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1.
Nutr J ; 19(1): 95, 2020 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32907571

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Early age at menarche is associated with risk of several chronic diseases. Prospective study on the association between dietary pattern and timing of menarche is sparse. We examined whether dietary patterns prior to the menarche onset were prospectively associated with menarcheal age in Chinese girls. METHODS: One thousand one hundred eighteen girls aged 6-13 y in the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) with three-day 24-h recalls and information on potential confounders at baseline were included in the study. Dietary patterns were identified using principal component analysis. Age at menarche was self-reported at each survey. Cox proportional hazard regression models were performed to examine the associations of premenarcheal dietary patterns and menarcheal timing. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. RESULTS: Three major dietary patterns were identified: modern dietary pattern, animal food pattern, and snack food pattern. After adjustment for age at baseline, region, ethnicity, maternal education level, energy intake at baseline, and body mass index Z-score at baseline, girls in the highest quartile of modern dietary pattern score had a 33% higher probability of experiencing menarche at an earlier age than those in the lowest quartile (HR: 1.33, 95% CI: 1.002-1.77, p for trend = 0.03). No significant association was found for the animal food pattern or snack food pattern. CONCLUSIONS: Higher adherence to modern dietary pattern during childhood is associated with an earlier menarcheal age. This association was independent of premenarcheal body size.

2.
Pediatr Obes ; : e12718, 2020 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32881371

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Some studies have reported a relationship between obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in pediatric population. However, this issue remains controversial. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of the present study was to investigate the association between OSA and NAFLD in pediatric population. METHODS: We systematically searched PubMed, Web of Science, Embase for eligible studies. The data involving markers of NAFLD including alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), hepatic inflammation, hepatic fibrosis of both OSA group and control group were extracted. Pooled standardised mean difference (SMD) and weighted mean difference (WMD) were appropriately calculated through a fixed or random-effect model. RESULTS: Nine cross-sectional studies with 1133 children and adolescents were included. OSA was significantly associated with ALT, AST, and NAFLD fibrosis stage, but not NAFLD inflammation grade. Subgroup analysis indicated that both mild OSA and severe OSA were significantly associated with elevated ALT and AST. Furthermore, in the studies with all main confounding factors (age, gender, and BMI) matched, OSA group had higher ALT and AST levels than control group. CONCLUSIONS: This meta-analysis suggested that OSA was associated with NAFLD evidenced by elevated liver enzymes and progressive hepatic fibrosis in pediatric population. Screening and monitoring of NAFLD in pediatric patients with obesity-related OSA are necessary.

3.
Biomed Res Int ; 2020: 7136049, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32802869

RESUMO

Objective: Although noncoding RNAs, especially the microRNAs, have been found to play key roles in CRC development in intestinal tissue, the specific mechanism of these microRNAs has not been fully understood. Methods: GEO and TCGA database were used to explore the microRNA expression profiles of normal mucosa, adenoma, and carcinoma. And the differential expression genes were selected. Computationally, we built the SVM model and multivariable Cox regression model to evaluate the performance of tumorigenic microRNAs in discriminating the adenomas from normal tissues and risk prediction. Results: In this study, we identified 20 miRNA biomarkers dysregulated in the colon adenomas. The functional enrichment analysis showed that MAPK activity and MAPK cascade were highly enriched by these tumorigenic microRNAs. We also investigated the target genes of the tumorigenic microRNAs. Eleven genes, including PIGF, TPI1, KLF4, RARS, PCBP2, EIF5A, HK2, RAVER2, HMGN1, MAPK6, and NDUFA2, were identified to be frequently targeted by the tumorigenic microRNAs. The high AUC value and distinct overall survival rates between the two risk groups suggested that these tumorigenic microRNAs had the potential of diagnostic and prognostic value in CRC. Conclusions: The present study revealed possible mechanisms and pathways that may contribute to tumorigenesis of CRC, which could not only be used as CRC early detection biomarkers, but also be useful for tumorigenesis mechanism studies.

4.
Eur J Clin Nutr ; 2020 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32801308

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There are few studies of nutritional and genetic factors and their interactions on the risk of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) among Chinese adults. OBJECTIVE: Our aim for the Nutrition and Health in Southwest China (NHSC) study is to investigate the impact of diet, lifestyle, genetic background, and their interactions on NCDs among adults in Southwest China. METHODS: The NSHC is a prospective cohort study initiated in winter 2013. The baseline data collection was completed in December 2018, and follow-ups are conducted every 2 years. Information on genomics, anthropometry, nutrition, eating behaviors, physical activity, depression and mental disorders, clinical and biochemical examinations, and lifestyles was collected. RESULTS: 7926 adults completed the baseline questionnaire. The average age of participants was 42.6 (9.8) years at study enrollment. More than half were female, 37.2% had achieved more than 12 years of education, and 49.3% of them came from family income >35,000 Yuan. Our analyses of the baseline data suggested that adults with greater dietary energy density appeared to have greater body mass index, fat mass index, fat-free mass index and percentage body fat, and that participants with a higher level of dietary glycemic index, glycemic load, or serum 25(OH)D had a less favorable glucose homeostasis. In addition, spending less time watching television and having a healthy eating pattern may play significant roles in later cellular aging. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, the NHSC cohort provides valuable data for investigations of the relevance of gene, nutrition, lifestyles, and their interactions on NCDs among southwestern Chinese adults.

5.
J Tradit Chin Med ; 40(3): 401-406, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32506853

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the pharmacological mechanism of Wang-Bi tablets (WBTs), a Chinese patented medicine, in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) using mice with collagen-induced arthritis (CIA). METHODS: A mouse model of CIA was induced using bovine type Ⅱ collagen. WBT treatment was administered and efficacy was evaluated. The levels of interferon-γ (IFN-γ), interleukin-2 (IL-2), and interleukin-4 (IL-4) were examined using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and the proportions of Th1 and Th2 were detected using flow cytometry. T-bet and GATA-binding protein 3 (GATA3) expression were demonstrated using Western blot analysis. RESULTS: Paw swelling and the arthritis index decreased significantly following WBT treatment. Histopathological analysis revealed markedly alleviated damage to synovium tissue in the WBT and methotrexate treatment groups. WBT regulated the production of IFN-γ, IL-2, and IL-4 and modulated Th1 and Th2 cell populations, which might have been induced by the attenuation of Th1 and Th2 cell differentiation through a decrease in the expression of T-bet and an increase in the expression of GATA3 in the synovial tissue in CIA mice. CONCLUSION: These results indicate that WBT may produce a therapeutic effect on CIA through maintaining the balance of Th1/Th2 cells, which could result in a decrease in the autoinflammatory disorder observed in RA.

6.
Sleep Breath ; 2020 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32361960

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) has been related to an increased risk of liver injury. Ferroptosis is a form of programmed cell death implicated in multiple physiological and pathological processes. This study aimed to explore the role of ferroptosis in chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH)-induced liver injury as well as to uncover the underlying mechanisms using a CIH rat model. METHODS: Fourteen male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly allocated to either the normal control (NC) (n = 7) or the CIH group (n = 7). Rats were exposed to intermittent hypoxia for 8 weeks in CIH group. Liver function, histological changes, and markers of oxidative stress were evaluated. The protein levels of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α, nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), Acyl-CoA synthetase long-chain family member 4 (ACSL4), and glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPX4) in liver were examined by Western blot analysis. RESULTS: CIH treatment caused significant increase of serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and malondialdehyde (MDA). Liver MDA was significantly higher in CIH group than that in NC group. Histology showed that CIH treatment induced discernible swelled, disordered hepatocytes, necrosis, and infiltrated inflammatory cells. CIH treatment significantly reduced the expression of GPX4, while markedly up-regulated expression of ACSL4, indicating elevation in hepatic ferroptosis. In addition, the protein expression of Nrf2 in CIH group was significantly lower than that in NC group. CONCLUSIONS: Ferroptosis played a crucial role in CIH-induced liver injury. The hepatic ferroptosis in CIH rat model might be mediated by the dysregulation of Nrf2. This highlights a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of OSA-related liver injury.

7.
Chem Asian J ; 15(8): 1290-1295, 2020 Apr 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32166912

RESUMO

Organic electrode materials hold great potential for fabricating sustainable energy storage systems, however, the development of organic redox-active moieties for rechargeable aqueous zinc-ion batteries is still at an early stage. Here, we report a bio-inspired riboflavin-based aqueous zinc-ion battery utilizing an isoalloxazine ring as the redox center for the first time. This battery exhibits a high capacity of 145.5 mAh g-1 at 0.01 A g-1 and a long-life stability of 3000 cycles at 5 A g-1 . We demonstrate that isoalloxazine moieties are active centers for reversible zinc-ion storage by using optical and photoelectron spectroscopies as well as theoretical calculations. Through molecule-structure tailoring of riboflavin, the obtained alloxazine and lumazine molecules exhibit much higher theoretical capacities of 250.3 and 326.6 mAh g-1 , respectively. Our work offers an effective redox-active moiety for aqueous zinc batteries and will enrich the valuable material pool for electrode design.

8.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 12(3): 3681-3687, 2020 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31891243

RESUMO

The development of lithium metal anodes has been severely impeded by the detrimental lithium (Li) dendrite growth which can largely shorten the lifespan of the battery. Here, we propose a one-step redox strategy to fabricate reduced graphene oxide (rGO) and Cu2O co-modified Cu current collector (rGO-Cu2O/Cu), which can guide the uniform Li ion nucleation and suppress the formation of the Li dendrite. The lithiophilic Cu2O in situ grown on the Cu substrate via direct chemical oxidation of Cu foil by the GO solution can decrease the Li nucleation overpotential and regulate the preferential nucleation of Li ions, while the rGO produced at the same time can facilitate the electron transport. As the consequence of the synergistic effects, rGO-Cu2O/Cu could be fully discharged with largely enhanced Coulombic efficiency of 98% and extended cycling life of the symmetrical cell up to 300 h. The full battery assembled with LiFePO4 also exhibits satisfying electrochemical performance, indicating the promising practical application of this Li-plated rGO-Cu2O/Cu anode. Furthermore, the processable rGO-Cu2O/Cu which can make Li metal anode moldable into various shapes with a controllable size will be favorable to manufacture diverse device architectures.

9.
Arch Oral Biol ; 109: 104578, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31589997

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to observe the effect of V. parvula on the physiological activity of S. mutans and elucidate the role of V. parvula on dental caries. DESIGN: We constructed dual-species biofilms formed by V. parvula and S. mutans, and measured the pH dynamics, biofilm growth, Extracellular Polysaccharide (EPS) synthesis, and expression of S. mutans EPS synthesis-associated genes affected by V. parvula. RESULTS: pH dynamics were not altered when V. parvula and S. mutans were co-cultured during a 120 -h test period. However, S. mutans cell number and EPS synthesis in dual-species biofilms were found to be significantly higher than in single-species biofilms. Moreover, expression levels of genes encoding glucosyltransferases (gtfs), gtfB and gtfC specifically, were up-regulated when S. mutans was co-cultured with V. parvula. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate that V. parvula is not, as previously thought, protective and associated with caries health. On the contrary, V. parvula might participate in caries development through interactions with S. mutans. This study suggests that V. parvula may have an impact on the pathogenesis of dental caries.


Assuntos
Biofilmes , Streptococcus mutans/fisiologia , Veillonella/fisiologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Técnicas de Cocultura , Cárie Dentária/microbiologia , Matriz Extracelular de Substâncias Poliméricas , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica , Glucosiltransferases/genética
10.
Sleep Breath ; 2019 Dec 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31873838

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) has been demonstrated to be associated with an increase of oxidative stress. However, whether circulating malondialdehyde (MDA), a widely used biomarker of oxidative stress, could be reduced by the treatment of OSA by continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is debated. The present meta-analysis was performed to determine the effect of CPAP treatment on circulating MDA among patients with OSA. METHODS: A systematic search of PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science was performed for literature covering the period between 1967 and August 2019. Standardized mean difference (SMD) was calculated to estimate the treatment effects of pre- and post-CPAP therapy. RESULTS: A total of 10 studies with 220 patients were included in this meta-analysis. A significant decrease in circulating MDA was observed after CPAP treatment (SMD = 1.164, 95% CI = 0.443 to 1.885, z = 3.16, p = 0.002) in OSA patients. Subgroup analyses revealed that CPAP therapy was associated with a significant decrease of circulating MDA in elder (SMD = 1.629, 95% CI = 0.265 to 2.994, z = 2.34, p = 0.019), more obese patients (SMD = 0.954, 95% CI = 0.435 to 1.473, z = 3.61, p = 0.000), more severe OSA patients (SMD = 0.879, 95% CI = 0.421 to 1.336, z = 3.76, p = 0.000), patients with therapeutic duration ≥ 3 months (SMD = 1.867, 95% CI = 0.563 to 3.172, z = 2.80, p = 0.005), and patients with good compliance (SMD = 1.004, 95% CI = 0.703 to 1.305, z = 6.54, p = 0.000). CONCLUSIONS: This meta-analysis suggested that CPAP therapy exerted significant lowering effects on circulating MDA, especially in elder, more obese, and more severe OSA patients and patients with good compliance as well as longer duration of CPAP application.

11.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 11(49): 45755-45762, 2019 Dec 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31729853

RESUMO

Recently, dual-ion batteries (DIBs) are regarded as a promising alternative to well-developed lithium-ion batteries, and the development of high-performance and abundant-sodium-based DIBs (SDIBs) is being intensively pursued. In this work, a novel SDIB composed of a phosphorus (P)-based anode and graphite (G) cathode is successfully constructed for the first time. This P-G SDIB shows a high working voltage of around 3.9 V, a high reversible capacity of 373 mA h/g, good rate capability, and long cyclability, which are superior to those of the most reported DIBs. The ex situ X-ray diffraction, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy tests reveal the insertion/extraction mechanism of Na+ ions into/from P-based anodes via reversible Na-P alloying reactions accompanied with high charge-storage capability. Moreover, the presodiation of P-based composites is found to be an efficient approach to boost the cycling performance of the P-G SDIB by forming a stable NaF-rich solid electrolyte interphase layer to alleviate electrolyte decomposition. Our results demonstrate that P-based SDIBs possess tremendous potential for practical electrochemical energy-storage applications.

12.
PLoS One ; 14(10): e0223665, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31618237

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We aim to explore the relationship between nocturnal sleep duration (NSD) and midday nap duration (MND) with body composition among Southwest Chinese adults. METHODS: Data on sleep duration of 3145 adults in Southwest China (59.4% women) were obtained between 2014 and 2015 through questionnaires. Height, weight, and waist circumference (WC) were measured to calculate body composition (body mass index (BMI), percentage of body fat (%BF), and fat mass index (FMI)). Linear regression models were used to assess gender-specific associations between NSD and body composition. The relationship between MND with the odds of overweight and central obesity has been evaluated by logistic regression models. RESULTS: NSD has the inverse relation with males' BMI, WC, %BF and FMI after adjusting for all covariates (all P <0.0007), exclusive of females' (all P >0.4). After adjustment for potential confounders, compared to the subjects in the no midday nap group, the subjects who napped 0.1-1 hour were independently associated with a less prevalence of overweight in both women (OR: 0.72, 95%CI: 0.55-0.95) and men (OR: 0.71, 95%CI: 0.52-0.98). MND was not associated with central obesity. CONCLUSIONS: Among Southwest Chinese adults, lower NSD might be related to higher BMI, WC, %BF and FMI among men. Additionally, MND is associated with overweight in adults.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Composição Corporal , Sono , Tecido Adiposo , Pesos e Medidas Corporais , China , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Vigilância em Saúde Pública
13.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2019: 4584936, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31636804

RESUMO

Purpose: The efficacy of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) therapy with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) on uric acid (UA) yielded conflicting results. This meta-analysis was performed to assess whether OSA treatment with CPAP could reduce UA levels. Methods: The Web of Science, Cochrane Library, Embase, and PubMed were searched before March 2019. Information of patients, study design, and pre- and post-CPAP treatment of UA was utilized for analysis. The overall effects were analyzed via the standardized mean difference (SMD) with a 95% confidence interval (CI). Five studies were obtained and the meta-analysis was performed using Stata 12.0 and Review Manager 5.2. Results: A total of 5 studies with 6 cohorts (2 RCT and 3 observational studies) involving 270 patients were pooled into meta-analysis. There was no change of UA levels before and after CPAP treatment in OSA patients (SMD = -0.20, 95% CI: -0.78 to 0.37, Z = 0.69, p = 0.49). Subgroup analysis showed that the outcomes were not affected by age of patients, gender distribution, baseline body mass index, daily duration, duration of CPAP treatment, sample size, and study design. Conclusions: This meta-analysis revealed that CPAP treatment has no effect on UA in OSA patients. Further well-designed, large-scale randomized controlled trials are required to address this issue.


Assuntos
Pressão Positiva Contínua nas Vias Aéreas/métodos , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/terapia , Ácido Úrico/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
14.
Exp Ther Med ; 18(5): 3775-3782, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31616509

RESUMO

Fulminant hepatic failure (FHF) is a clinical syndrome characterized by sudden and severe liver dysfunction. Apoptosis and inflammation are essential for the pathogenesis of FHF. Crocetin, the major component present in saffron, has been reported to possess anti-inflammatory and antioxidant functions; however, its role in FHF is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to explore the protective effects of crocetin against lipopolysac§§charide (LPS)/D-galactosamine (D-GalN)-induced FHF and the underlying mechanisms in a rat model. For the in vivo study, rats were assigned to the LPS/D-GalN group or to the crocetin pre-treatment+LPS/D- GalN group. Each group was then further divided according to the different LPS/D-GalN treatment times of 0, 6, 12 or 48 h. The results demonstrated that crocetin pre-treatment efficiently protected against LPS/D-GalN-induced FHF by improving liver tissue morphology, reducing total bilirubin generation and decreasing the activities of alanine transaminase and aspartate aminotransferase. Moreover, crocetin pre-treatment significantly decreased hepatocyte apoptosis, p53 mRNA expression and the expression of proteins in the caspase family and the Bcl-2 pro-apoptotic family following LPS/D-GalN treatment. Furthermore, crocetin also decreased the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the serum and in the liver via suppression of NF-κB activation, and also suppressed hepatic oxidative stress. In conclusion, crocetin protected against LPS/D-GalN-induced FHF and inhibited apoptosis, inflammation and oxidative stress. The underlying mechanisms may be related to the regulation of apoptotic proteins in the caspase family and the Bcl-2 family, as well as the modulation of NF-κB expression. Therefore, crocetin may be used as a novel therapy for preventing FHF.

15.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 58(46): 16451-16455, 2019 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31482655

RESUMO

Alloying anodes are promising high-capacity electrode materials for K-ion batteries (KIBs). However, KIBs based on alloying anodes suffer from rapid capacity decay due to the instability of K metal and large volume expansion of alloying anodes. Herein, the effects of salts and solvents on the cycling stability of KIBs based on a typical alloying anode such as amorphous red phosphorus (RP) are investigated, and the potassium bis(fluorosulfonyl)imide (KFSI) salt-based carbonate electrolyte is versatile to achieve simultaneous stabilization of K metal and RP electrodes for highly stable KIBs. This salt-solvent complex with a moderate solvation energy can alleviate side reactions between K metal and the electrolyte and facilitate K+ ion diffusion/desolvation. Moreover, robust SEI layers that form on K metal and RP electrodes can suppress K dendrite growth and resist RP volume change. This strategy of electrolyte regulation can be applicable to other alloying anodes for high-performance KIBs.

16.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 11(39): 35827-35834, 2019 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31507160

RESUMO

An in situ spectroscopy ellipsometry technique is utilized to probe the molecular ordering sequences of PBDB-T-2F/IT-4F/COi8DFIC ternary photovoltaic blends fabricated by bar-coating in air. The time-resolved dynamics show that the primary electron acceptor IT-4F aggregates ahead of the secondary acceptor COi8DFIC in the bar-coated photoactive layer, although the latter has much stronger crystallization ability. Wetting coefficient analysis supports that COi8DFIC locates at the interface between the host components PBDB-T-2F and IT-4F. We demonstrate that the suitable degree of phase separation with the presence of 20 wt % COi8DFIC facilitates exciton dissociation and charge transfer, leading to a remarkable power conversion efficiency of 13.2% as well as excellent stability of ternary organic solar cells (OSCs), which is among the highest reported efficiency for OSCs that were fabricated by scalable solution-casting in ambient conditions.

17.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 11(29): 26194-26203, 2019 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31283167

RESUMO

Fluorination of conjugated molecules has been established as an effective structural modification strategy to influence properties and has attracted extensive attention in organic solar cells (OSCs). Here, we have investigated optoelectronic and photovoltaic property changes of OSCs made of polymer donors with the non-fullerene acceptors (NFAs) ITIC and IEICO and their fluorinated counterparts IT-4F and IEICO-4F. Device studies show that fluorinated NFAs lead to reduced Voc but increased Jsc and fill-factor (FF), and therefore, the ultimate influence to efficiency depends on the compensation of Voc loss and gains of Jsc and FF. Fluorination lowers energy levels of NFAs, reduces their electronic band gaps, and red-shifts the absorption spectra. The impact of fluorination on the molecular order depends on the specific NFA, and the conversion of ITIC to IT-4F reduces the structural order, which can be reversed after blending with the donor PBDB-T. Contrastingly, IEICO-4F presents stronger π-π stacking after fluorination from IEICO, and this is further strengthened after blending with the donor PTB7-Th. The photovoltaic blends universally present a donor-rich surface region which can promote charge transport and collection toward the anode in inverted OSCs. The fluorination of NFAs, however, reduces the fraction of donors in this donor-rich region, consequently encouraging the intermixing of donor/acceptor for efficient charge generation.

18.
Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 50(1): 83-87, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31037910

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the associations of pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and gestational weight gain (GWG) with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). METHODS: A prospective cohort of pregnant women were screened for GDM at 24-28 weeks of gestation between 2013 and 2015, resulting in a sample of 3 593 with GDM and 15 346 without GDM. The body mass, plasma glucose, and height data of the participants were collected by the local medical workers. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to determine the associations of pre pregnancy body mass index and weight gain during pregnancy with GDM. RESULTS: The participants with pre pregnancy overweight [odds ratio(OR)=2.44, 95% cofidence interval(CI)1.98-2.99] and obesity (OR=4.98, 95%CI 2.52-9.91) were more likely to develop GDM. According to the Institute of Medicine (IOM) criteria, excessive GWG in the first trimester occurred in 8.46% of the women, compared with 55.07% in the second trimester. After adjustment for age at delivery and pre pregnancy BMI, high GWG in the first trimesters in advanced maternal age (age at delivery≥35 yr.) group (OR=1.42, 95%CI 1.02-2.28) was a risk factor for GDM while the OR value of the non-advanced maternal age (age at delivery≤35 yr.) group was not statistically significant. In second trimesters, both advanced maternal age group (OR=1.59, 95%CI 1.14-1.88) and non-advanced maternal age group (OR=1.49, 95%CI 1.20-1.72) in high GWG were associated with high risk of GDM. CONCLUSION: Pre pregnancy overweight and obesity and excessive GWG during early and second trimesters of pregnancy may increase the risk of GDM in women in Southwestern China.


Assuntos
Diabetes Gestacional , Índice de Massa Corporal , China , Feminino , Ganho de Peso na Gestação , Humanos , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos
19.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 551: 177-183, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31078099

RESUMO

The development of potassium-ion batteries (KIBs) are hampered by the lack of appropriate electrode materials allowing for the reversible insertion/de-insertion of the large K-ion. Iodine, as a conversion-type cathode for rechargeable batteries, has high theoretical capacity and excellent electrochemical reversibility, making it a potential cathode material for KIBs. However, due to the defects of iodine with the poor electronic conductivity and easy dissolution in the electrolyte, an intensive quest for iodine-based KIBs enabling high-performance potassium-ion storage is still underway. In this work, a high-efficiency capacitive K-I2 battery has been successfully achieved by constructing a nanocomposite of iodine encapsulated in mesoporous carbon (CMK-3). The as-prepared CMK-3/iodine nanocomposite exhibites excellent rate performance (89.3 mA h g-1 at 0.5 A g-1) and superior cycling stability, which remarkably exceeds most of reported KIBs cathode materials. Such a excellent electrochemical performance can be ascribed to the engineered structure of CMK-3/iodine hybridized electrode which can alleviate the impact of the shuttle phenomenon, improve electronic conductivity and facilitate ion diffusion. As a consequence, iodine within the conductive protecting CMK-3 can afford an extraordinary pseudo-capacitive potassium-ion storage, which sheds light on the development prospect of conversion-type electrode materials to meet urgent demand for advanced KIBs.

20.
Adv Mater ; 31(12): e1807874, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30714223

RESUMO

Bismuth is a promising anode material for state-of-the-art rechargeable batteries due to its high theoretical volumetric capacity and relatively low working potential. However, its charge storage mechanism is unclear, hindering further improvement of the cell performance. Here, using in situ transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction techniques as well as theoretical analysis, it is found that a large anisotropic volume expansion of 142% occurs along the z-axis largely due to the alloy reaction during sodiation, significantly reducing the electrochemical performance of bismuth electrodes. To address this problem, ultrathin few-layer bismuthene with a large aspect ratio is rationally synthesized, and can relieve the expansion strain along the z-axis. A free-standing bismuthene/graphene composite electrode with tunable thickness achieves a strikingly stable and high areal sodium storage capacity of 12.1 mAh cm-2 , which greatly exceeds that of most reported electrode materials. The clarification of the charge storage mechanism and the superior areal capacity achieved should facilitate the development of bismuth-based high-performance anodes for practical electrochemical energy-storage applications.

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