Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 99
Filtrar
1.
Cancer Commun (Lond) ; 39(1): 75, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31730020

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The National Comprehensive Cancer Network guidelines recommend intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) as the primary curative treatment for newly diagnosed nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), but the radiation-related complications and relatively high medical costs remain a consequential burden for the patients. Endoscopic nasopharyngectomy (ENPG) was successfully applied in recurrent NPC with radiation free and relatively low medical costs. In this study, we examined whether ENPG could be an effective treatment for localized stage I NPC. METHODS: Ten newly diagnosed localized stage I NPC patients voluntarily received ENPG alone from June 2007 to September 2017 in Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center. Simultaneously, the data of 329 stage I NPC patients treated with IMRT were collected and used as a reference cohort. The survival outcomes, quality of life (QOL), and medical costs between two groups were compared. RESULTS: After a median follow-up of 59.0 months (95% CI 53.4-64.6), no death, locoregional recurrence, or distant metastasis was observed in the 10 patients treated with ENPG. The 5-year overall survival, local relapse-free survival, regional relapse-free survival, and distant metastasis-free survival among the ENPG-treated patients was similar to that among the IMRT-treated patients (100% vs. 99.1%, 100% vs. 97.7%, 100% vs. 99.0%, 100% vs. 97.4%, respectively, P > 0.05). In addition, compared with IMRT, ENPG was associated with decreased total medical costs ($ 4090.42 ± 1502.65 vs. $ 12620.88 ± 4242.65, P < 0.001) and improved QOL scores including dry mouth (3.3 ± 10.5 vs. 34.4 ± 25.8, P < 0.001) and sticky saliva (3.3 ± 10.5 vs. 32.6 ± 23.3, P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: ENPG alone was associated with promising long-term survival outcomes, low medical costs, and satisfactory QOL and might therefore be an alternative strategy for treating newly diagnosed localized stage I NPC patients who refused radiotherapy. However, the application of ENPG should be prudent, and prospective clinical trials were needed to further verify the results.

2.
Cancer Res ; 79(23): 5930-5943, 2019 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31484669

RESUMO

The genetic events occurring in recurrent nasopharyngeal carcinoma (rNPC) are poorly understood. Here, we performed whole-genome and whole-exome sequencing in 55 patients with rNPC and 44 primarily diagnosed NPC (pNPC), with 7 patients having paired rNPC and pNPC samples. Previously published pNPC exome data were integrated for analysis. rNPC and pNPC tissues had similar mutational burdens, however, the number of clonal mutations was increased in rNPC samples. TP53 and three NF-κB pathway components (TRAF3, CYLD, and NFKBIA) were significantly mutated in both pNPC and rNPC. Notably, mutations in TRAF3, CYLD, and NFKBIA were all clonal in rNPC, however, 55.6% to 57.9% of them were clonal in pNPC. In general, the number of clonal mutations in NF-κB pathway-associated genes was significantly higher in rNPC than in pNPC. The NF-κB mutational clonality was selected and/or enriched during NPC recurrence. The amount of NF-κB translocated to the nucleus in samples with clonal NF-κB mutants was significantly higher than that in samples with subclonal NF-κB mutants. Moreover, the nuclear abundance of NF-κB protein was significantly greater in pNPC samples with locoregional relapse than in those without relapse. Furthermore, high nuclear NF-κB levels were an independent negative prognostic marker for locoregional relapse-free survival in pNPC. Finally, inhibition of NF-κB enhanced both radiosensitivity and chemosensitivity in vitro and in vivo. In conclusion, NF-κB pathway activation by clonal mutations plays an important role in promoting the recurrence of NPC. Moreover, nuclear accumulation of NF-κB is a prominent biomarker for predicting locoregional relapse-free survival. SIGNIFICANCE: This study uncovers genetic events that promote the progression and recurrence of nasopharyngeal carcinoma and has potential prognostic and therapeutic implications.See related commentary by Sehgal and Barbie, p. 5915.

3.
Eur J Cancer ; 119: 87-96, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31425966

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Initial 3-year results from our clinical trial in locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients showed that induction chemotherapy (IC) with cisplatin and fluorouracil resulted in improved disease-free survival (DFS) with a marginally significant effect on distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS), but the effect of IC on locoregional relapse-free survival and overall survival (OS) did not differ significantly. Here, we present 5-year follow-up results. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Our trial was a randomised, open-label phase III trial comparing IC followed by concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) versus CCRT alone in patients with stage III-IVB (except T3N0-1) NPC. The IC followed by CCRT group received cisplatin (80 mg/m2 d1) and fluorouracil (800 mg/m2 d1-5) every 3 weeks for two cycles before CCRT. Both groups were treated with 80 mg/m2 cisplatin every 3 weeks concurrently with radiotherapy. The primary end-points were DFS and DMFS. We did efficacy analyses in the 476 randomised patients (intention-to-treat population). RESULTS: After a median follow-up of 82.6 months, the 5-year DFS rate was 73.4% (95% confidence interval [CI] 67.7-79.1) in the IC followed by CCRT group and 63.1% (95% CI 56.8-69.4) in the CCRT alone group (p = 0.007). The 5-year DMFS rate was also significantly higher in the IC followed by CCRT group (82.8%, 95% CI 77.9-87.7) than in the CCRT alone group (73.1%, 95% CI 67.2-79.0, p = 0.014). Our updated analysis revealed an OS benefit of IC: the 5-year OS rate was 80.8% in the IC followed by CCRT group versus 76.8% in the CCRT alone group (p = 0.040). The proportion of patients with eye damage was significantly higher in the CCRT alone group than the IC followed by CCRT group (16.4% [39/238] versus 9.7% [23/238], p = 0.029). CONCLUSION: IC followed by CCRT provides long-term DFS, DMFS and OS benefits compared with CCRT alone in locoregionally advanced NPC and, therefore, can be recommended for these patients.

4.
Nat Genet ; 51(7): 1131-1136, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31209392

RESUMO

Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection is ubiquitous worldwide and is associated with multiple cancers, including nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). The importance of EBV viral genomic variation in NPC development and its striking epidemic in southern China has been poorly explored. Through large-scale genome sequencing of 270 EBV isolates and two-stage association study of EBV isolates from China, we identify two non-synonymous EBV variants within BALF2 that are strongly associated with the risk of NPC (odds ratio (OR) = 8.69, P = 9.69 × 10-25 for SNP 162476_C; OR = 6.14, P = 2.40 × 10-32 for SNP 163364_T). The cumulative effects of these variants contribute to 83% of the overall risk of NPC in southern China. Phylogenetic analysis of the risk variants reveals a unique origin in Asia, followed by clonal expansion in NPC-endemic regions. Our results provide novel insights into the NPC endemic in southern China and also enable the identification of high-risk individuals for NPC prevention.

5.
Int J Cancer ; 145(10): 2873-2883, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31044420

RESUMO

We analyzed the number of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) and Epstein-Barr virus DNA (EBV DNA) for diagnosis, monitoring and prognosis of patients with metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma (mNPC). The levels of CTCs and EBV DNA were measured at baseline and after first-line chemotherapy in 148 mNPC patients prospectively enrolled between December 2014 and August 2016. We also collected 122 non-mNPC cases within the same time frame for examining CTCs and EBV DNA at baseline. In 270 NPC patients, we observed improved specificity (86.0% vs. 41.0%) and inferior sensitivity (42.3% vs. 81.3%) of CTCs as compared to EBV DNA for diagnosis of distant metastasis. mNPC patients were stratified into unfavorable and favorable prognostic groups, respectively, based on CTC of 12 at baseline and 1 after first-line chemotherapy and EBV DNA of 10,000 at baseline and 4,000 after first-line chemotherapy. Conversion of baseline unfavorable CTCs and EBV DNA to favorable after first-line chemotherapy was associated with significantly longer progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) compared to patients with unfavorable CTCs and EBV DNA at both time points. Among patients with a complete/partial response as per imaging evaluation, favorable CTCs and EBV DNA levels after first-line chemotherapy were associated with significantly longer PFS and OS. In conclusion, our data demonstrated the number of CTCs and EBV DNA before, after and during first-line chemotherapy were strong predictive markers for mNPC patients. When utilized in conjunction with imaging studies, CTCs and EBV DNA could provide additional prognostic information.

6.
Radiother Oncol ; 134: 37-43, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31005222

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate the prognostic value of skull-base invasion (SBI) for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), propose a subclassification of SBI. METHODS: 792 and 433 patients with pathologically proven NPC and complete clinical and magnetic resonance imaging records at Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center and Foshan Hospital were enrolled, and investigated using heat map/cluster, network and survival analyses. RESULTS: The results of heat map/cluster analyses and network analysis showed that T3 patients with pterygoid process and/or base of the sphenoid bone invasion (T3 slight) had better treatment outcomes than those with other SBIs (T3 severe). Significant differences were observed between T3-slight and T3-severe groups with regard to 5-year overall survival (OS) (93.0% vs. 83.5%, p = 0.014) and progression-free survival (PFS) (82.5% vs. 74.1%, p = 0.044) rates. No significant difference was observed between T3-slight group and T2 patients with regard to 5-year OS (93.0% vs. 84.7%, p = 0.062) and PFS (82.5% vs. 78.9%, p = 0.459) rates. Therefore, we downgraded patients with T3 slight to T2, yielding a new T classification sample. The survival curves of the 5-year OS and PFS rates of T2 and T3 were more reasonable after sample redistribution than those before sample redistribution. The differences in the 5-year OS and PFS rates between T2 and T3 patients after sample redistribution approached significance (p = 0.075 and 0.051, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Different types of SBIs had different effects on the prognosis for NPC. We recommend patients with T3 slight not be defined as T3 but, rather, as T2.

8.
Eur Radiol ; 29(10): 5590-5599, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30874880

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To explore and evaluate the feasibility of radiomics in stratifying nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) into distinct survival subgroups through multi-modalities MRI. METHODS: A total of 658 patients (training cohort: 424; validation cohort: 234) with non-metastatic NPC were enrolled in the retrospective analysis. Each slice was considered as a sample and 4863 radiomics features on the tumor region were extracted from T1-weighted, T2-weighted, and contrast-enhanced T1-weighted MRI. Consensus clustering and manual aggregation were performed on the training cohort to generate a baseline model and classification reference used to train a support vector machine classifier. The risk of each patient was defined as the maximum risk among the slices. Each patient in the validation cohort was assigned to the risk model using the trained classifier. Harrell's concordance index (C-index) was used to measure the prognosis performance, and differences between subgroups were compared using the log-rank test. RESULTS: The training cohort was clustered into four groups with distinct survival patterns. Each patient was assigned to one of the four groups according to the estimated risk. Our method gave a performance (C-index = 0.827, p < .004 and C-index = 0.814, p < .002) better than the T-stage (C-index = 0.815, p = .002 and C-index = 0.803, p = .024), competitive to and more stable than the TNM staging system (C-index = 0.842, p = .003 and C-index = 0.765, p = .050) in the training cohort and the validation cohort. CONCLUSIONS: Through investigating a large one-institutional cohort, the quantitative multi-modalities MRI image phenotypes reveal distinct survival subtypes. KEY POINTS: • Radiomics phenotype of MRI revealed the subtype of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients with distinct survival patterns. • The slice-wise analysis method on MRI helps to stratify patients and provides superior prognostic performance over the TNM staging method. • Risk estimation using the highest risk among slices performed better than using the majority risk in prognosis.

9.
Eur J Cancer ; 110: 24-31, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30739837

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Our previous results showed survival benefits of concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) in treating stage II nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) compared with radiotherapy (RT) alone. Here, we present the updated 10-year survival results and late toxicity profile to assess the ultimate effectiveness of concurrent chemotherapy. METHODS: Patients with stage II NPC were randomly assigned to RT arm (n = 114) or to CCRT arm (n = 116) with a concurrent weekly cisplatin regimen. The primary end-point was overall survival (OS). RESULTS: With a median follow-up of 125 months, significant improvements in OS (83.6% vs 65.8%, P = 0.001), progression-free survival (76.7% vs 64.0%, P = 0.014), cancer-specific survival (86.2% vs 71.9%, P = 0.002), distant-metastasis free survival (94.0% vs 83.3%, P = 0.007) were observed in CCRT arm. In point of locoregional-relapse free survival, the impact of CCRT was not remarkable. The findings were in accordance with our previous report. The survival benefits earned by CCRT mainly reflected in T2N1 population. Although CCRT brought more acute toxic effects (P = 0.001), as presented in previous report, the late toxicities and treatment-associated deaths events were comparable between two arms. CONCLUSIONS: Ten-year outcomes confirmed that CCRT could improve the OS of stage II patients without adding late toxicities compared with conventional RT.

10.
Cell Death Dis ; 10(2): 58, 2019 01 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30683844

RESUMO

SHROOM2 is a key mediator of RhoA-ROCK pathway that regulates cell motility and actin cytoskeleton organization. However, the functions of SHROOM2 beyond RhoA/ROCK signaling remain poorly understood. Here, we report that SHROOM2 not only participates in RhoA-ROCK-induced stress fiber formation and focal adhesion, but also had an unanticipated role in suppressing epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and tumor metastasis. Depletion of SHROOM2 in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) cells enhances mesenchymal characteristics and reduces epithelial markers, concomitant with increased motility, enabling the development of invasion and tumor metastasis, which are largely ROCK-independent, as ROCK inhibitor Y-27632 did not cause EMT phenotype; furthermore, combination of ROCK inhibition and SHROOM2 depletion resulted in the most robust increases in cell migration and invasion, indicating that SHROOM2 and ROCK work synergistically rather than epistatic. Analysis of clinical samples suggested that SHROOM2 is downregulated in NPC and the expression of SHROOM2 in metastatic NPC was even lower than in the primary tumors. Our findings uncover a non-canonical role of SHROOM2 as a potent antagonist for EMT and NPC metastasis.

11.
Cancer Commun (Lond) ; 38(1): 74, 2018 12 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30577735

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Postradiation nasopharyngeal necrosis (PRNN) is a severe complication after radiotherapy in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), which can severely affect the quality of life and threaten the patient's life. Only 13.4%-28.6% of patients can be cured by traditional repeated endoscopic debridement. Here, we introduced an innovative curative-intent endoscopic surgery for PRNN patients and evaluated its clinical efficacy. METHODS: Clinical data of 72 PRNN patients who underwent radical endoscopic necrectomy, followed by reconstruction using a posterior pedicle nasal septum and floor mucoperiosteum flap were analyzed to determine the efficacy of this surgery. The endpoints were complete re-epithelialization of the nasopharyngeal defect, relief of headache, and overall survival (OS). RESULTS: All surgeries were successfully performed without any severe postoperative complications or death. The median value of numeric rating scales of pain decreased from 8 before surgery to 0 after surgery (P < 0.001). Fifty-one patients (70.8%) achieved complete re-epithelialization of the nasopharyngeal defect. The number of cycles of radiotherapy (odds ratio [OR], 7.254; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.035-50.821; P = 0.046), postoperative pathological result (OR, 34.087; 95% CI 3.168-366.746; P = 0.004), and survival status of flap (OR, 261.179; 95% CI 17.176-3971.599; P < 0.001) were independent risk factors of re-epithelialization of the nasopharyngeal defects. Postoperative pathological result (hazard ratio [HR], 5.018; 95% CI 1.970-12.782; P = 0.001) was an independent prognostic factor for OS. The 2-year OS rate of the entire cohort was 77.9%. CONCLUSION: Curative-intent endoscopic necrectomy followed by construction using the posterior pedicle nasal septum and floor mucoperiosteum flap is a novel, safe, and effective treatment of PRNN in patients with NPC.


Assuntos
Endoscopia/métodos , Carcinoma Nasofaríngeo/cirurgia , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
12.
J Clin Oncol ; : JCO1800896, 2018 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30457920

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Neuropathic pain is an unavoidable treatment-related adverse event among patients with head and neck cancer who are undergoing radiotherapy. We aimed to test the efficacy and safety of pregabalin versus placebo in the treatment of radiotherapy-related neuropathic pain. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted in four centers in China. Eligible patients with a mean pain intensity score of 4 or more on an 11-point numeric rating scale were randomly assigned to receive either active treatment with a flexible dose of pregabalin or placebo for 16 weeks. The primary efficacy outcome was pain reduction measured on the numeric rating scale. RESULT: There were 128 patients who received treatment as randomly assigned. Pain intensity reduction was 2.44 in the pregabalin arm and 1.58 in the placebo arm at week 16, yielding an adjusted mean difference of 0.87 (95% CI, 0.30 to 1.44; P = .003). In the pregabalin arm, 38 patients (59.4%) achieved at least 30% pain relief versus 21 (32.8%) in the placebo arm ( P = .006). Nineteen patients (29.7%) in the pregabalin group and five (7.8%) in the placebo group achieved 50% or greater pain relief ( P = .003). Total scores on the Profile of Mood States-Short Form, pain severity and functional interference of Brief Pain Inventory-Short Form, as well as the physiology and psychology domain of the WHO Quality of Life-BREF all were reduced significantly at week 16 in patients who received pregabalin compared with those who received placebo. There was no significant difference ( P = .29) in the incidence of experiencing at least one adverse event in the pregabalin arm (n = 35; 54.7%) versus the placebo arm (n = 29; 45.3%). CONCLUSION: Patients treated with pregabalin with radiotherapy-related neuropathic pain had greater pain alleviation, better mood states, and higher quality of life compared with patients in the placebo group, with a good tolerability.

13.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 5009, 2018 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30479336

RESUMO

Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated epithelial cancers, including nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) and approximately 10% of gastric cancers, termed EBVaGC, represent 80% of all EBV-related malignancies. However, the exact role of EBV in epithelial cancers remains elusive. Here, we report that EBV functions in vasculogenic mimicry (VM). Epithelial cancer cells infected with EBV develop tumor vascular networks that correlate with tumor growth, which is different from endothelial-derived angiogenic vessels and is VEGF-independent. Mechanistically, activation of the PI3K/AKT/mTOR/HIF-1α signaling cascade, which is partly mediated by LMP2A, is responsible for EBV-induced VM formation. Both xenografts and clinical samples of NPC and EBVaGC exhibit VM histologically, which are correlated with AKT and HIF-1α activation. Furthermore, although anti-VEGF monotherapy shows limited effects, potent synergistic antitumor activities are achieved by combination therapy with VEGF and HIF-1α-targeted agents. Our findings suggest that EBV creates plasticity in epithelial cells to express endothelial phenotype and provides a novel EBV-targeted antitumor strategy.

14.
Laryngoscope ; 2018 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30325027

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare survival effects of comprehensive neck dissection (CND) and selective neck dissection (SND) for patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) with only regional failure. METHODS: A total of 294 recurrent T0N1-3M0 NPC patients who underwent neck dissection in Sun Yat-Sen University Cancer Center, Guangzhou, People's Republic of China, between January 1984 and February 2014, were enrolled in the survival and interaction analyses. Using propensity scores to adjust for potential prognostic factors, an additional well-balanced cohort of 210 patients was constructed by matching each patient who received SND with one patient who underwent CND (1:1); the differences were then compared between SND and CND in terms of overall survival (OS), local recurrence-free survival (LRFS), regional recurrence-free survival (RRFS), and distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS). RESULTS: Both univariate and multivariate analyses showed that SND was not inferior to CND (P > 0.05) but demonstrated that extracapsular spread (ECS) (hazard ratio [HR] 3.49, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.30-5.29, P < 0.001), recurrent N stage (rN stage) (HR 1.96, 95% CI 1.29-2.97, P = 0.002), and positive margins (HR 3.67, 95% CI 2.40-5.62, P < 0.001) were independent poor prognostic factors for OS. The interaction effects between the dissection style and each independent factor were not significant for OS, LRFS, RRFS, or DMFS (P > 0.05). Furthermore, no survival differences were found between SND and CND in the case-matched cohort in terms of OS, LRFS, RRFS, or DMFS (P = 0.550, 0.930, 0.214, and 0.146, respectively). CONCLUSION: With a similar radical dissection extent around the tumor rather than dissection of extensive lymph region distal to the lesion, SND is not inferior to CND for patients with NPC with only cervical failure. ECS, rN stage, and positive margins were adverse independent prognostic factors for patients with NPC. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 4. Laryngoscope, 2018.

15.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 2018 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30299488

RESUMO

Background: Radiation-induced brain injury is a nonnegligible issue in the management of cancer patients treated by partial or whole brain irradiation. In particular, temporal lobe injury (TLI), a deleterious late complication in nasopharyngeal carcinoma, greatly affects the long-term life quality of these patients. Although genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have successfully identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with radiation toxicity, genetic variants contributing to the radiation-induced brain injury have not yet been assessed. Methods: We recruited and performed follow-up for a prospective observational cohort, Genetic Architecture of Radiotherapy Toxicity and Prognosis, using magnetic resonance imaging for TLI diagnosis. We conducted genome-wide association analysis in 1082 patients and validated the top associations in two independent cohorts of 1119 and 741 patients, respectively. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results: We identified a promoter variant rs17111237 (A > G, minor allele frequency [MAF] = 0.14) in CEP128 associated with TLI risk (hazard ratio = 1.45, 95% confidence interval = 1.26 to 1.66, Pcombined=3.18 × 10-7) which is in moderate linkage disequilibrium (LD) with rs162171 (MAF = 0.18, R2 = 0.69), the top signal in CEP128 (hazard ratio = 1.46, 95% confidence interval = 1.29-1.66, Pcombined= 6.17 × 10-9). Combining the clinical variables with the top SNP, we divided the patients into different subgroups with varying risk with 5-year TLI-free rates ranging from 33.7% to 95.5%. CEP128, a key component of mother centriole, tightly interacts with multiple radiation-resistant genes and plays an important role in maintaining the functional cilia, which otherwise will lead to a malfunction of the neural network. We found that A > G alteration at rs17111237 impaired the promoter activity of CEP128 and knockdown of CEP128 decreased the clonogenic cell survival of U87 cells under radiation. Noteworthy, 12.7% (27/212) of the GWAS-based associated genes (P < .001) were enriched in the neurogenesis pathway. Conclusions: This three-stage study is the first GWAS of radiation-induced brain injury that implicates the genetic susceptibility gene CEP128 involved in TLI development and provides the novel insight into the underlying mechanisms of radiation-induced brain injury.

16.
PLoS Pathog ; 14(7): e1007208, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30052682

RESUMO

Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a human cancer-related virus closely associated with lymphoid and epithelial malignancies, and EBV glycoprotein B (gB) plays an essential role in viral entry into both B cells and epithelial cells by promoting cell-cell fusion. EBV gB is exclusively modified with high-mannose-linked N-glycans and primarily localizes to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) with low levels on the plasma membrane (PM). However, the mechanism through which gB is regulated within host cells is largely unknown. Here, we report the identification of F-box only protein 2 (FBXO2), an SCF ubiquitin ligase substrate adaptor that preferentially binds high-mannose glycans and attenuates EBV infectivity by targeting N-glycosylated gB for degradation. gB possesses seven N-glycosylation sites, and FBXO2 directly binds to these high-mannose moieties through its sugar-binding domain. The interaction promotes the degradation of glycosylated gB via the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. Depletion of FBXO2 not only stabilizes gB but also promotes its transport from the ER to the PM, resulting in enhanced membrane fusion and viral entry. FBXO2 is expressed in epithelial cells but not B cells, and EBV infection up-regulates FBXO2 levels. In summary, our findings highlight the significance of high-mannose modification of gB and reveal a novel host defense mechanism involving glycoprotein homeostasis regulation.

17.
Oral Oncol ; 80: 1-8, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29706183

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety in locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients receiving concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) plus Cetuximab (CTX) or Nimotuzumab (NTZ) compared to those receiving induction chemotherapy (IC) plus CCRT. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From January 2008 to December 2013, 715 eligible patients were enrolled in the study. Using propensity scores to adjust for gender, age, Karnofsky performance status (KPS), tumor stage, node stage, and clinical stage, a well-balanced cohort was created by matching each patient who received CTX/NTZ plus CCRT (137 patients) with two patients who underwent IC plus CCRT (274 patients). The primary endpoint was overall survival (OS), and other outcome variables included disease-free survival (DFS), distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS) and loco-regional relapse-free survival (LRRFS). RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The median follow-up was 57.0 months and 55.0 months for the CTX/NTZ plus CCRT group and IC plus CCRT group, respectively. No significant differences were found between the CTX/NTZ plus CCRT group and the IC plus CCRT group in 3-year OS (95.5% vs. 94.7%, P = 0.083), 3-year DFS (93.3% vs. 86.1%, P = 0.104), 3-year DMFS (96.2% vs. 92.5%, P = 0.243) and 3-year LRRFS (97.0% vs. 95.1%, P = 0.297). Patients undergoing IC plus CCRT suffered from severe hematologic toxicity and diarrhea compared with those treated with CTX/NTZ plus CCRT. The combination of CTX/NTZ with CCRT is comparable to IC plus CCRT treatment in survival outcomes for locoregionally advanced NPC patients but has a better safety profile than IC plus CCRT treatment.

18.
Cancer Commun (Lond) ; 38(1): 20, 2018 05 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29764509

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Enlarged retropharyngeal lymph nodes (RLNs) are very common in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) undergoing radiotherapy. The most suitable treatment option for enlarged RLNs depends on the pathological results. However, RLN sampling is difficult and imminent in the clinic setting. We recently developed a novel minimally invasive technique termed endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) for sampling RLN tissues sufficient for pathological or cytological diagnosis. METHODS: We enrolled 30 post-radiotherapy patients with NPC with suspected RLN metastasis detected via magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The EUS probe was introduced into the nasopharynx via the nostrils, and EUS was then used to scan the retropharyngeal space and locate the RLN in the anterior carotid sheath. EUS-FNA was subsequently performed. The safety and efficacy of using EUS-FNA to sample the RLN tissues were assessed. RESULTS: Strips of tissue were successfully sampled from all patients using EUS-FNA. Of the 30 patients, 23 were confirmed to have cancer cells in the biopsied tissues via pathology or cytology examinations with 1 EUS-FNA biopsy session. The seven cases without confirmed cancer cells were subsequently reanalyzed by using another EUS-FNA biopsy session, and two more cases were confirmed possessing cancer cells. The other five patients without confirmed cancer cells were closely followed with MRI every month for 3 months. After follow-up for 3 months, three patients were still considered cancer-free due to the presence of RLNs with stable or shrinking diameters. The rest two patients who showed progressive disease underwent a third EUS-FNA biopsy procedure and were further confirmed to be cancer cell-positive. In the whole cohort reported here, the EUS-FNA procedure was not associated with any severe complications. CONCLUSION: EUS-FNA is a safe and effective diagnostic approach for sampling tissues from the RLNs in patients with suspected recurrent NPC.

19.
Lancet Oncol ; 19(4): 461-473, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29501366

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cisplatin-based concurrent chemoradiotherapy is currently considered to be the standard treatment regimen for patients with advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma, but has well known side-effects such as gastrointestinal reactions, nephrotoxicity, and ototoxicity. Nedaplatin was developed to decrease the toxic effects induced by cisplatin, and in this trial we assessed whether a nedaplatin-based concurrent chemoradiotherapy regimen was non-inferior to a cisplatin-based regimen in patients with locoregional, stage II-IVB nasopharyngeal carcinoma. METHODS: We did an open-label, non-inferiority, phase 3, randomised, controlled trial at two centres in China. Patients aged 18-65 years with non-keratinising stage II-IVB (T1-4N1-3 or T3-4N0) nasopharyngeal carcinoma, a Karnofsky score of at least 70, and adequate haematological, renal, and hepatic function were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive intravenously either nedaplatin 100 mg/m2 or cisplatin 100 mg/m2 on days 1, 22, and 43 for three cycles concurrently with intensity-modulated radiotherapy. Randomisation was done manually using a computer-generated random number code and patients were stratified by treatment centre and clinical stage. Patients and clinicians were not masked to treatment allocation. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival at 2 years; non-inferiority was shown if the upper limit of the 95% CI for the difference in 2-year progression-free survival between the two groups did not exceed 10%. Analyses were by both intention to treat and per protocol, including all patients who received at least one complete cycle of chemotherapy. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01540136, and is currently in follow-up. FINDINGS: Between Jan 16, 2012, and July 16, 2014, we randomly assigned 402 patients to nedaplatin-based (n=201) or cisplatin-based (n=201) concurrent chemoradiotherapy. In the intention-to-treat population, 2-year progression-free survival was 89·9% (95% CI 85·8-94·0) in the cisplatin group and 88·0% (83·5-94·5) in the nedaplatin group, with a difference of 1·9% (95% CI -4·2 to 8·0; pnon-inferiority=0·0048). In the per-protocol analysis (cisplatin group, n=197; nedaplatin group, n=196), 2-year progression-free survival was 89·7% (95% CI 85·4-94·0) in the cisplatin group and 88·7% (84·2-94·5) in the nedaplatin group, with a difference of 1·0% (95% CI -5·2 to 7·0; pnon-inferiority=0·0020). A significantly higher frequency of grade 3 or 4 vomiting (35 [18%] of 198 in the cisplatin group vs 12 [6%] of 200 in the nedaplatin group, p<0·0001), nausea (18 [9%] vs four [2%], p=0·0021), and anorexia (53 [27%] vs 26 [13%], p=0·00070) was observed in the cisplatin group compared with the nedaplatin group. 11 (6%) patients in the nedaplatin group had grade 3 or 4 thrombocytopenia compared with four (2%) in the cisplatin group (p=0·065). Patients in the cisplatin group had a higher frequency of any grade or grade 3 or 4 late auditory or hearing toxicities than did patients in the nedaplatin group (grade 3 or 4: three [2%] in the nedaplatin group vs 11 [6%] in the cisplatin group, p=0·030). No patients died from treatment-related causes. INTERPRETATION: Our findings show that nedaplatin-based concurrent chemoradiotherapy represents an alternative doublet treatment strategy to cisplatin-based concurrent chemoradiotherapy for patients with locoregional, advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Further investigations are needed to explore the potential use of this treatment as induction or adjuvant chemotherapy or in combination with other agents. FUNDING: National Key R&D Program of China, National Natural Science Foundation of China, Sun Yat-sen University Clinical Research 5010 Program, Sci-Tech Project Foundation of Guangzhou City, National Key Basic Research Program of China, Special Support Plan of Guangdong Province, Sci-Tech Project Foundation of Guangdong Province, Health & Medical Collaborative Innovation Project of Guangzhou City, National Science & Technology Pillar Program during the Twelfth Five-year Plan Period, PhD Start-up Fund of Natural Science Foundation of Guangdong Province, Cultivation Foundation for the Junior Teachers in Sun Yat-sen University, and Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities.

20.
Theranostics ; 8(6): 1494-1510, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29556337

RESUMO

Rationale: Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is the most frequent head and neck tumor in South China. The presence of cancer stem cells (CSCs) in NPC contributes to tumor maintenance and therapeutic resistance, while the ability of CSCs to escape from the apoptosis pathway may render them the resistant property to the therapies. Inhibitor of apoptosis proteins family proteins (IAPs), which are overexpressed in nasopharyngeal carcinoma stem cells, may play an important role in maintaining nasopharyngeal cancer stem cell properties. Here, we develop a novel CSC-targeting strategy to treat NPC through inhibiting IAPs. Methods: Human NPC S-18 and S-26 cell lines were used as the model system in vitro and in vivo. Fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS) assay was used to detect nasopharyngeal SP cells and CD44+ cells. The characteristics of CSCs were defined by sphere suspension culture, colony formation assay and cell migration. The role of XIAP on the regulation of Sox2 protein stability and ERK1-mediated phosphorylation of Sox2 signaling pathway were analyzed using immunoblotting, immunoprecipitation, immunofluorescence, phosphorylation mass spectrometry, siRNA silencing and plasmid overexpression. The correlation between XIAP and Sox2 in NPC biopsies and their role in prognosis was performed by immunohistochemistry. APG-1387 or chemotherapies-induced cell death and apoptosis in S-18 and S-26 were determined by WST, immunoblotting and flow cytometry assay. Results: IAPs, especially X chromosome-linked IAP (XIAP), were elevated in CSCs of NPC, and these proteins were critically involved in the maintenance of CSCs properties by enhancing the stability of Sox2. Mechanistically, ERK1 kinase promoted autophagic degradation of Sox2 via phosphorylation of Sox2 at Ser251 and further SUMOylation of Sox2 at Lys245 in non-CSCs. However, XIAP blocked autophagic degradation of Sox2 by inhibiting ERK1 activation in CSCs. Additionally, XIAP was positively correlated with Sox2 expression in NPC tissues, which were associated with NPC progression. Finally, we discovered that a novel antagonist of IAPs, APG-1387, exerted antitumor effect on CSCs. Also, the combination of APG-1387 with CDDP /5-FU has a synergistic effect on NPC. Conclusion: Our study highlights the importance of IAPs in the maintenance of CSCs in NPC. Thus, XIAP is a promising therapeutic target in CSCs and suggests that NPC patients may benefit from a combination treatment of APG-1387 with conventional chemotherapy.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA