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1.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 91(4): e20180957, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31800698

RESUMO

The mechanism behind exercise-induced fatigue is a significant topic in the field of sports physiology. Therefore, establishing and evaluating an acute exercise-induced fatigue animal model that explores the limits of the motor system may provide greater insight into these mechanisms. Heart rate is an important quantitative parameter that accurately reflects the immediate change in physical function due to exercise load. And there is likely to be an important correlation between heart rate and behavioral performance. In this study, changes in heart rate and behavioral indexes during exercise-induced fatigue were quantitatively analyzed in rats using heart rate telemetry and video methods respectively. The behavioral indexes were used as independent variables and the degree of fatigue was used as the forecast value. Ternary quadratic function curve fitting was used to deduce a formula to calculate a fatigue score: Y = 15.2548+0.4346∙xa-0.1154∙xb+0.6826∙xc+0.0044∙xa∙xb-0.0021∙xb∙xc-0.0013∙xc∙xa-0.0023∙xa2-0.0016∙xb2 (r2=0.906). It identified a linear relationship between heart rate and exercise intensity, with a plateau in heart rate occurring during difference periods. It will serve as an effective reference for the modeling of exercise-induced fatigue. In addition, it also provides a theoretical method for analyzing the correlation between peripheral and central parameters.

2.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 137: 139-150, 2019 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31260772

RESUMO

In the present study, six different polysaccharides (RFPs, MAPs, UWPs, AEPs, HWPs and CEPs) were extracted from Chlorella vulgaris using repeated freeze-thawing, microwave-assisted-, ultrasonic wave-, alkali-, hot water-, and cellulase-based methods; and antioxidant property assays were performed both in vitro and in vivo. Radical-scavenging capacity (using DPPH, superoxide and hydroxyl radicals) and metal chelating ability were assessed in vitro; Caenorhabditis elegans was used to assess antioxidant effects in vivo. Based on the in vitro screening tests, UWPs exhibited high antioxidant capacity. The UWP yield was 17.1% ±â€¯2.2%; the DPPH-, superoxide-, and hydroxyl radical-scavenging rates were 65.1% ±â€¯2.4%, 61.2% ±â€¯2.7%, and 56.2% ±â€¯2.2%, respectively, and the metal chelating ability was 63.6% ±â€¯2.5% at a concentration of 0.4 mg/mL. UWPs also exhibited high antioxidant activity in vivo. UWPs significantly increased the lifespan of C. elegans under oxidative stress induced by hydrogen peroxide compared with the control group, enhanced stress-resistance-related enzymes, including catalase and superoxide dismutase by 7.29% ±â€¯1.8% and 24.41% ±â€¯4.8%, respectively. The results of the present study indicate that the extraction methods of C. vulgaris polysaccharides were a key factor influencing antioxidant activity.

3.
Plant Biotechnol J ; 2019 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31199059

RESUMO

Heterosis, or hybrid vigour, is a predominant phenomenon in plant genetics, serving as the basis of crop hybrid breeding, but the causative loci and genes underlying heterosis remain unclear in many crops. Here, we present a large-scale genetic analysis using 5360 offsprings from three elite maize hybrids, which identifies 628 loci underlying 19 yield-related traits with relatively high mapping resolutions. Heterotic pattern investigations of the 628 loci show that numerous loci, mostly with complete-incomplete dominance (the major one) or overdominance effects (the secondary one) for heterozygous genotypes and nearly equal proportion of advantageous alleles from both parental lines, are the major causes of strong heterosis in these hybrids. Follow-up studies for 17 heterotic loci in an independent experiment using 2225 F2 individuals suggest most heterotic effects are roughly stable between environments with a small variation. Candidate gene analysis for one major heterotic locus (ub3) in maize implies that there may exist some common genes contributing to crop heterosis. These results provide a community resource for genetics studies in maize and new implications for heterosis in plants.

4.
J Cell Biochem ; 120(9): 15790-15799, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31090961

RESUMO

As an oncogene, IQ-domain GTPase-activating protein 1 (IQGAP1) regulates the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of several cancers, such as breast cancer, thyroid cancer, and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. However, the role of the scaffold protein IQGAP1 on EMT in gastric cancer remains unclear. Therefore, the present work was performed to address the question. Our results showed that IQGAP1 expression is upregulated in human gastric cancer specimens and cell lines. Furthermore, IQGAP1 knockdown inhibited the migratory ability of gastric cancer cells and reduced the expression of mesenchymal phenotype markers, including Slug, ß-catenin, Snail, Vimentin, and N-cadherin, as well as vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) secretion in gastric cancer cells. Conversely, IQGAP1 downregulation increased the epithelial phenotype marker E-cadherin. Furthermore, IQGAP1 silencing not only downregulated hypoxia-inducible transcription factor 1α (HIF1α) but also limited its translocation from the cytosol to the nucleus. Collectively, our results indicated that EMT was regulated by IQGAP1, which was associated with VEGF-A, since other data demonstrated that HIF1α was involved in VEGF-A expression. Therefore, we speculated that IQGAP1 regulated EMT of gastric cancer partially via the HIF1α/VEGF-A signaling pathway. IQGAP1 may serve as an effective therapeutic biomarker for gastric cancer.

5.
Chemosphere ; 229: 273-283, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31078884

RESUMO

In this study, a sponge modified by multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) was used as sheet support for the adsorption of CuO@Cu and Ag nanowires to prepare a CuO@Cu/Ag/MWNTs/sponge electrode. Similar to their use in a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) reactor, the MWNTs changed the conductivity and water absorptivity of the modified electrode, whereas the CuO@Cu and Ag nanowires significantly enhanced the tip effect to increase discharge. The optimal ratio of the Ag:CuO@Cu nanowires was 5:3 at a total adsorbed concentration of 0.8 g L-1. Compared with CuO@Cu and Ag nanowires were separately adsorbed on the MWNTs/sponge, and the CuO@Cu/Ag/MWNTs/sponges recorded higher current response, lower discharge inception voltage, and higher removal efficiency of phenol and 2,4,5-trichlorobiphenyl (PCB29) through their degradation. The removal efficiency reached 100% within 30 min of the reaction for the degradation of phenol and 65.1% within 60 min of the reaction for the degradation of PCB29 at an input voltage of 30 V. These results show that the CuO@Cu/Ag/MWNTs/sponge structure has significant potential for use in the DBD reactor to improve the discharge efficiency of the system and reduce energy consumption, and can be further extended to other types of plasma reactors.


Assuntos
Cobre/química , Eletroquímica/instrumentação , Poluentes Ambientais/química , Poluentes Ambientais/isolamento & purificação , Nanotubos de Carbono/química , Prata/química , Adsorção , Impedância Elétrica , Eletrodos , Cinética , Nanofios/química , Água/química
6.
RNA Biol ; 16(7): 940-949, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30951404

RESUMO

SLC47A2 encodes MATE 2-K in the kidney, which mediates the secretion of certain endogenous and exogenous compounds. SLC47A2 was dramatically repressed in patients with renal cell carcinoma (RCC), and a lower level of SLC47A2 might act as a negative prognostic marker, although the mechanism is not well understood. In this study, we aimed to investigate the mechanism via which SLC47A2 is downregulated in RCC. Based on the annotation information of the SLC47A2 locus available in the UCSC genome browser database, we identified a novel lncRNA, which is transcribed from the SLC47A2 locus and named it SANT1. Overexpression and knock-down assays were performed to investigate the effects of SANT1 on cis-regulation of SLC47A2. We verified the direct binding between SANT1 and SFPQ/E2F1/HDAC1 using the cross-linking and immunoprecipitation (CLIP) assay. Chromatin immunoprecipitation was performed to confirm the molecular mechanism via which SANT1 activates the transcription of the SLC47A2 coding region. We observed that SANT1 can cis-regulate its own genetic locus. In tumour-adjacent tissues, the SLC47A2 locus highly expresses SANT1, which can remove the regulatory SFPQ/E2F1/HDAC1 suppressor complex from the promoter region, thereby significantly increasing the levels of the H3K27ac modification and RNAPII binding. Owing to a low SANT1 level, the binding of this inhibitory complex in the promoter region is upregulated in RCC, which results in silencing of the SLC47A2 coding region. In conclusion, we identified a novel lncRNA and elucidated the mechanism via which it regulates SLC47A2 expression in RCC.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Renais/genética , Fator de Transcrição E2F1/metabolismo , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Histona Desacetilase 1/metabolismo , Proteínas de Transporte de Cátions Orgânicos/metabolismo , Fator de Processamento Associado a PTB/metabolismo , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , RNA Longo não Codificante/metabolismo , Sequência de Bases , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Neoplasias Renais/genética , Modelos Biológicos , Conformação de Ácido Nucleico , Proteínas de Transporte de Cátions Orgânicos/genética , Ligação Proteica , RNA Longo não Codificante/química , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Regulação para Cima/genética
7.
Brain Res ; 1711: 23-28, 2019 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30615887

RESUMO

The endogenous cannabinoid system is involved in the physiological inhibitory control of pain and is of particular interest for the development of therapeutic approaches for pain management. Selective activation of the peripheral CB1 cannabinoid receptor has been shown to suppress the heightened firing of primary afferents, which is the peripheral mechanism underlying neuropathic pain after nerve injury. However, the mechanism underlying this effect of CB1 receptor remains unclear. The large-conductance calcium-activated potassium (BK) channels have been reported to participate in anticonvulsant and vasorelaxant effects of cannabinoids. We asked whether BK channels participate in cannabinoids-induced analgesia and firing-suppressing effects in primary afferents after nerve injury. Here, using mice with chronic constriction injury (CCI)-induced neuropathic pain, antinociception action and firing-suppressing effect of HU210 were measured before and after BK channel blocker application. We found that local peripheral application of HU210 alleviated CCI-induced pain behavior and suppressed the heightened firing of injured fibers. Co-administration of IBTX with HU210 significantly reversed the analgesia and the firing-suppressing effect of HU210. This result indicated that the peripheral analgesic effects of cannabinoids depends on activation of BK channels.

8.
Asian-Australas J Anim Sci ; 32(1): 63-71, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29747497

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of zinc-bearing palygorskite (Zn-Pal) on rumen fermentation by in vitro gas-production system. METHODS: In trial, 90 incubators were evenly divided into five groups: control (0% Zn-Pal), treatment I (0.2% Zn-Pal), treatment II (0.4% Zn-Pal), treatment III (0.6% Zn-Pal), and treatment IV (0.8% Zn-Pal). The contents of zinc for treatments were 0, 49, 98, 147, 196 mg/kg, respectively. The main chemical composition and microstructure of Zn-Pal was investigated by X-ray diffraction. The physicochemical features were evaluated by Zeta potential analysis, cation-exchange capacity, ethylene blue absorption and specific surface area (the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller method). In vitro gas production (GP) was recorded at 3, 6, 9, 12, 18, 24, 36, 48, 60, and 72 h incubation. Incubation was stopped at 0, 6, 12, 24, 48, and 72 h and the inoculants were tested for pH, microbial protein yield (MCP), NH3-N, volatile fatty acids (VFAs), lipopolysaccharide (LPS). RESULTS: The results showed that the GP in the treatment groups was not significantly different from the control groups (p>0.05). Compared to the control group, pH was higher at 24 h, 48 h (p<0.05), and 72 h (p<0.01) (range 6 to 7). The concentration of NH3-N in the three treatment groups was higher than in the control group at 24 h (p<0.01), meanwhile, it was lower at 48 h and 72 h (p<0.01), except in the treatment IV. The concentration of MCP in treatment I group was higher than in the control at 48 h (p<0.01). Compared with control, the LPS concentration in treatment III became lower at 12 h (p<0.05). Total VFAs in treatments were higher than in the control at 24 h, 48 h (p<0.05). CONCLUSION: These results suggest that the addition of Zn-Pal can improve the rumen fermentation, especially when adding 0.2% Zn-Pal.

9.
Inflammation ; 41(2): 606-613, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29218605

RESUMO

Decreased interferon (IFN)-γ levels and increased levels of macrophage-derived chemokine (MDC) and intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 are known to be involved in allergic skin diseases, such as eczema and atopic dermatitis. Activation of the IFN-γ and its downstream interleukin-12 (IL-12) pathway can correct these diseases. Suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 (SOCS1) is a cytokine signaling inhibitor that blocks downstream pathways of IFN-γ by blocking the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and protein kinase B (Akt) signaling pathways. Oxymatrine (OMT), a quinolizidine alkaloid extracted from the herbal medicine Radix Sophorae flavescentis, is used to treat allergic skin diseases in China. The non-cytotoxic concentrations of OMT in HaCaT cells were determined through 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assays. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and IFN-γ were used to stimulate HaCaT cells, and OMT was added to this system with tacrolimus (FK506) as a positive control. The mRNAs of cytokines, MDC, ICAM-1, IL-12p35, IL-12p40, and IFN-γ receptor (IFN-γR)α were detected by RT-PCR. Western blot analyses were performed to assess activation of the MAPK (p38, Jun N-terminal kinase, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase) and Akt signaling pathways. OMT increased the mRNA levels of the IL-12 and IFN-γRα, reduced the mRNA levels of ICAM-1, MDC, and SOCS1. But FK506 increased the mRNA levels of IL12 and inhibited the expression of ICAM-1 mRNAs and had no effects on the IFN-γRα, MDC, and SOCS1 mRNA in HaCaT cells stimulated with TNF-α and IFN-γ. Thus, the mechanisms through which OMT and FK506 ameliorate allergic skin diseases differ.


Assuntos
Alcaloides/farmacologia , Quinolizinas/farmacologia , Dermatopatias/tratamento farmacológico , Linhagem Celular , Quimiocina CCL22 , Regulação para Baixo/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Imunossupressores , Molécula 1 de Adesão Intercelular , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Queratinócitos/citologia , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases , RNA Mensageiro/efeitos dos fármacos , Dermatopatias/imunologia , Proteína 1 Supressora da Sinalização de Citocina , Tacrolimo/farmacologia
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28751921

RESUMO

To evaluate the anti-inflammatory activities of QRQS against AD and the inhibitory molecular mechanisms of IL-33/ST2 signal transduction, BALB/c mice were divided into six groups (normal control, OVA control, low-dose of QRQS, middle-dose of QRQS, high-dose of QRQS, and cetirizine) and epicutaneously exposed to ovalbumin or PBS for 3 weeks and treated with QRQS for 2 weeks. Skin biopsies and blood samples were obtained for histological study, antibody analysis, and RNA isolation. HaCaT cells, stimulated by TNF-α and IFN-γ, were treated with QRQS to evaluate mRNA and protein expression by RT-PCR and ELISA. QRQS decreased both epidermal and dermal thickness, alleviated dermatitis, and reduced IL-33 and ST2 positive cell numbers. The concentration of specific IgE, IgG, IgG1, and IgG2a antibodies in serum and the expression of IL-33, ST2, IL-1RAcP, IL-4, and IL-13 mRNA in the skin were suppressed. No significant difference exists in TNF-α or IFN-γ. QRQS decreased IL-33 mRNA and protein secretion in HaCaT cells exposed to TNF-α and IFN-γ in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. QRQS regulates related molecule expression of ovalbumin-induced dermatitis involved in the IL-33/ST2 signaling axis in the treatment of acute AD.

11.
Front Comput Neurosci ; 10: 104, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27807414

RESUMO

Long-term potentiation (LTP) of synaptic strength is strongly implicated in learning and memory. On the other hand, depotentiation, the reversal of synaptic strength from potentiated LTP state to the pre-LTP level, is required in extinction of the obsolete memory. A generic tristable system, which couples the phosphatase and kinase switches, exclusively explains how moderate and high elevation of intracellular calcium concentration triggers long-term depression (LTD) and LTP, respectively. The present study, introducing calcium influx and calcium release from internal store into the tristable system, further show that significant elevation of cytoplasmic calcium concentration switches activation of both kinase and phosphatase to their basal states, thereby depotentiate the synaptic strength. A phase-plane analysis of the combined model was employed to explain the previously reported depotentiation in experiments and predict a threshold-like effect with calcium concentration. The results not only reveal a mechanism of NMDAR- and mGluR-dependent depotentiation, but also predict further experiments about the role of internal calcium store in induction of depotentiation and extinction of established memories.

12.
Water Sci Technol ; 73(7): 1591-8, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27054730

RESUMO

Individual farmers represent the main management entities of agricultural production under the family-contract responsibility system in China, and thus play crucial roles in the prevention and control of agricultural nonpoint source (ANPS) pollution. The analysis of the farmers' perceptions of ANPS pollution as well as the factors affecting their perceptions can provide valuable information for relevant policy-making to preserve high quality water in Poyang Lake and regional quality of arable land. Through a survey titled 'Farmers' perceptions of ANPS pollution and farming behaviors in the Poyang Lake Region', the data related to the perceptions of farmers on ANPS pollution were collected. The factors that affect their awareness of ANPS pollution were identified with the method of boosted regression trees (BRT). The results indicated that the farmers had awareness of the risk of ANPS pollution to some extent, but they lacked adequate scientific knowledge. Generally, they had no consciousness about how to prevent and control ANPS pollution and did not understand techniques needed for proper scientifically sound application of fertilizers and pesticides. The main factors that influenced their perceptions of ANPS pollution are (from high to low): the ratio of total income which comes from farming, per capita farmland, age, education level, and household income. Some measures targeted to improve the prevention and control of ANPS pollution were proposed: developing modern agricultural techniques and promoting large-scale farming, increasing public campaigns related to ANPS pollution prevention and control with the goal of raising the level of awareness of farmers, and reforming the methods used to promote science and technology in agriculture and encourage the proper use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides.


Assuntos
Agricultura/métodos , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Fazendeiros , Fertilizantes/análise , Lagos/química , Praguicidas/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química , China , Coleta de Dados , Fertilizantes/toxicidade , Humanos , Praguicidas/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
13.
Dalton Trans ; 45(9): 3727-33, 2016 Mar 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26812138

RESUMO

A class of sawhorse-type ruthenium(i) complexes featuring a stable CORM sphere with diverse carboxylic and amino acid derivatives were synthesized and validated as lead structures for photo-activated CO-releasing molecules (PhotoCORMs). The CO release of these CORMs was triggered by 365 nm UV irradiation. Cell viability studies indicated that 3a and 3f were non-toxic both in the dark and in UV light, making them excellent lead structures for therapeutic CORMs.

14.
Sci China Life Sci ; 57(5): 502-9, 2014 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24740452

RESUMO

Many receptors, including thermal receptors and mechanical receptors, are only activated by stimuli within a clearly defined range of intensities. Differences in the receptive ranges enable individual receptors and their sensory centers to precisely detect the intensity of the stimulus and changes in intensity. Baroreceptors are the sensory terminals of the baroreflex. It is well understood that an increasing number of baroreceptors are recruited to produce afferent action potentials as the blood pressure increases, indicating that individual baroreceptors have different pressure thresholds. The present study revealed that individual baroreceptors could stop their afferent signals when the blood pressure exceeds a certain level, indicating that individual baroreceptors are sensitive to a specific range of blood pressure. The receptive ranges of individual baroreceptors differ in terms of the total range, the lower threshold, and the upper threshold. Of 85 baroreceptors examined in this study, the upper thresholds for about half were within the physiological blood pressure range. These results indicate that supraphysiological blood pressure is unlikely to be encoded by the recruitment of more baroreceptors. Instead, supraphysiological blood pressure levels might be signaled by an increase in the frequency of action potentials or by other mechanisms. In conclusion, our results indicate that rabbit baroreceptors are activated by blood pressure levels within specific receptive ranges. These findings should encourage further studies to examine the role of population coding of blood pressure by baroreceptors in the baroreflex.


Assuntos
Aorta/inervação , Aorta/fisiologia , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Pressorreceptores/fisiologia , Acetilcolina/farmacologia , Potenciais de Ação/efeitos dos fármacos , Vias Aferentes/fisiologia , Animais , Barorreflexo/fisiologia , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Fibras Nervosas/fisiologia , Norepinefrina/farmacologia , Pressorreceptores/efeitos dos fármacos , Coelhos
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