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1.
Injury ; 51(2): 178-184, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31882236

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Skeletal muscle ischaemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) can be a life threatening condition. It is relevant to various aspects of the management of trauma and surgical patients. Currently there lacks a pharmacological agent that can be used to dampen the effects of IRI. Riluzole has been shown to reduce the effects of IRI on various organ systems, but there have yet to be any studies on the effects in IRI of skeletal muscle. Our aim was to investigate the effects of Riluzole on IRI in the skeletal muscle of pigs. METHODS: Twenty-two pigs were randomly divided into groups. Riluzole was administered before ligation of the femoral artery to produce ischaemia in the tibialis anterior muscle in the experimental group but not the control group. The microscopic appearance of muscles were recorded, a TUNEL assay was used to identify DNA damage and glutathione levels were measured. RESULTS: In the Riluzole group, muscle fibres appeared less wavy and less oedematous compared to the control group. The Riluzole group also had less evidence of DNA fragmentation on the TUNEL assay. The glutathione levels in the Riluzole group were also significantly greater than the control group. DISCUSSION: Our findings suggest that Riluzole can potentially reduce the effects of IRI on skeletal muscle. This is potentially due to the ability of Riluzole to block sodium channels, decreasing action potentials and therefore glutamate release. It also acts to decrease intracellular calcium levels, which prevents apoptosis. Riluzole is a promising drug for the prevention of IRI in skeletal muscle, but further research is required.

2.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 11(50): 46767-46775, 2019 Dec 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31763822

RESUMO

In response to the concept of "compact energy storage", research on electrolyte dosage dwindling is definitely efficient owing to present electrolyte usage up to 70 wt % in a cell. While less electrolyte usage leads to slow reaction kinetics. Herein, a heterojunction, MoP/MoS2 core with much defects and vacancies coated by porous carbon shell, is synthesized. Besides, the small particle size of MoP/MoS2@C facilitates a close packing to form a dense and porous modified layer on PP-based (F-PP) separator. The heterojunction with defects exposes abundant interfaces and assures an adequate local electrolyte availability and an improved electrolyte affinity that are beneficial for Li+ transfer. When using F-PP separator, Li-S cell performs well in the lean electrolyte. Apart from a high discharging capacity of 517.1 mAh g-1 at 5 C in E/S = 10 (only half benchmark dosage), the cell realizes a favorable stability at C/2 over 500 cycles even in E/S = 7 (0.065% decay per cycle), demonstrating an effective polysulfides (PS) shuttling relief and reversibility of PS-relating chemical conversion. All these enhanced electrochemical behaviors in lean electrolyte result from a three-in-one strategy realized by defects-included MoP/MoS2@C heterojunction, including incorporating the lithiuphilic and sulfophilic sites for PS confinement and electrocatalysis triggered by abundant S vacancies and Lewis and Brønsted acid sites.

3.
Opt Express ; 27(22): 32378-32391, 2019 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31684452

RESUMO

The fringe skeleton method is the most straightforward analysis method for phase extraction and widely used in dynamic measurement. Binarization is often required in this method. In the traditional binarization methods, filtering is often a necessary step prior to binarization due to the influence of intrinsic speckle noises in ESPI fringe patterns. In this paper, we propose a binarization method based on local entropy and fuzzy c-means (FCM) clustering algorithm. In this method, the pixels in the given ESPI fringe pattern are clustered into white fringes and black fringes according to their local entropy instead of the original intensity information. There is no need to perform the filtering preprocessing, because the intrinsic speckle noises are utilized as essentials. We evaluate the performance of our method by applying it to the computer-simulated and real fringe patterns. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method can achieve the desired binarization results, and the binarization results can give desired skeleton results.

4.
Nanomaterials (Basel) ; 9(10)2019 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31600918

RESUMO

As a nano-adsorbent, magnetic graphene oxide (GO/Fe3O4) was synthesized to potentially adsorb propranolol (PRO) from water. The synthetic material was characterized by SEM, TEM, VSM, FTIR, XRD, zeta potential, and XPS. The environmental factors, such as pH, humic acid concentration, PRO concentration, and contact time, were investigated regarding their effect on the adsorption process. The kinetics data fitted the pseudo first-order and second-order kinetics equations. The Langmuir equation, the Freundlich equation, and the Sips equation were used to analyze the adsorption isotherms. Electrostatic attraction, hydrogen bonding, and the π-π interaction all contributed to the adsorption process of PRO onto GO/Fe3O4. The discovery of this study emphasized the feasibility of GO/Fe3O4 removal of PRO and expanded the scope of the application of GO.

5.
Pattern Recognit ; 90: 220-231, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31579345

RESUMO

Brain functional networks (BFNs) constructed from resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) have been widely applied to the analysis and diagnosis of brain diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease and its prodrome, namely mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Constructing a meaningful brain network based on, for example, sparse representation (SR) is the most essential step prior to the subsequent analysis or disease identification. However, the independent coding process of SR fails to capture the intrinsic locality and similarity characteristics in the data. To address this problem, we propose a novel weighted graph (Laplacian) regularized SR framework, based on which BFN can be optimized by considering both intrinsic correlation similarity and local manifold structure in the data, as well as sparsity prior of the brain connectivity. Additionally, the non-convergence of the graph Laplacian in the self-representation model has been solved properly. Combined with a pipeline of sparse feature selection and classification, the effectiveness of our proposed method is demonstrated by identifying MCI based on the constructed BFNs.

6.
Brain Behav Immun ; 82: 354-371, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31513876

RESUMO

Stroke is a leading cause of long-term disability worldwide; survivors often show sensorimotor and cognitive deficits. Therapeutic exercise is the most common treatment strategy for rehabilitating patients with stroke via augmentation of neurogenesis, angiogenesis, neurotrophic factors expression, and synaptogenesis. Neurogenesis plays important roles in sensorimotor and cognitive functional recovery, and can be promoted by exercise; however, the mechanism underlying this phenomenon remains unclear. In this study, we explored the effects of treadmill exercise on sensorimotor and cognitive functional recovery, as well as the potential molecular mechanisms underlying the promotion of neurogenesis in a rat model of transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO). We found that treadmill exercise facilitated sensorimotor and cognitive functional recovery after tMCAO, and that neural stem/progenitor cell proliferation, differentiation, and migration were enhanced in the ipsilateral subventricular and subgranular zones after tMCAO. Meanwhile, the newborn neurons induced by treadmill exercise after tMCAO had the similar function with pre-existing neurons. Treadmill exercise significantly increased CD200 and CD200 receptor (CD200R) levels in the ipsilateral hippocampus and cortex. Further study revealed that treadmill exercise-induced neurogenesis and functional recovery were clearly inhibited, while Il-ß and Tnf-α expression were upregulated, following lentivirus (LV)-induced suppression of post-stroke CD200R expression. Consistent with the effect of treadmill exercise, CD200Fc (a CD200R agonist) markedly promoted neurogenesis and functional recovery after stroke. In addition, CD200Fc could further enhance the functional recovery induced by treadmill exercise after stroke. Our results demonstrate the beneficial role of treadmill exercise in promoting neurogenesis and functional recovery via activating the CD200/CD200R signaling pathway and improving the inflammatory environment after stroke. Thus, the CD200/CD200R signaling pathway is a potential therapeutic target for functional recovery after stroke.

7.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 11(40): 37322-37329, 2019 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31525991

RESUMO

Identifying effective means to improve the charge separation performance assisted by adequate surface reaction represents a significant challenge for developing a highly efficient TiO2 photoanode. Here we report a structural synergistic strategy between a close contact heterojunction and a surface oxygen vacancy to significantly boost the charge separation efficiency and charge injection efficiency of TiO2 nanowires (NWs) in PEC water splitting. To accomplish this task, a TiO2/SrTiO3 (TiO2/STO) heterojunction was first constructed by in situ conversion, resulting in close contact between interface, promoting separation of the photoinduced charge carriers, which increased charge separation efficiency by 107% compared to TiO2. After the amorphous layer was established on the surface of the SrTiO3 coating, the resulting TiO2/SrTiO3/r-SrTiO3 (TiO2/STO/r-STO) improved the light absorption property of the photoelectrodes and boosted the ability to adsorb the reactant hydroxide ions, resulting in charge injection efficiency improvement by 67.3% compared with pure TiO2. This complementary modification for enhancing charge separation and boosting the surface reaction demonstrates a significant capacity to improve the photoelectrochemical (PEC) performance of one photoanode, which could be instructive for other fields including photocatalysis and PEC carbon dioxide reduction.

8.
Cells ; 8(9)2019 08 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31461973

RESUMO

: Skeletal muscle myogenesis and injury-induced muscle regeneration contribute to muscle formation and maintenance. As myogenic stem cells, skeletal muscle satellite cells have the ability to proliferate, differentiate and self-renew, and are involved in muscle formation and muscle injury repair. Accumulating evidence suggests that non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs), including microRNAs (miRNAs), long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) and circular RNAs (circRNAs), are widely involved in the regulation of gene expression during skeletal muscle myogenesis, and their abnormal expression is associated with a variety of muscle diseases. From the perspective of the molecular mechanism and mode of action of ncRNAs in myogenesis, this review aims to summarize the role of ncRNAs in skeletal muscle satellite cells' myogenic differentiation and in muscle disease, and systematically analyze the mechanism of ncRNAs in skeletal muscle development. This work will systematically summarize the role of ncRNAs in myogenesis and provide reference targets for the treatment of various muscle diseases, such as muscle dystrophy, atrophy and aberrant hypertrophy.

9.
Cell Death Dis ; 10(6): 444, 2019 06 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31168049

RESUMO

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a highly heterogeneous, multigene-driven malignant tumor. ZNF384 is an overexpressed gene with a high frequency of alteration in HCC, but research on the function of ZNF384 in HCC is lacking. In this study, the expression level of ZNF384 in HCC was analyzed through immunohistochemical (IHC) staining, Western blot analysis and qRT-PCR. We also generated ZNF384 knockdown and knockout HCC cell lines using short hairpin RNA (shRNA) and CRISPR/Cas9 systems. MTS, colony formation, and 5-ethynyl-20-deoxyuridine (EdU) assays; flow cytometry; and a xenograft mouse model were used to evaluate the effects of ZNF384 on cell proliferation. Western blot analysis, a dual luciferase reporter assay and a ChIP assay were performed to explore the potential mechanism. We found that overexpression of ZNF384 in HCC and elevated expression of ZNF384 in HCC tissues was significantly correlated with tumor recurrence (P = 0.0097). Kaplan-Meier survival analysis revealed that high expression levels of ZNF384 were correlated with poor overall survival (P = 0.0386). Downregulation of ZNF384 expression suppressed HCC cell proliferation by inhibiting the expression of Cyclin D1. These findings suggest that ZNF384 tends to act as an oncogene in the development of HCC. ZNF384 promotes the proliferation of HCC cells by directly upregulating the expression of Cyclin D1 and might serve as a prognostic predictive factor for HCC patients.

10.
FASEB J ; 33(9): 10425-10442, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31219699

RESUMO

Triggering receptor expressed in myeloid cells (TREM)2 is a genetic high-risk factor for sporadic Alzheimer's disease (AD) and is considered a potential target for AD diagnosis and therapy, although its role in the different stages of AD remains controversial. We generated an embryonic deletion of Trem2 (whole body deletion) and induced hippocampal- and cortical-specific knockdown of microglial Trem2 at different stages of the AD process in amyloid precursor protein/Psen1 mice by adeno-associated virus (AAV) infection. AAV infection induced microglial Trem2 overexpression in the hippocampus of wild-type (WT) and thymus cell antigen 1-enhanced green fluorescent protein mice. Mice were subjected to ethological and pathologic tests. Whole body genetic deletion of Trem2 exerted different electrophysiological outcomes between different AD pathologic stages, which results from a complex integration of synaptic loss and amyloid aggregation. Interestingly, knockdown of Trem2 at the early-middle stage of AD (2-6 mo) prevents synaptic loss through directly inhibiting microglial phagocytosis, whereas knockdown of Trem2 at the middle-late stage of AD (6-10 mo) accelerates synaptic dysfunction because of more severe amyloid deposition caused by the depression of microglial phagocytosis. Additionally, hippocampal overexpression of Trem2 in WT mice results in significant synaptic impairment. Here, with transgenic technology and electrophysiological assay, we revealed that TREM2 up-regulation promotes microglial phagocytosis equally against synapse and amyloid plaques and eventually results in different outcomes. During the early-middle pathologic stage, TREM2 enhancing microglial phagocytosis mainly causes synaptic loss. However, TREM2 up-regulating microglial phagocytosis gradually supports a positive role when amyloid deposition occupies the leading position at the middle-late pathologic stage. In this study, we highlighted that TREM2 triggers synaptic loss during AD pathology development.-Sheng, L., Chen, M., Cai, K., Song, Y., Yu, D., Zhang, H., Xu, G. Microglial Trem2 induces synaptic impairment at early stage and prevents amyloidosis at late stage in APP/PS1 mice.

11.
Chem Sci ; 10(15): 4141-4147, 2019 Apr 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31057742

RESUMO

Uncovering the relationship between the structure, surface properties and electrochemical activity of nanoparticles is of great importance for constructing novel nanocatalysts and highly efficient electrocatalytic devices. Here we report a study of the heterogeneously distributed electrocatalytic activity on individual 2D gold nanoplates. On the basis of electrogenerated chemiluminescence (ECL) microscopy, the size, shape, and site-specific catalytic activity of 2D nanocrystals could be directly imaged at the single particle level with submicron resolution. Since the microelectrode effect with higher fluxes at the perimeter was offset by diffusion of excited species of Ru(bpy)3 2+, calculated by finite element simulation, the ECL distribution was supposed to be uniform on the micro-sized plates. Therefore, it is highly possible that the observed nonuniform ECL distribution at single nanoplates reflected distinct surface electrocatalytic activities at different sites. Furthermore, ECL microscopy allows continuous in situ imaging, which elucidates the time-varying changes in the spatial distribution of electrocatalytic activity on individual nanoplates, indicating that the corners and edges with more defect sites exhibit higher reactivity, but lower stability than the flat facet. We believe that real-time and high-throughput ECL microscopy may lead to more comprehensive understanding of reactivity patterns of single nanocatalysts.

12.
Gene Expr ; 19(3): 175-185, 2019 11 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30940296

RESUMO

Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is the second leading cause of liver transplantation in the US with a high risk of liver-related morbidities and mortality. Given the global burden of NASH, development of appropriate therapeutic strategies is an important clinical need. Where applicable, lifestyle modification remains the primary recommendation for the treatment of NASH, even though such changes are difficult to sustain and even insufficient to cure NASH. Bariatric surgery resolves NASH in such patients where lifestyle modifications have failed, and is recommended for morbidly obese patients with NASH. Thus, pharmacotherapies are of high value for NASH treatment. Though no drug has been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for treatment of NASH, substantial progress in pharmacological development has been made in the last few years. Agents such as vitamin E and pioglitazone are recommended in patients with NASH, and yet concerns about their side effects remain. Many agents targeting various vital molecules and pathways, including those impacting metabolic perturbations, inflammatory cascades, and oxidative stress, are in clinical trials for the treatment of NASH. Some agents have shown promising results in phase II or III clinical trials, but more studies are required to assess their long-term effects. Herein, we review the potential strategies and challenges in therapeutic approaches to treating NASH.

13.
Hepatology ; 70(6): 1942-1957, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30703849

RESUMO

Inhibition of apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1) activation has emerged as a promising target for the treatment of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Multiple forms of posttranslational modifications determine the activity of ASK1. In addition to phosphorylation, recent studies revealed that ubiquitination is essential for ASK1 activation. However, the endogenous factor that regulates ASK1 ubiquitination and activation remains poorly defined. In this study, we identified the E3 ligase Skp1-Cul1-F-box (SCF) protein F-box/WD repeat-containing protein 5 (FBXW5) as a key endogenous activator of ASK1 ubiquitination. FBXW5 is the central component of the SCF complex (SCFFbxw5 ) that directly interacts with and ubiquitinates ASK1 in hepatocytes during NASH development. An in vivo study showed that hepatocyte-specific overexpression of FBXW5 exacerbated diet-induced systemic and hepatic metabolic disorders, as well as the activation of ASK1-related mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling in the liver. Conversely, hepatocyte-specific deletion of FBXW5 significantly prevented the progression of these abnormalities. Mechanically, FBXW5 facilitated the addition of Lys63-linked ubiquitin to ASK1 and thus exacerbated ASK1-c-Jun N-terminal kinase/p38 MAPK signaling, inflammation, and lipid accumulation. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the N-terminus (S1) and C-terminus (S3) of FBXW5 respectively and competitively ablate the function of FBXW5 on ASK1 activation and served as effective inhibitors of NASH progression. Conclusion: This evidence strongly suggests that SCFFbxw5 is an important activator of ASK1 ubiquitination in the context of NASH. The development of FBXW5(S1) or FBXW5(S3)-mimicking drugs and screening of small-molecular inhibitors specifically abrogating ASK1 ubiquitination-dependent activation are viable approaches for NASH treatment.

14.
Inorg Chem ; 58(5): 3416-3424, 2019 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30793602

RESUMO

We prepared a multilayer-sandwiched Co3O4/NGC/rGO composite by introducing in situ electrostatic self-assembly method with a subsequent thermal annealing induced Kirkendall effect. In the composite, the hollow Co3O4 nanospheres surrounded by N-doped graphitic carbon (NGC) layer are tightly sandwiched between the reduced graphene oxide (rGO) layers. The layer-by-layer multilayer-sandwiched structure and strong electrostatic interaction bring the space confinement effect and close electrical contact between different components, which greatly strengthen the durability of the electrode structure and electron/ion transport kinetics. Detailed characterization based on electrochemical impedance spectra (EIS) and cyclic voltammograms (CVs) tests confirms that the Co3O4/NGC/rGO electrode possesses accelerated electron/ion-transfer kinetics and enhanced surface-controlled capacitive behaviors. The discharging profile and its differential capacity curve further validate the existence of interfacial storage lithium in the composite, contributing to high reversible capacity. Consequently, benefiting from the synergistic effects of the multilevel controls in component and structure aspects, the Co3O4/NGC/rGO composite displays a superior reversible capacity (930.8 mA h g-1 at 0.5 A g-1), desired rate performance (584 mA h g-1 at 10 A g-1), as well as stable cycling lifetime of over 300 loops with almost no capacity fading even without any additional conductive additives.

15.
In Vitro Cell Dev Biol Anim ; 55(1): 25-35, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30465303

RESUMO

Accumulating evidence suggests that long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) play a crucial role in regulating skeletal muscle myogenesis, a highly coordinated multistep biological process. However, most studies of lncRNAs have focused on humans, mouse, and other model animals. In this study, we identified a novel lncRNA, named lncKBTBD10, located in the nucleus and involved in the proliferation and differentiation of bovine skeletal muscle satellite cells. Prediction of coding potential and in vitro translation system illustrated that lncKBTBD10 has no encoding capability. With the process of myogenic differentiation, the expression of lncKBTBD10 gradually increased. To elucidate the functions of lncKBTBD10 during myogenesis, the gain/loss-of-function experiments were performed. Results showed that the proliferation and differentiation of bovine skeletal muscle satellite cells were all suppressed whether lncKBTBD10 was knocked down or over-expressed. Furthermore, we found that lncKBTBD10 may affect its proximity gene KBTBD10 to involve in myogenesis. Results indicated that the protein level of KBTBD10 was all diminished after induced differentiation for 2 d in differentiation medium (DM2) whether lncKBTBD10 was knocked down or over-expressed. It may support why the altering of lncKBTBD10 can suppress the proliferation and differentiation of bovine skeletal muscle satellite cells. In short, our study elucidated that lncKBTBD10 could induce a decrease of KBTBD10 protein and further to affect bovine skeletal muscle myogenesis. The novel identified lncKBTBD10 may provide a reference for lncRNAs involved in myogenesis of bovine skeletal muscle.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Muscular/genética , Músculo Esquelético/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , RNA Longo não Codificante/metabolismo , Animais , Bovinos , Diferenciação Celular/genética , Proliferação de Células/genética , Proteínas do Citoesqueleto/genética , Proteínas do Citoesqueleto/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , Células Satélites de Músculo Esquelético/citologia , Células Satélites de Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo
16.
Methods Mol Biol ; 1870: 23-39, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30539544

RESUMO

Over the past decade, emerging evidence has indicated that long intergenic noncoding RNAs (lincRNAs), a class of RNA transcripts greater than 200 nt in length, function as key regulators of gene expression in cellular physiology and pathogenesis. Greater understanding of lincRNA activities, particularly in the context of subcellular localization and dynamic regulation at the single-molecule level, is expected to provide in-depth understanding of molecular mechanisms that regulate cell behavior and disease evolution. We have recently developed a fluorescence-imaging approach to investigate RNA dynamics in living cells at the single-molecule level. This approach entails the use of molecular beacons (MBs), which are a class of stem-loop forming oligonculeotide-based probes that emit detectable fluorescence upon binding to target sequence, and tandem repeats of MB target sequences integrated to the target RNA sequence. Binding of the MBs to the tandem repeats could illuminate the target RNA as a bright spot when imaged by conventional fluorescence microscopy, making the MB-based imaging approach a versatile tool for RNA analysis across laboratories. In this chapter, we describe the development of the MB-based approach and its application for imaging single NEAT1 lincRNA transcripts in living cells.


Assuntos
Imagem Molecular , RNA/genética , Análise de Célula Única , Células HeLa , Humanos , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente , Imagem Molecular/métodos , Plasmídeos/genética , RNA/química , Transporte de RNA , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , Análise de Célula Única/métodos , Software
17.
Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2019: 3087-3090, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31946540

RESUMO

BCI illiterate subject is defined as the subject who cannot achieve accuracy higher than 70%. BCI illiterate subject cannot produce stronger contralateral ERD/ERS activity, thus most of the frequency band-based algorithms cannot obtain higher accuracy. Deep learning with convolutional neural networks (CNN) has revolutionized in many recent studies to learn features and classify different types of data through end-to-end learning. We designed a CNN to extract motor imagery EEG features and then do classification for BCI illiterate subjects in this work. Results showed that the average classification accuracy increased by 18.4% compared with the CSP+LDA algorithm, and the accuracies obtained by CNN exceed 70% for 9 of 11 subjects particularly. CNN requires only a little prior knowledge, thus the features it extracted are not limited in frequency band, but because the poor interpretability of deep learning, we do not know which kind of feature CNN extracted until now. Our future study will focus on visualizing the extracted features to support our conclusions.

18.
Front Microbiol ; 9: 2549, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30416493

RESUMO

Whole genome sequencing (WGS) has been widely used in traceability of food-borne outbreaks nowadays. Here, an interesting connection between Cronobacter sakazakii and food-borne acute gastroenteritis (AGE) was noticed. In October 2016, an AGE outbreak affecting 156 cases occurred in a local senior high school. Case-control study including 70 case-patients and 295 controls indicated a strong association between eating supper at school canteen of the outbreak onset and AGE, as revealed by the Odds Ratio (OR: 95.32). Six recovered Cronobacter strains were evaluated and compared using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and WGS. A phylogenetic tree of whole genomic single nucleotide polymorphisms (wgSNPs) were generated to traceback the potential contamination source in this outbreak. C. sakazakii isolates S2 from a patient's rectal swab and S4 from leftover food sample shared identical PFGE pattern and sequence type (ST73), and clustered tightly together in the SNP phylogenetic tree. C. sakazakii isolates S5 and S6 from food delivery containers were both ST4 but with different PFGE patterns. Cronobacter isolates S1 and S3 from two patients' rectal swab were sequenced to be C. malonaticus and shared another PFGE pattern (ST567). The interesting feature of this study was the implication of C. sakazakii as a causative agent in food-borne AGE occurring in healthy adults, although C. sakazakii is considered as an opportunistic pathogen and generally affects neonates, infants and immunocompromised adults.

19.
Appl Opt ; 57(32): 9690-9698, 2018 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30461753

RESUMO

We propose an optical single-channel color image cryptosystem based on vector decomposition and three-dimensional (3D) chaotic maps. In the proposed cryptosystem, the color image is first decomposed into R, G, and B channels, and then the three channels are individually scrambled by a generalized Arnold transform. Subsequently, the scrambled channels are phase encoded and then synthesized into one vector. The synthesized vector is used as the input image of the double random phase encoding (DRPE) in the gyrator domain. The introduction of the vector decomposition enables the cryptosystem to realize single-channel color image encryption, and the first phase mask of DRPE acts as the main secret key when the input image is a non-negative amplitude-only map. In addition, the phase masks of DRPE are generated by a 3D logistic map, which can facilitate the update, management, and transmission of the phase keys. Numerical simulation results demonstrate that the proposed cryptosystem is robust against various attacks and outperforms the other relevant cryptosystems. Furthermore, the proposed cryptosystem can be directly extended to encrypt multiple color images.

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