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1.
J Formos Med Assoc ; 119(1 Pt 1): 59-68, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31023506

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Currently, data on the real-world use of dronedarone, an antiarrhythmic drug for atrial fibrillation (AF), are contradictory and often based on patient populations comprised of Caucasians. We prospectively investigated the efficacy and safety of dronedarone and risk factors related to treatment outcomes in a real-world use setting. METHODS: The prospective, observational, single-arm, multi-center study included a total of 824 Taiwanese patients with a diagnosis of paroxysmal or persistent AF and receiving dronedarone treatment. Risk factors analysis, efficacy, and safety of dronedarone were assessed with a follow-up of six months. RESULTS: Of the 824 patients enrolled (mean age, 75.3 ± 7.2 years), 95.2% had at least one cardiovascular risk factor. An increase in the proportion of patients with sinus rhythm following treatment was seen (52.1% at baseline vs. 67.4% at 6 months). A decrease in the mean duration of AF episodes (388.4 min vs. 62.3 min) and an increase in total AFEQT (65.4 ± 16.2 vs. 74.0 ± 11.8) were also observed after 6 months of treatment. Females, those under the age of 75, and those with symptomatic AF had higher odds of treatment success. At 6 months, 10.5% of patients reported treatment-related AEs. However, only 0.2% of the AEs were both severe in nature and causally related to dronedarone. CONCLUSION: This six-month study showed dronedarone to be relatively safe and efficacious and to improve quality-of-life in Taiwanese patients with atrial fibrillation. Odds of treatment success were related to the patient's gender, age, and AF type.

2.
Heart ; 2019 Sep 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31558571

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Female sex is an inconsistent ischaemic stroke risk factor in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). We hypothesised that the ischaemic stroke risk varies with age among women compared with men. METHODS: We retrieved the patients with newly diagnosed AF during 2001-2013 from Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database. Patients with missing information, age <20 years, history of valvular heart disease and surgery, rheumatic heart disease, hyperthyroidism or anticoagulation and/or antiplatelet use were excluded. Propensity score matching (PSM) included patient comorbidities, medications and index date stratified by age and sex groups. Primary outcome was defined as ischaemic stroke at follow-up. RESULTS: After exclusion criteria, 87 369 men and 71 853 women remained for analysis (aged 73.1±14.4 years). After 1:1 PSM, we included 59 583 men (aged 73.5±13.7 years) and 59 583 women (aged 73.4±13.8 years) for analysis. We also stratified patients by age. The ischaemic stroke risk varied with age in women compared with men: lower in the ≤55 years (subdistribution HR (SHR)=0.75, 95% CI 0.62 to 0.90) and 56-65 years (SHR=0.87, 95% CI 0.78 to 0.98) groups, neutral in the 66-75 years group (SHR=1.01, 95% CI 0.94 to 1.08) and adverse in the >75 years group (SHR=1.14, 95% CI 1.09 to 1.19). CONCLUSIONS: The female/male ischaemic stroke risk ratio varied with age. Only women aged >75 years had a higher risk, whereas women aged <65 years had a lower risk compared with men. These findings challenge the 'sex category' component of the CHA2DS2-VASc score, used to make decision regarding anticoagulation treatment in AF patients.

3.
Pacing Clin Electrophysiol ; 42(11): 1421-1428, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31482578

RESUMO

AIMS: Pulmonary vein isolation (PVI) is an effective procedure for atrial fibrillation (AF). The role of additional cavotricuspid isthmus (CTI) block ablation remains controversial in AF patients without atrial flutter (AFL). Therefore, this study aimed to explore the clinical outcome of additional CTI block ablation in patients without AFL. METHODS: Between January 2013 and December 2017, a total of 139 patients who did not have documented AFL and who underwent catheter ablation for AF were recruited. Fifty-seven patients were classified in additional CTI block ablation group and 82 patients were classified in without CTI group. The incidence of early-onset and late-onset atrial arrhythmia recurrence was compared between the two groups. RESULTS: The additional CTI group had a higher prevalence of persistent or long-standing AF and larger left atrial volume. The additional CTI group had a higher incidence of late-onset atrial arrhythmia recurrence (38.6% vs 12.2%; P < .001). When compared to without CTI group, additional CTI therapy did not have a better outcome in terms of freedom of atrial arrhythmia in subgroup analysis. The incidence of early-onset and late-onset atrial arrhythmia recurrence did not differ between additional CTI group and without CTI group in paroxysmal AF patients and nonparoxysmal AF patients after propensity scoring matching. CONCLUSION: CTI block ablation in addition to PVI for AF patients without a history of AFL or inducible AFL during ablation may not improve the clinical outcome of AF ablation in the patients with larger LA volume, nonparoxysmal AF, or post-PVI inducible AF.

4.
Pacing Clin Electrophysiol ; 42(8): 1115-1124, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31222754

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Endocardial late fractionated potentials during sinus rhythm mapping may reflect abnormal "subendocardial" substrates associated with right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) ventricular arrhythmias (VAs). The aim of this study was to explore the clinical outcomes of catheter ablation guided by these late fractionated potentials for RVOT VAs in patients without structural heart disease. METHODS: From January 2016 to March 2018, 28 patients underwent catheter ablation for RVOT premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) or ventricular tachycardia (VT), guided by the EnSite NavX or Velocity V5.0 three-dimensional mapping system (Abbott, St. Paul, MN, USA). Among them, 10 patients (35.7%) were found to have endocardial late fractionated potentials during sinus rhythm mapping (Group 1). Group 2 was composed of 18 patients in whom no endocardial late fractionated potentials were seen. The burden of VAs, acute procedural success, and 3-month clinical outcomes were analyzed. RESULTS: The average duration of late fractionated potentials after the end of QRS during sinus rhythm mapping in group 1 was 45.00 ± 17.15 ms. Baseline demographics and morphology and burden of PVCs were similarly distributed between both groups. Group 1 had higher acute procedural success compared to group 2 (100% vs 66.7%; P = .039). Moreover, at 3-month follow-up, group 1 had lower total PVCs (49 (1-5986) versus 4316 (1-23231); P = .048), PVC burden (0% (0-5.9) vs 4.3% (0-18.9); P = .055), and higher clinical success (100% vs 55.6%; P = .025) compared to group 2. CONCLUSION: The identification and elimination of endocardial late fractionated potentials during sinus rhythm mapping could improve the acute success and short-term outcomes of ablation for RVOT VAs.

5.
ESC Heart Fail ; 6(4): 686-693, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31111655

RESUMO

AIMS: High demand right ventricular pacing may elicit left ventricular systolic dysfunction known as pacing-induced cardiomyopathy, increasing the risks of heart failure (HF) hospitalization. Percentage of demand ventricular pacing is different between patients with sick sinus syndrome (SSS) and those with complete atrioventricular block (CAVB). This study aims to compare the incidence of HF admission and pacing-induced cardiomyopathy between patients with SSS and CAVB. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 824 patients who received single ventricular or dual-chamber pacemaker implantation at our hospital between January 2003 and December 2012 were recruited for the study. Patients with HF, those without complete cardiac echocardiography, and those with significant coronary artery disease were excluded. Finally, 315 patients with SSS and 289 patients with CAVB were enrolled in this study. The CAVB group had a higher pacing percentage (39.37 ± 9.17% vs. 83.82 ± 33.06%; P < 0.001), longer pacing QRS duration (142.56 ± 33.02 ms vs. 156.63 ± 25.18 ms; P < 0.001), and higher prevalence of follow-up left ventricular ejection fraction ≤40% (1.3% vs. 4.2%; P = 0.040). However, the incidence of HF admission was similar between the two groups (log-rank P = 0.647). Age [hazard ratio (HR), 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.121, 1.054-1.193], diabetes mellitus (HR, 95% CI: 2.667, 1.159-6.136), pacing QRS duration ≥163 ms (HR, 95% CI: 3.506, 1.491-8.247), and left atrial size (HR, 95% CI: 1.070, 1.012-1.131) were independent predictors of HF admission. The Kaplan-Meier curve showed a significant difference in HF admission over a 3.5 year follow-up period (3.5 years: P value = 0.004; 5 years: P value = 0.002) between patients with pacing QRS duration ≥163 and <163 ms. CONCLUSIONS: There was no difference in HF admission between patients with SSS and CAVB, although the CAVB group had a higher pacing percentage. Post-pacemaker implant pacing QRS duration ≥163 ms was the most important predictor of HF admission.

6.
Pacing Clin Electrophysiol ; 42(7): 882-889, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31049997

RESUMO

AIMS: Catheter ablation has become an effective treatment modality for atrial fibrillation (AF). However, the relationship between common pulmonary vein (PV) and recurrent atrial tachyarrhythmia (ATA) after PV isolation (PVI) remains controversial. This study aimed to explore the function of common PV on the risk of recurrent ATA after PVI. METHODS: We identified a total of 191 patients who received radiofrequency catheter ablation for paroxysmal AF at our hospital between July 2010 and December 2017 for retrospective chart review. We collected the following data for analysis: results of preprocedural computed tomography, including the anatomy of PV and left atrial (LA) volume; the incidence of early- and late-onset recurrence of ATA. We compared these characteristics between the two groups defined by the presence or absence of the late-onset recurrence of ATA. RESULTS: Compared to the no ATA recurrence group, the ATA recurrence group had larger LA size, larger LA end-diastolic and systolic volumes, larger maximal diameter of PV, higher prevalence of common PV, and higher incidence of early-onset recurrence of ATA. In multivariate logistic regression analyses, presence of common PV and early-onset recurrence were independently associated with late-onset recurrence of ATA. Compared to patients without common PV, patients with common PV had larger diameter of PV and higher incidence of late-onset recurrent ATA. CONCLUSION: In patients with paroxysmal AF, early-onset recurrence of ATA and the presence of common PV were independently associated with late-onset recurrent ATA after radiofrequency catheter ablation.

7.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 8(1): e009146, 2019 01 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30612502

RESUMO

Background The molecular mechanisms through which high-demand pacing induce myocardial dysfunction remain unclear. Methods and Results We created atrioventricular block in pigs using dependent right ventricular septal pacing for 6 months. Echocardiography was performed to evaluate dyssynchrony between pacing (n=6) and sham control (n=6) groups. Microarray and enrichment analyses were used to identify differentially expressed genes ( DEG s) in the left ventricular ( LV ) myocardium between pacing and sham control groups. Histopathological and protein changes were also analyzed and an A cell pacing model was also performed. Pacing significantly increased mechanical dyssynchrony. Enrichment analysis using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis and the activation z-score analysis method demonstrated that there were 5 DEG s ( ABCA 1, APOD , CLU , LY 96, and SERPINF 1) in the LV septum (z-score=-0.447) and 5 DEG s ( APOD , CLU , LY 96, MSR 1, and SERPINF 1) in the LV free wall (z-score=-1.000) inhibited the liver X receptor/retinoid X receptor ( LXR / RXR ) pathway, and 4 DEG s ( ACTA 2, MYL 1, PPP 2R3A, and SNAI 2) activated the integrin-linked kinase ( ILK ) pathway in the LV septum (z-score=1.000). The pacing group had a larger cell size, higher degree of myolysis and fibrosis, and increased expression of intracellular lipid, inflammatory cytokines, and apoptotic markers than the sham control group. The causal relationships between pacing and DEG s related to LXR / RXR and ILK pathways, apoptosis, fibrosis, and lipid expression after pacing were confirmed in the cell pacing model. Luciferase reporter assay in the cell pacing model also supported inhibition of the LXR pathway by pacing. Conclusions Right ventricular septal-dependent pacing was associated with persistent LV dyssynchrony-induced cardiomyopathy through inhibition of the LXR / RXR pathway.


Assuntos
Cardiomiopatias/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Ventrículos do Coração/metabolismo , Receptores X do Fígado/genética , Miócitos Cardíacos/metabolismo , Receptores X Retinoide/genética , Animais , Apoptose , Western Blotting , Cardiomiopatias/diagnóstico , Cardiomiopatias/etiologia , Células Cultivadas , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Ecocardiografia , Eletrocardiografia , Feminino , Citometria de Fluxo , Ventrículos do Coração/patologia , Receptores X do Fígado/metabolismo , Miócitos Cardíacos/patologia , Marca-Passo Artificial/efeitos adversos , RNA/genética , Receptores X Retinoide/metabolismo , Suínos , Porco Miniatura
8.
Europace ; 21(2): 313-321, 2019 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30107472

RESUMO

Aims: Anticoagulation therapy is indicated to prevent stroke in atrial flutter (AFL) and atrial fibrillation (AF) patients. However, the outcomes of solitary AFL patients may differ from those with AFL who develop AF during follow-up. This study aimed to investigate the differences in clinical outcomes: (i) among patients with solitary AFL, AF, and AFL developing AF thereafter and (ii) between solitary AFL patients with vs. without anticoagulation therapy. Methods and results: This nationwide cohort study enrolled patients with solitary AFL, solitary AF, and AFL developing AF from a 12 years National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan. There were 230 367 patients without anticoagulation therapy in the solitary AF cohort, 8064 in the solitary AFL cohort, and 4495 in the AFL with AF cohort. The AFL with AF and solitary AF cohorts had higher incidences of ischaemic stroke and major bleeding than the solitary AFL cohort. Solitary AFL patients with anticoagulation therapy had a lower ischaemic stroke rate than those without (P < 0.05) at the level of a CHA2DS2-VASc score ≥3. Solitary AFL patients with anticoagulation therapy had a higher intracranial haemorrhage rate than those without (P < 0.05) at the level of a CHA2DS2-VASc score ≤3. Net clinical outcomes including ischaemic stroke, systemic embolization, and major bleeding favoured anticoagulation use in solitary AFL patients with a CHA2DS2-VASc score ≥4. Conclusion: Solitary AFL patients without anticoagulation therapy had better clinical outcomes than AFL patients developing AF in this study. Anticoagulation therapy may offer the best net clinical outcome for solitary AFL patients with a CHA2DS2-VASc score ≥4.

9.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 28(1): 90-96, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30301596

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There are few reports about non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulant (NOAC) treatment for resolution of left atrium (LA) or left atrial appendage (LAA) thrombus. LAA thrombus is an important cause of cardiogenic cerebral thromboembolism, and the detection rate increases due to more and more patients receiving catheter ablation. However, the results from NOAC use for LA or LAA thrombus are still unknown in real-world practice. The aim of this study was to discover the resolution of LA or LAA thrombus after anticoagulant treatment in real-world practice. METHOD: From January 2013 to December 2016, a total 864 patients underwent transesophageal echocardiography (TEE), and 41 cases of LA or LAA thrombus were detected in our hospital. Among them, a total of 22 patients underwent follow-up TEE to detect the resolution of LA or LAA thrombus. RESULT: The average age of the study patients was 72.0 ± 11 years old, and 61% were male. The average CHA2DS2-VASc scores were 3.76 ± 2.01 points. A total of 22 patients underwent follow-up TEE, and 19 (86.4%) patients presented LA or LAA thrombus resolution. The average resolution duration was 258.47 ± 218.17 days. One-year all-cause mortality was 4.9%, and the incidence of ischemic stroke was 4.9%. Most physicians favored titration of the dosage of NOAC or warfarin in real-world practice. CONCLUSION: In real-world practice, most physicians favored titration of the dosage of NOAC or warfarin for LA or LAA thrombus. LA or LAA thrombus could exist if the patient received a reduced dose of NOAC. High frequency of LAA or LA thrombi could resolve, and a low incidence of ischemic stroke occurred after adjustment of oral anticoagulant treatment.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Cardiopatias/tratamento farmacológico , Trombose/tratamento farmacológico , Administração Oral , Assistência ao Convalescente , Idoso , Isquemia Encefálica/epidemiologia , Feminino , Átrios do Coração , Cardiopatias/diagnóstico por imagem , Cardiopatias/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Trombose/diagnóstico por imagem , Trombose/epidemiologia , Resultado do Tratamento
10.
Dis Markers ; 2018: 6924608, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30581499

RESUMO

Background: Left atrial enlargement is a mortality and heart failure risk factor in primary mitral regurgitation (MR) patients. Pig models of MR have shown differential expression of genes linked to the renin-angiotensin system. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the key genes of the renin-angiotensin that are expressed differentially in the left atrial myocardium in MR patients. Methods: Quantitative RT-PCR was used to compare gene expression in the renin-angiotensin system in the left atrium in MR patients, aortic valve disease patients, and normal subjects. Results: Plasma angiotensin II concentrations did not significantly differ between MR patients and aortic valve disease patients (P = 0.582). Compared to normal controls, however, MR patients had significantly downregulated expressions of angiotensin-converting enzyme, angiotensin I converting enzyme 2, type 1 angiotensin II receptor, glutamyl aminopeptidase, angiotensinogen, cathepsin A (CTSA), thimet oligopeptidase 1, neurolysin, alanyl aminopeptidase, cathepsin G, leucyl/cystinyl aminopeptidase (LNPEP), neprilysin, and carboxypeptidase A3 in the left atrium. The MR patients also had significantly upregulated expressions of MAS1 oncogene (MAS1) and mineralocorticoid receptor compared to normal controls. Additionally, in comparison with aortic valve disease patients, MR patients had significantly downregulated CTSA and LNPEP expression and significantly upregulated MAS1 expression in the left atrium. Conclusions: Expressions of genes in the renin-angiotensin system, especially CTSA, LNPEP, and MAS1, in the left atrium in MR patients significantly differed from expressions of these genes in aortic valve disease patients and normal controls. Notably, differences in expression were independent of circulating angiotensin II levels. The results of this study provide a rationale for pharmacological therapies or posttranslational regulation therapies targeting genes expressed differentially in the renin-angiotensin system to remedy structural remodeling associated with atrial enlargement and heart failure progression in patients with MR.


Assuntos
Função Atrial/genética , Átrios do Coração , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/genética , Sistema Renina-Angiotensina/genética , Idoso , Angiotensina II/análise , Angiotensina II/sangue , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Catepsina A/genética , Cistinil Aminopeptidase/genética , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/genética , Doenças das Valvas Cardíacas/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas/genética , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas-G/genética
11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 19(12)2018 Dec 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30567295

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lipid expression is increased in the atrial myocytes of mitral regurgitation (MR) patients. This study aimed to investigate key regulatory genes and mechanisms of atrial lipotoxic myopathy in MR. METHODS: The HL-1 atrial myocytes were subjected to uniaxial cyclic stretching for eight hours. Fatty acid metabolism, lipoprotein signaling, and cholesterol metabolism were analyzed by PCR assay (168 genes). RESULTS: The stretched myocytes had significantly larger cell size and higher lipid expression than non-stretched myocytes (all p < 0.001). Fatty acid metabolism, lipoprotein signaling, and cholesterol metabolism in the myocytes were analyzed by PCR assay (168 genes). In comparison with their counterparts in non-stretched myocytes, seven genes in stretched monocytes (Idi1, Olr1, Nr1h4, Fabp2, Prkag3, Slc27a5, Fabp6) revealed differential upregulation with an altered fold change >1.5. Nine genes in stretched monocytes (Apoa4, Hmgcs2, Apol8, Srebf1, Acsm4, Fabp1, Acox2, Acsl6, Gk) revealed differential downregulation with an altered fold change <0.67. Canonical pathway analysis, using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis software, revealed that the only genes in the "superpathway of cholesterol biosynthesis" were Idi1 (upregulated) and Hmgcs2 (downregulated). The fraction of stretched myocytes expressing Nile red was significantly decreased by RNA interference of Idi1 (p < 0.05) and was significantly decreased by plasmid transfection of Hmgcs2 (p = 0.004). CONCLUSIONS: The Idi1 and Hmgcs2 genes have regulatory roles in atrial lipotoxic myopathy associated with atrial enlargement.


Assuntos
Isomerases de Ligação Dupla Carbono-Carbono/genética , Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Sintase/genética , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/genética , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/genética , Linhagem Celular , Colesterol/genética , Colesterol/metabolismo , Citometria de Fluxo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/genética , Átrios do Coração/metabolismo , Átrios do Coração/fisiopatologia , Hemiterpenos , Humanos , Lipídeos/genética , Lipoproteínas/genética , Lipoproteínas/metabolismo , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/metabolismo , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/fisiopatologia , Miócitos Cardíacos/metabolismo , Miócitos Cardíacos/patologia , Transdução de Sinais
13.
PeerJ ; 6: e5312, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30038875

RESUMO

Background: The use of an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) has been established as an effective secondary prevention strategy for ventricular tachycardia (VT)/ventricular fibrillation (VF). However, few reports discuss the difference in clinical predictors for recurrent VT/VF between patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy (ICM) and patients with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). Methods: From May 2004 to December 2015, 132 consecutive patients who had ICM (n = 94) or DCM (n = 38) and had received ICD implantation for secondary prevention were enrolled in this study. All anti-tachycardia events during follow-up were validated. The clinical characteristics and echocardiographic parameters were obtained for comparison. The incidence of recurrence of VT/VF, cardiovascular mortality, all-cause mortality, the change of left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and LV volume were analyzed. Results: At a mean follow-up of 3.62 ± 2.93 years, 34 patients (36.2%) in the ICM group and 22 patients (57.9%) in the DCM group had a recurrence of VT/VF episodes (p = 0.032). The DCM group had a lower LVEF (p = 0.019), a larger LV end-diastolic volume (LVEDV) (p = 0.001), a higher prevalence of LVEDV >158 mL (p = 0.010), and a larger LV end-systolic volume (p = 0.010) than the ICM group. LVEDV >158 mL and no use of angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitor/angiotensin receptor blocker were independent predictors of recurrences of VT/VF in ICM patients but not in DCM patients. There were no difference in cardiovascular mortality and all-cause mortality between the ICM and DCM patients. Conclusion: The DCM patients had a higher recurrence rate of VT/VF than did the ICM patients during long-term follow-up. An enlarged LV is an independent predictor of the recurrence of VT/VF in ICM patients receiving ICD for secondary prevention.

14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29897627

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Currently, several geographies around the world remain underrepresented in medical device trials. The PANORAMA 2 study was designed to assess contemporary region-specific differences in clinical practice patterns of patients with cardiac implantable electronic devices (CIEDs). METHODS: In this prospective, multicenter, observational, multinational study, baseline and implant data of 4,706 patients receiving Medtronic CIEDs (Medtronic plc, Minneapolis, MN, USA; either de novo device implants, replacements, or upgrades) were analyzed, consisting of: 54% implantable pulse generators (IPGs), 20.3% implantable cardiac defibrillators (ICDs), 15% cardiac resynchronization therapy -defibrillators, and 5.1% cardiac resynchronization therapy -pacemakers, from 117 hospitals in 23 countries across four geographical regions between 2012 and 2016. RESULTS: For all device types, in all regions, there were fewer females than males enrolled, and women were less likely to have ischemic cardiomyopathy. Implant procedure duration differed significantly across the geographies for all device types. Subjects from emerging countries, women, and older patients were less likely to receive a magnetic resonance imaging-compatible device. Defibrillation testing differed significantly between the regions. European patients had the highest rates of atrial fibrillation (AF), and the lowest number of implanted single-chamber IPGs. Evaluation of stroke history suggested that the general embolic risk is more strongly associated with stroke than AF. CONCLUSIONS: We provide comprehensive descriptive data on patients receiving Medtronic CIEDs from several geographies, some of which are understudied in randomized controlled trials. We found significant variations in patient characteristics. Several medical decisions appear to be affected by socioeconomic factors. Long-term follow-up data will help evaluate if these variations require adjustments to outcome expectations.

15.
JAMA Netw Open ; 1(4): e180941, 2018 08 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30646091

RESUMO

Importance: Current guidelines support treating atrial fibrillation (AF) and atrial flutter (AFL) as equivalent risk factors for ischemic stroke stratified by CHA2DS2-VASc scores, recommending anticoagulation therapy for patients with a CHA2DS2-VASc score of 2 or higher, but some studies found differences in clinical outcomes. Objective: To investigate differences in clinical outcomes among AF, AFL, and matched control cohorts. Design, Setting, and Participants: This nationwide cohort study analyzed data from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database from January 1, 2001, through December 31, 2012. Follow-up and data analysis ended December 31, 2012. A total of 219 416 age- and sex-matched individuals participated in the study. Clinical outcomes were compared after stratification by CHA2DS2-VASc score (possible score range, 0-9; higher scores indicate greater risk of ischemic stroke). Main Outcomes and Measures: Ischemic stroke, heart failure hospitalization, and all-cause mortality among the AF, AFL, and matched control cohorts were analyzed using Cox proportional hazards regression. Results: This study comprised 188 811 patients in the AF cohort (mean [SD] age, 73.8 [13.4] years; 104 703 [55.5%] male), 6121 patients in the AFL cohort (mean [SD] age, 67.7 [15.8] years; 3735 [61.0%] male), and 24 484 patients in the matched control cohort (mean [SD] age, 67.3 [15.6] years; 14 940 [61.0%] male). The patients with AF were older, were more predominantly female, and had higher CHA2DS2-VASc scores than the patients with AFL and the control participants. After stratification by CHA2DS2-VASc score, the incidence densities (IDs; events per 100 person-years) of ischemic stroke (AF cohort: ID, 3.08; 95% CI, 3.03-3.13; AFL cohort: ID, 1.45; 95% CI, 1.28-1.62; controls: ID, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.92-1.03), heart failure hospitalization (AF cohort: ID, 3.39; 95% CI, 3.34-3.44; AFL cohort: ID, 1.57; 95% CI, 1.39-1.74; controls: ID, 0.32; 95% CI, 0.29-0.35), and all-cause mortality (AF cohort: ID, 17.8; 95% CI, 17.7-17.9; AFL cohort: ID, 13.9; 95% CI, 13.4-14.4; controls: ID, 4.2; 95% CI, 4.1-4.4) were significantly higher in the AF cohort than in the matched control cohort. For the AFL cohort vs the matched control cohort, the incidences of heart failure hospitalization and all-cause mortality were significantly higher across all levels, but the incidence of ischemic stroke was only significantly higher at CHA2DS2-VASc scores of 5 to 9. For the AF cohort vs the AFL cohort, the incidences of ischemic stroke and heart failure hospitalization were significantly higher at a CHA2DS2-VASc score of 1 or higher, but the incidence of all-cause mortality was significantly higher only at CHA2DS2-VASc scores of 1 to 3. Conclusions and Relevance: This study found different clinical outcomes between patients with AFL and AF and those without AF and AFL. The current recommended level of the CHA2DS2-VASc score in preventing ischemic stroke in patients with AFL should be reevaluated.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Flutter Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Fibrilação Atrial/complicações , Flutter Atrial/complicações , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 6(7)2017 Jul 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28733435

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Atrial flutter (AFL) has been identified to be equivalent to atrial fibrillation (AF) in terms of preventing ischemic stroke, although differences exist in atrial rate, substrate, and electrophysiological mechanisms. This study aimed to investigate differences in clinical outcomes between nonvalvular AF and AFL. METHODS AND RESULTS: AF and AFL patients without any prescribed anticoagulation were enrolled from a 13-year national cohort database. Under series exclusion criteria, ischemic stroke, heart failure hospitalization, and all-cause mortality were compared between the groups in real-world conditions and after propensity score matching. We identified 175 420 patients in the AF cohort and 6239 patients in the AFL cohort, and the prevalence of most comorbidities and frequency of medications were significantly higher in the AF group than the AFL group. In the real-world setting the AF patients had higher incidence rates of ischemic stroke, heart failure hospitalization, and all-cause mortality than the AFL patients (all P<0.001). After propensity score matching, the incidence rate of ischemic stroke in the AF cohort was 1.63-fold higher than in the AFL cohort (P<0.001), the incidence rate of heart failure hospitalization in the AF cohort was 1.70-fold higher than in the AFL cohort (P<0.001), and the incidence rate of all-cause mortality in the AF cohort was 1.08-fold higher than in the AFL cohort (P=0.002). CONCLUSIONS: There were differences between AF and AFL in comorbidities and prognosis with regard to ischemic stroke, heart failure hospitalization, and all-cause mortality.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial/mortalidade , Flutter Atrial/mortalidade , Isquemia Encefálica/mortalidade , Insuficiência Cardíaca/mortalidade , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/mortalidade , Idoso , Fibrilação Atrial/diagnóstico , Fibrilação Atrial/terapia , Flutter Atrial/diagnóstico , Flutter Atrial/terapia , Isquemia Encefálica/diagnóstico , Isquemia Encefálica/terapia , Causas de Morte , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , Comorbidade , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/terapia , Hospitalização , Humanos , Incidência , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Prognóstico , Pontuação de Propensão , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/terapia , Taiwan/epidemiologia , Fatores de Tempo
17.
J Thorac Dis ; 9(12): 5176-5183, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29312724

RESUMO

Background: The radiofrequency (RF) maze procedure can effectively restore sinus rhythm in most patients with persistent atrial fibrillation (AF) and mitral disease. However, long-term results and predictors for late AF recurrence are still under investigation. Methods: From December 1995 to November 2011, 207 consecutive patients with persistent AF and mitral disease underwent RF maze procedure and concomitant mitral surgery. The mean age was 54±12.4 year-old. Mitral surgery was performed in all patients and concomitant procedures including tricuspid surgery, aortic valve surgery, and atrial septal defect closure were carried on 164 patients. Results: The in-hospital mortality was 3.9% (n=8) and late mortality was 8.2% (n=17). After a mean follow-up period of 101±50.9 months, 154 patients (74.4%) had long-term sinus conversion. A permanent pacer was implanted in 8 patients (3.9%). By Cox multivariate survival regression analysis, predictors for long-term sinus conversion were identified to be the duration of persistent AF, preoperative left atrial (LA) diameter, preoperative right atrial (RA) area, and preoperative beta-blocker use. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis showed that the best cutoff value for persistent AF duration, preoperative LA diameter, and preoperative RA area were 59.5 months, 59.85 mm, and 25.65 cm2. Conclusions: Longer persistent AF duration, larger preoperative LA diameter, larger preoperative RA area and preoperative beta-blocker use were the predictors for negative long-term outcome of RF maze procedure for the patients with persistent AF underwent concomitant mitral surgery. Timely referral of patients for surgery is mandatory.

18.
PLoS One ; 11(12): e0166791, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27907007

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Left atrial enlargement in mitral regurgitation (MR) predicts a poor prognosis. The regulatory mechanisms of atrial myocyte hypertrophy of MR patients remain unknown. METHODS AND RESULTS: This study comprised 14 patients with MR, 7 patients with aortic valve disease (AVD), and 6 purchased samples from normal subjects (NC). We used microarrays, enrichment analysis and quantitative RT-PCR to study the gene expression profiles in the left atria. Microarray results showed that 112 genes were differentially up-regulated and 132 genes were differentially down-regulated in the left atria between MR patients and NC. Enrichment analysis of differentially expressed genes demonstrated that "NFAT in cardiac hypertrophy" pathway was not only one of the significant associated canonical pathways, but also the only one predicted with a non-zero score of 1.34 (i.e. activated) through Ingenuity Pathway Analysis molecule activity predictor. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis Global Molecular Network analysis exhibited that the highest score network also showed high association with cardiac related pathways and functions. Therefore, 5 NFAT associated genes (PPP3R1, PPP3CB, CAMK1, MEF2C, PLCE1) were studies for validation. The mRNA expressions of PPP3CB and MEF2C were significantly up-regulated, and CAMK1 and PPP3R1 were significantly down-regulated in MR patients compared to NC. Moreover, MR patients had significantly increased mRNA levels of PPP3CB, MEF2C and PLCE1 compared to AVD patients. The atrial myocyte size of MR patients significantly exceeded that of the AVD patients and NC. CONCLUSIONS: Differentially expressed genes in the "NFAT in cardiac hypertrophy" pathway may play a critical role in the atrial myocyte hypertrophy of MR patients.


Assuntos
Calcineurina/biossíntese , Proteína Quinase Tipo 1 Dependente de Cálcio-Calmodulina/biossíntese , Cardiomegalia/genética , Cardiopatias Congênitas/genética , Doenças das Valvas Cardíacas/genética , Fosfoinositídeo Fosfolipase C/biossíntese , Idoso , Valva Aórtica/fisiopatologia , Calcineurina/genética , Proteína Quinase Tipo 1 Dependente de Cálcio-Calmodulina/genética , Cardiomegalia/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/genética , Átrios do Coração/metabolismo , Átrios do Coração/patologia , Cardiopatias Congênitas/fisiopatologia , Doenças das Valvas Cardíacas/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Fatores de Transcrição MEF2/biossíntese , Fatores de Transcrição MEF2/genética , Masculino , Análise em Microsséries , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/genética , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/fisiopatologia , Miócitos Cardíacos/patologia , Fosfoinositídeo Fosfolipase C/genética , RNA Mensageiro/biossíntese
19.
BMC Cardiovasc Disord ; 16(1): 231, 2016 11 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27871248

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) is an effective treatment for secondary prevention of ventricular tachycardia/ventricular fibrillation (VT/VF). Left ventricular (LV) remodeling may develop before ICD implant and over time. However, it remains unclear how LV remodeling affects subsequent risk for recurrence VT/VF in ICD recipients under optimal medical therapy. METHODS: From May of 2004 to June of 2015, 144 patients received ICD implantation for secondary prevention were enrolled in this study. All information interrogated from ICD devices during follow-up or ICD therapy history (anti-tachycardia pacing and shock therapy) were reviewed and validated the occurrences of VT/VF. RESULTS: At a mean follow-up of 1110.5 ± 860.6 days, 53 patients (36.8%) had recurrence of VT/VF episodes and 91 patients had no recurrence of VT/VF episode after ICD implant. Left ventricular end-diastolic volume (LVEDV) > 163.5 mL had significant predictive value for VT/VF recurrence (area under the curve: 0.602, p = 0.041). Moreover, the percentage of patients with LVEDV >163.5 mL was significantly higher in patients with recurrent VT/VF than patients without recurrent VT/VF (62.3 vs 40.0%, p = 0.010). Left ventricular ejection fraction ≤ 30% (p = 0.031), LVEDV > 163.5 mL (p = 0.012) and QRS width > 125 msec (p = 0.049) were significant predictors for VT/VF recurrence by univariate Cox regression analysis. However, only LVEDV > 163.5 mL (hazard ratio: 2.549, 95% confidence interval: 1.249 ~ 5.201, p = 0.010) and QRS width > 125 msec (hazard ratio: 2.173, 95% confidence interval: 1.030 ~ 4.586, p = 0.042) were independent predictors for recurrence of VT/VF after multivariable adjustment. CONCLUSION: LV remodeling and QRS width > 125 msec were independent predictors for VT/VF recurrence in secondary prevention ICD recipients under optimal medical therapy, independent of LV ejection fraction.


Assuntos
Desfibriladores Implantáveis , Sistema de Condução Cardíaco/fisiopatologia , Prevenção Secundária/métodos , Taquicardia Ventricular/prevenção & controle , Função Ventricular Esquerda/fisiologia , Remodelação Ventricular/fisiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Taquicardia Ventricular/fisiopatologia , Fatores de Tempo
20.
J Formos Med Assoc ; 115(11): 893-952, 2016 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27890386

RESUMO

Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common sustained arrhythmia. Both the incidence and prevalence of AF are increasing, and the burden of AF is becoming huge. Many innovative advances have emerged in the past decade for the diagnosis and management of AF, including a new scoring system for the prediction of stroke and bleeding events, the introduction of non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants and their special benefits in Asians, new rhythm- and rate-control concepts, optimal endpoints of rate control, upstream therapy, life-style modification to prevent AF recurrence, and new ablation techniques. The Taiwan Heart Rhythm Society and the Taiwan Society of Cardiology aimed to update the information and have appointed a jointed writing committee for new AF guidelines. The writing committee members comprehensively reviewed and summarized the literature, and completed the 2016 Guidelines of the Taiwan Heart Rhythm Society and the Taiwan Society of Cardiology for the Management of Atrial Fibrillation. This guideline presents the details of the updated recommendations, along with their background and rationale, focusing on data unique for Asians. The guidelines are not mandatory, and members of the writing committee fully realize that treatment of AF should be individualized. The physician's decision remains most important in AF management.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Fibrilação Atrial/terapia , Cardiologia , Ablação por Cateter/métodos , Hemorragia/etiologia , Humanos , Sociedades Médicas , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle , Taiwan
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