are found mainly in infants in respiratory distress and occur rarely in adults. CASE PRESENTATION: We report a rare case of Bochdalek hernia associated with developmental abnormalities in an adult who exhibited acute chest pain and dyspnea on exertion. CONCLUSIONS: This case highlights the importance of the differential diagnosis of acute left-sided chest pain and antenatal examination.


Assuntos
Hérnias Diafragmáticas Congênitas , Adulto , Dor no Peito/etiologia , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , Hérnias Diafragmáticas Congênitas/diagnóstico por imagem , Hérnias Diafragmáticas Congênitas/cirurgia , Humanos , Gravidez
7.
Front Oncol ; 11: 703517, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34386424

RESUMO

Esophageal cancer (EC) is a common malignant tumor with poor prognosis, and current treatments for patients with advanced EC remain unsatisfactory. Recently, immunotherapy has been recognized as a new and promising approach for various tumors. EC cells present a high tumor mutation burden and harbor abundant tumor antigens, including tumor-associated antigens and tumor-specific antigens. The latter, also referred to as neoantigens, are immunogenic mutated peptides presented by major histocompatibility complex class I molecules. While current genomics and bioinformatics technologies have greatly facilitated the identification of tumor neoantigens, identifying individual neoantigens systematically for successful therapies remains a challenging problem. Owing to the initiation of strong, specific tumor-killing cytotoxic T cell responses, neoantigens are emerging as promising targets to develop personalized treatment and have triggered the development of cancer vaccines, adoptive T cell therapies, and combination therapies. This review aims to give a current understanding of the clinical application of neoantigens in EC and provide direction for future investigation.

8.
Ann Thorac Surg ; 2021 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34280373

RESUMO

The study aimed to describe a novel port design and simple surgical strategy for uniportal thoracoscopic right middle lobectomy (RML). In this approach, a 3-4 cm incision was created at sixth intercostal space posterior to the scapular line. The surgery was performed by serial division of the anterior oblique fissure, vein, bronchus, artery, and horizontal fissure. Based on our preliminary experience, this approach could provide an appropriate direction and angle for dissection and stapling, solving the challenge of conventional uniportal RML lobectomy.

11.
Ann Surg Oncol ; 28(11): 6341-6352, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33738720

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nodal-skip metastasis (NSM) is found in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), but its prognostic role is controversial. This study aimed to investigate the prognostic value of NSM for thoracic ESCC patients. METHODS: Categorization of NSM was according to the N groupings of Japan Esophagus Society (JES) staging system, which is dependent on tumor location. Using the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox-regression analysis, this study retrospectively analyzed the overall survival (OS) for 2325 ESCC patients after radical esophagectomy at three high-volume esophageal cancer centers. Predictive models also were constructed. RESULTS: The overall NSM rate was 20% (229/1141): 37.4% in the in upper, 12.9% in the middle, and 22.2% in the lower thoracic ESCC. The patients with NSM always had a better prognosis than those without NSM. Furthermore, NSM was an independent prognostic factor for thoracic ESCC patients (hazard ratio [HR], 0.633; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.499-0.803; P < 0.001). By integrating the prognostic values of NSM and N stage, the authors proposed the new N staging system. The categories defined by the new N staging system were more homogeneous in terms of OS than those defined by the current N system. Moreover, the new N system was shown to be an independent prognostic factor also for thoracic ESCC patients (HR, 1.607; 95% CI, 1.520-1.700; P < 0.001). Overall, the new N system had slightly better homogeneity, discriminatory ability, and monotonicity of gradient than the current N system. CONCLUSIONS: This study emphasized the prognostic power of NSM and developed a modified node-staging system to improve the efficiency of the current International Union for Cancer Control (UICC)/American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) N staging system.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Escamosas , Neoplasias Esofágicas , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas do Esôfago , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/cirurgia , Neoplasias Esofágicas/patologia , Neoplasias Esofágicas/cirurgia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas do Esôfago/cirurgia , Esofagectomia , Humanos , Linfonodos/patologia , Linfonodos/cirurgia , Metástase Linfática , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida
13.
Ann Thorac Surg ; 112(2): e91-e93, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33482155

RESUMO

The challenge for surgical management of a pancreatic pseudocyst during esophagectomy is not only to preserve the gastric wall, but also to avoid forming a pancreatic fistula. We report a case of a 54-year-old man with an esophageal squamous cell carcinoma who had a synchronous pancreatic pseudocyst. Roux-en-Y cystojejunostomy was performed during a McKeown esophagectomy to enable drainage of the pancreatic pseudocyst through the jejunum. The patient recovered after the operation, and the formation of a pancreatic fistula was avoided successfully.


Assuntos
Drenagem/métodos , Neoplasias Esofágicas/cirurgia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas do Esôfago/cirurgia , Pseudocisto Pancreático/cirurgia , Anastomose em-Y de Roux/métodos , Neoplasias Esofágicas/complicações , Neoplasias Esofágicas/diagnóstico , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas do Esôfago/complicações , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas do Esôfago/diagnóstico , Humanos , Jejuno/cirurgia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pseudocisto Pancreático/diagnóstico , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
14.
J Invest Surg ; 34(9): 963-973, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32036710

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Transthoracic hybrid minimally invasive esophagectomy (HMIE) is frequently performed in patients with esophageal cancer. However, no conclusive benefit has been defined for HMIE compared with open esophagectomy (OE) or totally MIE (TMIE). The aim of this meta-analysis is to evaluate the effectiveness of HMIE compared with OE and TMIE. METHODS: PubMed, Embase (via OVID) and Cochrane databases were comprehensively searched for relevant studies up to January 2019. Studies comparing the efficacy of transthoracic HMIE with OE or TMIE were included in this meta-analysis. RESULTS: Twenty-nine relevant studies comprising 3994 patients were identified and included in the analysis of HMIE vs OE. HMIE decreased the incidence of postoperative total morbidity (OR = 0.66, 95% CI 0.55 to 0.80, p = 0.00), pneumonia (OR = 0.55, 95% CI 0.45 to 0.66, p = 0.00), in-hospital mortality (OR = 0.54, 95% CI 0.36 to 0.83, p = 0.01), duration of hospitalization (SMD=-1.03, 95% CI -1.73 to -0.33, p = 0.00) and the estimated intraoperative blood loss (SMD=-1.01, 95% CI -1.62 to -0.40, p = 0.00) compared with OE. Twenty-one relevant studies comprising 3007 patients were identified and included in the analysis of HMIE vs TMIE. HMIE increased estimated intraoperative blood loss [standardized mean difference (SMD) = 1.02, 95% CI 0.45 to 1.58, p = 0.00] and the incidence of postoperative pneumonia (OR = 1.69, 95% CI 1.26 to 2.26, p = 0.00) compared with TMIE. No statistical differences were observed for other surgical outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: In our opinion, HMIE is a promising surgical technique. But further RCTs are still needed to confirm the advantages and disadvantages of HMIE mentioned above.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Esofágicas , Laparoscopia , Perda Sanguínea Cirúrgica , Neoplasias Esofágicas/cirurgia , Esofagectomia/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Minimamente Invasivos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Período Pós-Operatório , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
Front Oncol ; 11: 777686, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34993139

RESUMO

Background: The published evidence from several randomized controlled clinical trials of immunotherapy for advanced esophageal squamous cell carcinoma has shown promising results. This study aimed to investigate the efficacy and safety of immune checkpoint inhibitor treatment in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Methods: PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, and Embase databases were searched for relevant articles published before December 30, 2020. The data for efficacy and safety of immune checkpoint inhibitor treatment were subjected to meta-analysis. Results: Seven clinical trials comprising 1733 patients were included. The results showed that immune checkpoint inhibitor treatment as second- or later-line treatment was associated with an increased risk of the objective response rate (relative risk: 1.82, 95% confidence interval: 0.82-4.04; P=0.002) and median overall survival (hazard ratio: 0.75, 95% confidence interval: 0.67-0.85; P<0.001) compared with chemotherapy in locally advanced or metastatic esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Moreover, immune checkpoint inhibitor treatment was associated with significant improvement in median overall survival (hazard ratio: 0.61, 95% confidence interval: 0.48-0.77, P<0.001) compared with chemotherapy in the programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1)-positive population. However, immune checkpoint inhibitor treatment was also effective in all patients independent of PD-L1 expression. The most common grade ≥3 treatment-related adverse events with immune checkpoint inhibitor therapy were anemia, asthenia, rash, fatigue, decreased appetite, diarrhea, pneumonia, decreased neutrophil count, and vomiting. Patients undergoing immune checkpoint inhibitor therapy was associated with a decreased risk of treatment-related adverse events (relative risk: 0.82, 95% confidence interval: 0.62-1.08; P<0.001) and grade ≥3 treatment-related adverse events (relative risk: 0.50, 95% confidence interval: 0.42-0.60; P<0.001) compared with those undergoing chemotherapy. Conclusions: Immune checkpoint inhibitors as second- or later-line therapy may improve overall response rate and overall survival but not all oncological outcomes for patients with locally advanced or metastatic esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Patients treated with immune checkpoint inhibitors might experience fewer treatment-related adverse events of any grade, but specifically grade ≥3, compared with those treated with chemotherapy.

16.
Ann Thorac Surg ; 2021 Dec 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34973187

RESUMO

A refractory cervical anastomotic fistula with sinus formation will seriously impede a patient's return to normal life. It is necessary to find ways to shorten the recovery time for such patients. We used a multi-layered, purse-string inverted suture-embedding method to seven patients, in 6 of them had recovered, one patient with severe anastomotic stricture was failed. Multi-layered, purse-string inverted suture-embedding method can be used to treat persistent neck anastomotic fistula with sinus formation, but it is not suitable for patients who still have a fistula to the mediastinum, thoracic cavity, or severely narrowed anastomoses.

17.
J Thorac Dis ; 12(10): 5667-5677, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33209399

RESUMO

Background: This study aimed to assess the role of subcarinal lymph nodes in lymph node metastasis in thoracic esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) and to investigate the adequate range of lymph node dissection during esophagectomy. Methods: This study included 782 thoracic ESCC patients who underwent esophagectomy between July 2008 and December 2010. The metastatic rate of subcarinal lymph nodes and their influencing factors were investigated. The outcome of subcarinal lymph node dissection was assessed using the efficacy index (the incidence of metastasis to a lymph node station (%) multiplied by the 5-year survival rate (%) of patients with metastasis to that lymph node station and divided by 100). Additionally, postoperative complications were compared between the subcarinal lymph node resection and reservation groups. Results: The metastatic rates of subcarinal lymph nodes in the upper, middle, and lower thoracic ESCC were 8.3% (4/48), 19.1% (79/414), and 16.2% (23/142), respectively (χ2=3.669, P>0.05) and in T1, T2, T3, and T4 tumors were 0% (0/71), 4% (4/100), 22.2% (85/383), and 34% (17/50), respectively (χ2=42.859, P<0.05). Tumor invasion and size were significantly correlated with metastasis. For upper thoracic ESCC with positive subcarinal lymph nodes, metastasis tendency was mainly to the lower mediastinum. In middle third esophageal cancer, after subcarinal lymph nodes were involved, metastasis to the lower mediastinal lymph nodes increased by nearly 50%, and bidirectional metastasis increased by nearly three times compared with that before involvement. For lower third cancer with positive subcarinal lymph nodes, metastasis tendency was mainly to the upper mediastinum. The postoperative complication rates in the resection and reservation groups were as follows: overall, 19% and 14.6%, respectively (P>0.05), and pulmonary, 10.3% and 7.3%, respectively (P>0.05). The efficacy indexes of lymph node dissection at the upper, middle, and lower third esophagus were 0%, 7.6%, and 27.5%, respectively. Conclusions: Dissection of subcarinal lymph nodes, which does not increase postoperative complications, should be performed routinely in lower thoracic ESCC after submucosal invasion of tumor; meanwhile, tumors larger than 3cm should also result in subcarinal lymph node dissection in patients with a tumor located in the upper esophagus and T1-T2 ESCC.

18.
World J Surg ; 44(12): 4161-4174, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32761259

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Inconclusive results are available as to whether chemo/radiotherapy should be administered to resectable esophageal cancer patients before surgery (neoadjuvant therapy) or after surgery (adjuvant therapy). The paper, via a meta-analysis of effects of treatment modalities when administering chemo/radiotherapy, aims to systematically evaluate the effect of timing of chemo/radiotherapy and surgery. METHODS: We performed a systematic literature search for clinical trials of neoadjuvant and adjuvant therapy for patients with esophageal cancer. Using meta-analysis, we conducted direct and adjusted indirect comparisons of overall survival, complete resection rate (R0 resection), perioperative mortality, leakage rate and local recurrence in patients with resectable esophageal cancer. RESULTS: A total of 32 studies involving 7985 patients with esophageal cancer were included in the meta-analysis. Twenty-five randomized controlled studies indirectly compared neoadjuvant/adjuvant therapy with surgery alone, while five non-randomized controlled studies and two randomized controlled studies directly compared neoadjuvant with adjuvant therapy. Neoadjuvant therapy followed by surgery, compared with surgery along with adjuvant therapy, showed a significant overall survival advantage in our pooled analysis (HR 0.88; 95% CI 0.79-0.98). Directly compared with adjuvant therapy, neoadjuvant therapy demonstrated a lower local recurrence rate (OR 0.56; 95% CI 0.43-0.74) with low heterogeneity (I2 = 1%). Neoadjuvant therapy, comparing to surgery with or without adjuvant therapy, showed a significantly higher R0 resection rate (OR 2.86; 95% CI 2.02-4.04) with moderate heterogeneity (I2 = 38%) and no significant differences in postoperative anastomotic leakage (P = 0.50). However, neoadjuvant therapy, compared with surgery adjuvant therapy, significantly increased perioperative mortality in both direct and indirect comparisons (P < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: We found that neoadjuvant therapy was associated with higher overall survival and R0 resection rate without increasing postoperative anastomotic leakage for patients with resectable esophageal cancer, whereas neoadjuvant therapy was associated with higher perioperative mortality after esophagectomy.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Esofágicas , Terapia Neoadjuvante , Quimioterapia Adjuvante , Terapia Combinada , Neoplasias Esofágicas/cirurgia , Esofagectomia , Humanos , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia
19.
Int J Surg ; 80: 184-191, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32659390

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Esophageal cancer (EC) is the sixth most common cause of cancer-related mortality in the world. Currently, surgery is the recommended treatment modality when possible. The outcomes of surgery alone are poor, and postoperative radiotherapy (PORT) has been used to patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) for years. However, the value of PORT for patients with ESCC after curative resection remains controversial. To assess the benefits and harms of postoperative radiotherapy compared with surgery alone for patients with ESCC we performed in this meta-analysis. METHOD: A comprehensive electronic literature search was performed via the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE and EMBASE from January 1st, 1990 to October 1st, 2018 for relevant trials. The primary outcomes of interest are overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS). A meta-analysis was performed to calculate the hazard ratio (HR) with 95% confidence interval (CI). RESULTS: Three randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and seven retrospective studies (RS) were included, for a total of 5640 patients with 1774 in the PORT group and 3866 in the surgery alone group respectively. Meta-analysis showed there were significant increases both for OS (HR 0.86, 95%CI 0.79-0.93, p = 0.0004) and DFS (HR 0.74, 95%CI 0.63-0.87, p = 0.004) for patients administered PORT compared with surgery alone. Regarding the postoperative recurrence, PORT can significantly reduce the local recurrence rate (OR 0.34, 95%CI 0.29-0.40, p < 0.00001), while it showed no difference in distant metastasis (OR 1.09, 95%CI 0.91-1.30, p = 0.37). Subgroup analysis demonstrated PORT can improve the OS for patients with positive lymph node (N+, HR 0.73, 95%CI 0.59-0.90, p < 0.00001), curative resection (R0 resection, HR 0.81, 95%CI 0.73-0.90, p < 0.0001) and T3 stage (HR 0.84, 95%CI 0.80-1.0, p = 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: PORT improved the OS and DFS for patients with ESCC compared with surgery alone, and significantly reduced the local recurrence. PORT showed survival benefits for specific subgroups such as patients with positive lymph node, R0 resection margin and T3 stage.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Esofágicas/terapia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas do Esôfago/terapia , Esôfago/cirurgia , Radioterapia/mortalidade , Adulto , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Células Epiteliais/patologia , Neoplasias Esofágicas/mortalidade , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas do Esôfago/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/mortalidade , Período Pós-Operatório , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Radioterapia/métodos , Radioterapia Adjuvante , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Estudos Retrospectivos
20.
World J Gastrointest Oncol ; 12(6): 687-698, 2020 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32699583

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The optimal time interval between neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (nCRT) and esophagectomy in esophageal cancer has not been defined. AIM: To evaluate whether a prolonged time interval between the end of nCRT and surgery has an effect on survival outcome in esophageal cancer patients. METHODS: We searched PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, the Cochrane Library, Wanfang and China National Knowledge Infrastructure databases for relevant articles published before November 16, 2019, to identify potential studies that evaluated the prognostic role of different time intervals between nCRT and surgery in esophageal cancer. The hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) were merged to estimate the correlation between the time intervals and survival outcomes in esophageal cancer, esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma using fixed- and random-effect models. RESULTS: This meta-analysis included 12621 patients from 16 studies. The results demonstrated that esophageal cancer patients with a prolonged time interval between the end of nCRT and surgery had significantly worse overall survival (OS) [hazard ratio (HR): 1.107, 95%CI: 1.014-1.208, P = 0.023] than those with a shorter time interval. Subgroup analysis showed that poor OS with a prolonged interval was observed based on both the sample size and HRs. There was also significant association between a prolonged time interval and decreased OS in Asian, but not Caucasian patients. In addition, a longer wait time indicated worse OS (HR: 1.385, 95%CI: 1.186-1.616, P < 0.001) in patients with adenocarcinoma. CONCLUSION: A prolonged time interval from the completion of nCRT to surgery is associated with a significant decrease in OS. Thus, esophagectomy should be performed within 7-8 wk after nCRT.

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